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verification of causal relationships between listeria monocytogenes isolates implicated in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis by randomly amplified polymorphic dna patterns.food and clinical isolates of listeria monocytogenes recovered from four different outbreaks of listeriosis were analyzed by their pcr-based randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) patterns to verify their causal relationships. the generation of dna fingerprints by pcr-based rapd analysis is a fast and sensitive method for the epidemiological tracking and identification of bacteria implicated in food poisoning outbreaks. the l. monocytogenes strains used in the study were obtained from the fol ...19948051257
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis applied for comparing listeria monocytogenes strains involved in outbreaks.recent food-borne outbreaks of human listeriosis as well as numerous sporadic cases have been mainly caused by listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strains. thus, it was of interest to find out whether a certain clone or a certain few clones were responsible for these cases and especially for outbreaks. we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of large chromosomal dna restriction fragments generated by apai, smai, or noti to analyse 75 l. monocytogenes strains isolated during six major and eight sm ...19938500010
multistate outbreak of listeriosis--united states, 2000.since may 2000, 29 illnesses caused by a strain of listeria monocytogenes (lm) have been identified in 10 states: new york (15 cases); georgia (three); connecticut, ohio, and michigan (two each); and california, pennsylvania, tennessee, utah, and wisconsin (one each). dates of lm isolation ranged from may 17 through november 26 with 26 (90%) infections occurring since july 15. when subtyped, the lm isolates from these cases were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pulsenet pat ...200011190115
co-detection of bartonella henselae, borrelia burgdorferi, and anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodes pacificus ticks from california, usa.presence of bartonella dna was explored in 168 questing adult ixodes pacificus ticks from santa cruz county, california. bartonella henselae type i dna was amplified from 11 ticks (6.55%); previously, two (1.19%) were found to be infected with borrelia burgdorferi and five (2.98%) with anaplasma phagocytophilum. detection of b. henselae was not dependent on co-infection. the present study offers additional evidence that ixodes spp. ticks may act as hosts and possibly vectors for b. henselae.200616584332
comprehensive survey of pasteurized fluid milk produced in the united states reveals a low prevalence of listeria monocytogenes.a comprehensive survey was undertaken to generate contemporary data on the prevalence of listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized fluid milk produced in the united states. samples (5,519) near the sell-by expiration date were purchased at retail outlets over a 5-week period and analyzed for presence of l. monocytogenes. products consisted of whole milk, nonfat milk, and chocolate milk packaged in gallon, half gallon, quart, pint, and half-pint containers. samples were collected from both large and ...200515895729
recovery of salmonella, listeria monocytogenes, and mycobacterium bovis from cheese entering the united states through a noncommercial land port of entry.a joint multiagency project was initiated in response to a salmonella outbreak in san diego county, california, in 2004. samples of cheese were collected during four 1-day operations at the san ysidro port of entry, along the united states-mexico border. surveyed participants were persons crossing the border as pedestrians or in vehicles who had a minimum of 2.27 kg of cheese, which may suggest a potential diversion to illegal marketing. in addition, data were collected about the cheese to ident ...200717265859
identification and characterization of nucleotide sequence differences in three virulence-associated genes of listeria monocytogenes strains representing clinically important serotypes.listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes invasive, often fatal, disease in susceptible hosts. as a foodborne pathogen, the bacterium has emerged as a significant public health problem and has caused several epidemics in the united states and europe. three serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, 4b) of l. monocytogenes are responsible for nearly 95% of all reported cases of human listeriosis. l. monocytogenes serotype 4b has caused all well-characterized foodborne ...19989541569
listeria monocytogenes infection and serotype distribution among hiv-infected persons in los angeles county, 1985-1992.persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) are at greater risk of infection with listeria monocytogenes (lm) than the general population. we quantify the risk of listeriosis in persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) and hiv infection in los angeles county (lac) and report the lm serotype distribution among hiv-infected patients with listeriosis. active surveillance for listeriosis was performed in lac during most of the period from 1985 through 1992. thirty-four (1 ...19957697442
