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spatial distribution and population genetics of leishmania infantum genotypes in são paulo state, brazil, employing multilocus microsatellite typing directly in dog infected tissues.this study investigated the genetic characteristics of leishmania infantum samples from são paulo (sp) state, brazil in order to collaborate with information about the possible origins of the parasites, as well as, the introduction and spread of visceral leishmaniasis in this brazilian state. multilocus microsatellite typing (mlmt) was performed using a set of 17 microsatellite markers. dna was extracted from 250 samples collected from dogs diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis and 112 (45%) wer ...201323665466
spatial and seasonal distribution of lutzomyia longipalpis in dracena, a city in the western region of the state of são paulo, brazil, that is endemic with visceral leishmaniasis.vector seasonality knowledge is important for monitoring and controlling of vector-borne diseases. lutzomyia longipalpis (lu. longipalpis) is the main vector of leishmania (leishmania) infantum nicolle, 1908, which is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the americas.201424474011
ability of immunodiagnostic tests to differentiate between dogs naturally infected with leishmania infantum and leishmune(®)-vaccinated dogs.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a serious chronic disease with a lethality rate of up to 10% in humans. in urban areas of brazil, dogs are the main reservoirs of the etiological agent (leishmania infantum) of vl, and the brazilian ministry of health recommends the euthanasia of animals that are seropositive in both the immunochromatographic dual path platform rapid test (dpp(®); bio-manguinhos) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with an l. major-like antigen (bio-manguinhos). vacci ...201525874857
the shadows of a ghost: a survey of canine leishmaniasis in presidente prudente and its spatial dispersion in the western region of são paulo state, an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis in brazil.visceral leishmaniasis is an emerging zoonosis and its geographic distribution is restricted to tropical and temperate regions. most of the individuals infected in latin america are in brazil. despite the control measures that have been adopted, the disease is spreading throughout new regions of the country. domestic dogs are involved in the transmission cycle and are considered to be the main epidemiologic reservoir of leishmania infantum (syn. l. chagasi). our aim was to determine the prevalen ...201526503368
sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic leishmania transmission?sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of monte mor, situated in the metropolitan region of campinas, state of são paulo, brazil. eleven specimens of evandromyia cortelezzii and one of evandromyia lenti were captured in two didelphis albiventris nests. ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and leishmania (leishmania ...024789554
first occurrence of an autochthonous canine case of leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi in the municipality of campinas, state of são paulo, brazil.an autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis is reported in a dog (canis familiaris) as an apparently natural infection in a non-endemic area. dna obtained from spleen and liver samples produced the expected fragment in a leishmania-specific rdna-based nested-pcr assay. the pcr product, a 490 bp fragment, was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence was identical to that of leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi. these results are surprising since no autochthonous human or canine cases of visc ...201121915468
relationship between dog culling and incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area.domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in urban areas; one of the control measures adopted in brazil is the elimination of this reservoir. in order to test the relationship between the euthanasia rate of the canine reservoir and the incidence of the disease in humans, data on dog culling from the centre for zoonosis control of araçatuba, são paulo, brazil, during the period from 1999 to 2008 and visceral leishmaniasis human cases registered in the same period were a ...201020181428
tesa-blot for the diagnosis of chagas disease in dogs from co-endemic regions for trypanosoma cruzi, trypanosoma evansi and leishmania chagasi.we standardized serodiagnosis of dogs infected with trypanosoma cruzi using tesa (trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen)-blot developed for human chagas disease. tesa-blot showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. in contrast, elisa using tesa (tesa-elisa) or epimastigotes (epi-elisa) as antigen yielded 100% sensitivity but specificity of 94.1% and 49.4%, respectively. when used in field studies in an endemic region for chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis and trypanosoma evansi (mato grosso ...200919426657
human asymptomatic infection in visceral leishmaniasis: a seroprevalence study in an urban area of low endemicity. preliminary results.many aspects of the human asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (vl) remain not elucidated, and moreover, almost all the data come from highly endemic areas. the recent appearance of american vl (avl) in the northeastern region of the state of são paulo, brazil, offered a good opportunity for further understanding. we present the preliminary results from a seroprevalence study on avl in humans in araçatuba, são paulo. this was a cross-sectional survey on a random sample of the population (one-stag ...200718165520