notes from the field: listeriosis associated with stone fruit--united states, 2014.on july 19, 2014, a packing company in california (company a) voluntarily recalled certain lots of stone fruits, including whole peaches, nectarines, plums, and pluots, because of concern about contamination with listeria monocytogenes based on internal company testing. on july 31, the recall was expanded to cover all fruit packed at their facility during june 1-july 17. after the initial recall, clinicians, state and local health departments, cdc, and the food and drug administration (fda) rece ...201525789745
epidemic listeriosis associated with mexican-style cheese.in los angeles county, california, 142 cases of human listeriosis were reported from january 1 through august 15, 1985. ninety-three cases (65.5 percent) occurred in pregnant women or their offspring, and 49 (34.5 percent) in nonpregnant adults. there were 48 deaths: 20 fetuses, 10 neonates, and 18 nonpregnant adults. of the nonpregnant adults, 98 percent (48 of 49) had a known predisposing condition. eighty-seven percent (81 of 93) of the maternal/neonatal cases were hispanic. of the listeria m ...19883137471
surveillance of listeriosis in los angeles county, 1985-1986. a first year's report.after a large food-borne outbreak of listeriosis in los angeles county, california, in 1985, the california state department of health services instituted mandatory reporting of listeria monocytogenes by clinical laboratories. from september 1, 1985, through august 31, 1986, 94 cases of listeriosis were reported in los angeles county for an annual crude incidence rate of 12 cases per million persons. of the 94 cases, 37 (39%) were in neonates and/or their mothers and 57 (61%) were nonperinatal. ...19892742430
the epidemiology of listeriosis in the united states--1986. listeriosis study group.to determine the morbidity and mortality due to listeriosis in the united states, the authors undertook an active surveillance project in 1986 to identify all cases in which listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cultures of ordinarily sterile sites in a population of 34 million persons. the authors estimated that at least 1,700 cases of listeriosis and 450 deaths occurred in the united states in 1986; 27% of these cases occurred in pregnant women, with 22% of perinatal cases resulting in stil ...19911899779
listeriosis in california broiler chickens. 19921515498
contribution of endemic listeriosis to spontaneous abortion and stillbirth in a large outdoor-housed colony of rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).listeria monocytogenes is an endemic agent in the primate population at the california national primate research center and has been associated with both sporadic cases and a general outbreak of pregnancy failures. the primary objective of this study was to verify the incidence of l. monocytogenes-associated abortion and fetal deaths in the center's outdoor breeding colony. in addition, we sought to compare the group of female macaques that presented with listeria-associated abortion with both t ...201526224440
survival of listeria monocytogenes in experimental chorizos.chorizos-mexican-style raw-meat sausages-are a concern in california because their production in small ethnic food markets is unregulated. their formulation may cause them to appear cooked to the consumer, who may eat the raw sausage without prior proper cooking. bacterial pathogens in such products may cause illness or even death. survivability of listeria monocytogenes in chorizos was evaluated under different storage conditions selected on the basis of an initial survey of uninspected chorizo ...200515726976
survey of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods.the purpose of this study was to develop data on the risk of listeriosis to support a science-based strategy for addressing listeria monocytogenes in foods in the united states. eight categories of ready-to-eat foods were collected over 14 to 23 months from retail markets at maryland and northern california foodnet sites. the product categories included luncheon meats, deli salads, fresh soft "hispanic-style" cheeses, bagged salads, blue-veined and soft mold-ripened cheeses, smoked seafood, and ...200312696677
unusual infections due to listeria monocytogenes in the southern california desert.during the past 22 years, 14 patients have been hospitalized with infection due to listeria monocytogenes at the eisenhower medical center, a regional 300-bed hospital in the desert southwest of southern california. a large number of patients are retired, elderly, and have underlying and often systemic disease.200818922716
listeria monocytogenes: a foodborne pathogen.listeriosis, caused by listeria monocytogenes, appears to be increasing in incidence worldwide. the disease is of great concern to the food industry. a recent outbreak in california was linked to the consumption of mexican-style soft cheese and involved more than 300 cases, 30% of which were fatal. l. monocytogenes can be found in a variety of dairy products, leafy vegetables, fish and meat products. it can grow in refrigerated foods and is more heat resistant than most vegetative microbes. the ...19883124948
genetic characterization of clones of the bacterium listeria monocytogenes causing epidemic disease.one hundred and seventy-five isolates of the pathogenic bacterium listeria monocytogenes recovered from human clinical (blood and cerebrospinal fluid), animal, and environmental sources in europe, north america, and elsewhere were analyzed electrophoretically for allelic variation at 16 genetic loci encoding metabolic enzymes. forty-five distinctive allele profiles (electrophoretic types, ets) were distinguished, among which mean genetic diversity per locus (h) was 0.424. cluster analysis of a m ...19892498876