the first record in the americas of an autochthonous case of leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi in a domestic cat (felix catus) from cotia county, são paulo state, brazil.a case of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis is reported in a domestic cat (felis catus) as an apparently natural infection in a non-endemic area. amastigotes were seem in smears of a nodular lesion on the cat's nose. no parasite could be seen in cytological preparations of liver or spleen but dna obtained from a sample of the spleen produced the expected fragment in a leishmania specific rdna based pcr assay. the pcr product, a 520 bp fragment, was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence was identica ...200415041097
serological evidence of infection by leishmania (leishmania) infantum (synonym: leishmania (leishmania) chagasi) in free-ranging wild mammals in a nonendemic region of the state of são paulo, brazil.concerns about the interface between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) have been growing due to natural or anthropogenic environmental changes. in this context, investigations of the infection in wild mammals are important to assess their exposure to the vector and the parasite. a study of anti-leishmania (leishmania) infantum antibodies was carried out using the direct agglutination test (dat) on 528 free-ranging wild mammals of 38 species ...201526418884
molecular and serological detection of leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from ilha solteira, sp, brazil.leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that affects 12 million people worldwide. several mammalian species can serve as a reservoir for this disease. dogs are the main reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas, which has become a serious public health concern in brazil. the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from ilha solteira, são paulo, brazil. blood and various tissues samples were collected from animals of five different species: ...201121961752
diminished cd4+/cd25+ t cell and increased ifn-gamma levels occur in dogs vaccinated with leishmune in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.the leishmune vaccine has been used in endemic areas to prevent canine visceral leishmaniasis in brazil, but cytokine production induced by vaccination has rarely been investigated in dogs. this study aimed to evaluate the immune response of dogs vaccinated with leishmune fml vaccine (fort dodge) against total antigen of leishmania (leishmania) chagasi (tag) and fml. twenty healthy dogs from araçatuba, são paulo, brazil, an endemic leishmaniasis area, received three consecutive subcutaneous inje ...201020132994
surveillance for zoonotic vector-borne infections using sick dogs from southeastern brazil.for many vector-borne organisms, dogs can be used as sentinels to estimate the risk of human infection. the objective of this study was to use dogs as sentinels for multiple vector-borne organisms in order to evaluate the potential for human infection with these agents in southeastern brazil. blood from 198 sick dogs with clinicopathological abnormalities consistent with tick-borne infections were selected at the são paulo state university veterinary teaching hospital in botucatu and tested for ...200718021025
study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of american cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of espírito santo do pinhal, são paulo, brazil.canine american visceral leishmaniasis and american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) cases have been recorded in espírito santo do pinhal. the aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. a total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. the most abundant species were ...201020428683
ecological parameters of the (s)-9-methylgermacrene-b population of the lutzomyia longipalpis complex in a visceral leishmaniasis area in são paulo state, brazil.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is an important public health challenge in brazil because of the high number of human and canine cases reported annually. leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of vl and lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector. however, evidence suggests that this taxon constitutes a species complex. in sao paulo state, there are two populations of lu. longipalpis, each secreting distinct pheromones, (s)-9-methylgermacrene-b and cembrene 1; both have been associated with diffe ...201728558760
serological survey of leishmania infantum and trypanosoma cruzi in dogs from urban areas of brazil and colombia.leishmania infantum and trypanosoma cruzi are zoonotic parasites that are endemic throughout many parts of latin america. infected dogs play an important role in transmission of both parasites to humans. a serological survey of leishmania and trypanosoma infection was conducted on 365 dogs from são paulo, brazil and bogatá, colombia, south america. serum samples were examined by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). anti-leishmania igg antibodies were detected in 5 of 107 from bra ...200717825991
prevalence of antibodies to trypanosoma cruzi, leishmania infantum, encephalitozoon cuniculi, sarcocystis neurona, and neospora caninum in capybara, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from são paulo state, brazil.little is known about the importance of capybara, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of são paulo, brazil, were examined for antibodies to trypanosoma cruzi, leishmania infantum, encephalitozoon cuniculi, sarcocystis neurona, and neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to t. cruzi epimastigotes. none of the samples ...201020020808
detection of leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis and leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi in brazilian bats.although bats are one of the most abundant mammals in the new world and are present in virtually all ecosystems, including urban and peri-urban environments, few studies have investigated the role of these animals in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniosis. here, we report a study of 683 bats captured in são paulo county (southeastern from brazil), which were screened by serology, parasitologic methods and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for trypanosomatids. the indirect immunofluorescent ant ...201019939568
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