an encephalitic form of listeriosis in broiler chickens.a disease outbreak characterized by torticollis, incoordination, and depression was seen in a commercial broiler operation in california. listeria monocytogenes was isolated from brain tissue with some degree of difficulty, and only after culturing directly from the brain stem. no evidence of concurrent disease was found, and the source of the outbreak was undetermined.19892494981
listeria species in a california coast estuarine environment.listeria species and l. monocytogenes were found in 81 and 62%, respectively, of fresh or low-salinity waters (37 samples) in tributaries draining into humboldt-arcata bay, calif., during a winter (january-february) sampling period. the incidence of listeria species and l. monocytogenes in sediment (46 samples) from the same sites where water was sampled was 30.4 and 17.4%, respectively. one of three bay water samples contained listeria species (including l. monocytogenes), while of 35 samples o ...19902117874
survey for listeria monocytogenes in and on ready-to-eat foods from retail establishments in the united states (2010 through 2013): assessing potential changes of pathogen prevalence and levels in a decade.a multiyear interagency listeria monocytogenes market basket survey was undertaken for selected refrigerated ready-to-eat foods purchased at retail in four foodnet sites in the united states. food samples from 16 food categories in six broad groups (seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs, and combination foods) were collected weekly at large national chain supermarkets and independent grocery stores in california, maryland, connecticut, and georgia for 100 weeks between december 2010 and march 2013 ...201728437165
the risk of listeria monocytogenes infection in beef cattle operations.to determine the prevalence of listeria monocytogenes and associated risk factors among beef operations (cow-calf and feedlot) in central and southern california.201019664067
relatedness of listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from selected ready-to-eat foods and listeriosis patients in the united states.pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and serotyping were performed for 544 isolates of listeria monocytogenes, including 502 isolates recovered from contaminated samples from 31,705 retail ready-to-eat (rte) food products and 42 isolates recovered from human cases of listeriosis. the isolates were from maryland (294 isolates) and california (250 isolates) and were collected in 2000 and 2001. the isolates were placed into 16 asci pulsogroups (level of relatedness within each group, > or =66%), 139 as ...200516332793
clinical manifestations of epidemic neonatal listeriosis.we report the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations in 23 infants with positive cultures for listeria monocytogenes who were treated in our hospital during a recent epidemic. the majority of infants (70%) were preterm and none was small for gestational age. thirteen (56%) had respiratory distress at birth with evidence of congenital pneumonia. four of the 5 deaths occurred among these infants. four infants considered healthy after resuscitation developed fever and lethargy within 36 hours af ...19873670948
risk factors for mortality among patients with nonperinatal listeriosis in los angeles county, 1992-2004.listeriosis is a relatively rare foodborne disease with significant public health implications. the causative pathogen, listeria monocytogenes, grows well in refrigeration, is associated with a case-fatality rate of 20%, and causes an estimated 28% of all foodborne disease-related deaths. nevertheless, data on the risk factors for listeriosis mortality are limited.200919400687
prevalence of shiga toxin producing escherichia coli, salmonella enterica, and listeria monocytogenes at public access watershed sites in a california central coast agricultural region.produce contaminated with enteric pathogens is a major source of foodborne illness in the united states. lakes, streams, rivers, and ponds were sampled with moore swabs bi-monthly for over 2 years at 30 locations in the vicinity of a leafy green growing region on the central california coast and screened for shiga toxin producing escherichia coli (stec), salmonella enterica, and listeria monocytogenes to evaluate the prevalence and persistence of pathogen subtypes. the prevalence of stec from 13 ...201424624367
epidemic perinatal listeriosis at autopsy.seven cases of listeriosis identified at perinatal autopsy are described. the cases occurred during the time of a 1985 los angeles, california, epidemic of listeriosis from suspected food contamination by listeria monocytogenes. in only one of seven cases were gross pathologic lesions encountered. microscopic lesions in six cases consisted of rare, localized microabscesses or granuloma-like lesions in multiple organs and contained histiocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukoc ...19863793087
the majority of genotypes of the virulence gene inla are intact among natural watershed isolates of listeria monocytogenes from the central california coast.internalin a is an essential virulence gene involved in the uptake of the foodborne pathogen listeria monocytogenes into host cells. it is intact in clinical strains and often truncated due to premature stop codons (pmscs) in isolates from processed foods and processing facilities. less information is known about environmental isolates. we sequenced the inla alleles and did multi locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (mlva) on 112 l. monocytogenes isolates from a 3-year period from natura ...201627907153
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