the significance of serum soluble il-2 receptor as a marker for active visceral leishmaniasis in sicilian patients.sera from nine sicilian patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (leishmania donovani infantum; vl), at the moment of the diagnosis, during the course of the disease and after clinical recovery, were analysed for the concentration of soluble il-2 receptor (sil-2r). the results show that sil-2r is a marker of disease activity, since it is in high concentration at the beginning of infection and returns to the normal range following successful chemotherapy. at the same time of serum analysis ...19921424277
a seroepidemiological survey on leishmania infantum infection.findings from a seroepidemiological survey of leishmania infantum (li) infection are presented. among residents in the province of rome, 2.7% (4.4% in the city of rome and 1% in the suburbs) of 374 adults were positive for specific li antibodies in indirect haemoagglutination studies. among 217 adult residents of caltanissetta province (sicily), 4.1% were positive for li antibodies (4.2% in caltanissetta city and 4% in the suburbs). serological tests for li antibodies were also carried out on st ...19911915791
heterogeneity among zymodemes of leishmania infantum from hiv-positive patients with visceral leishmaniasis in south italy.eleven zymodemes of leishmania infantum were identified among 38 parasite stocks isolated from italian hiv-positive patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl). only one zymodeme is a common agent of mediterranean vl in hiv-negative individuals, five zymodemes usually cause simple, self-resolving cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl), and five belong to unique genotypes which have not been previously reported from either vl or cl cases in immunocompetent individuals. this last group of parasites showed rea ...19957744236
in vivo and in vitro cytokine profiles and mononuclear cell subsets in sicilian patients with active visceral leishmaniasis.sera from sicilian patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (leishmania donovani infantum) were analysed at the moment of the diagnosis, during the course of the disease and after clinical recovery, for the concentration of il-10, ifn-gamma, il-4 and il-2. the results show high concentrations of il-10 and ifn-gamma in the sera at the beginning of infection that return to the normal range following successful chemotherapy. by contrast, pbmc stimulated in vitro with ag and mitogen produced l ...19958580385
[survey of phlebotomus neglectus tonnoir, 1921 (=p. major s.l.) in a leishmaniasis focus in northern italy (province of verona)].an entomological survey was carried out on leishmaniasis vectors (diptera: psychodidae) in north italy (verona province). a total of 382 sandfly specimens was caught by sticky traps in 6 collecting stations. the species identified were: phlebotomus perniciosus (62.3%), p. neglectus (= major s.l.) (5.2%), p. papatasi (2.1%), p. mascittii (0.3%) and sergentomyia minuta (30.1%). after the description of the olotype of p. neglectus by tonnoir (1921) in trieste (opicina), this is the first time that ...19958778665
epidemiologic surveillance of visceral leishmaniasis in sicily, italy.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is endemic in sicily. although it is a notifiable disease, there is evidence that the actual number of cases is higher than that reported. in 1987, a regional reference center for active surveillance of vl was established and it recorded a total of 284 cases through 1995, a mean of 31.5 cases/year and about four-fold more than previously reported. of the 284 cases, 150 (53%) were children (< or = 14 years of age), and of the 134 adults, 39 (29%) were coinfected with h ...19979242323
canine visceral leishmaniasis in sicily.the sicilian province of catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in the mediterranean area. approximately 10 to 15 cases of vl are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. recently, an increase in vl case reporting by sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 vl cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. before 1995, there were no reported vl cases among u.s. military personnel or their family members living in sicily. however, since 1996, there have ...200010658425
the identification and variability of the parasites causing leishmaniasis in hiv-positive patients in italy.between 1988 and 1998, 258 leishmania strains from patients infected with hiv were characterized by iso-enzyme electrophoresis at the istituto superiore di sanità (iss) in rome. most (227) of the isolates came from 80 italian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl), the rest from cases of leishmania/hiv co-infection in other mediterranean countries. every strain was found to be leishmania infantum. in italy, 19 zymodemes of l. infantum were identified, broadly divided into three groups. over 5 ...200314678634
short report: surveillance of leishmania sp. among sand flies in sicily (italy) using a fluorogenic real-time polymerase chain reaction.leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum is a complex zoonotic disease, resulting in cutaneous and visceral manifestations in both dogs and humans. the present study involved a published taqman fluorogenic real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay for surveillance of leishmania sp. parasites among sand flies trapped in two provinces in sicily, catania and agrigento, during the summer and fall of 2003. only male specimens were identified to species level, while females were used to evalu ...200515741548
serological screening for leishmania infantum in asymptomatic blood donors living in an endemic area (sicily, italy).the purpose of our study was to assess whether leishmania infantum parasitemia occurs in asymptomatic leishmania-seropositive subjects. samples from 500 blood donors were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). anti-leishmania antibodies were not found in any sample. our findings suggest that the risk of l. infantum transmission by blood transfusion in sicily is very low.200516209934
serological screening for leishmania infantum in asymptomatic blood donors living in an endemic area (sicily, italy). 200616510314
asymptomatic leishmania infantum/chagasi infection in blood donors of western sicily.the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the risk of transfusion-transmitted visceral leishmaniasis was present in an area of western sicily where the incidence of the disease is higher than the regional average. from may to december 2005, 1449 blood donors from agrigento district (sicily, italy) were screened for the presence of anti-leishmania antibodies by an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). blood samples from ifat-positive donors were examined by pcr to detect leishm ...200818321542
unusual clinical variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis in sicily.the term "leishmaniasis" defines a group of vector-borne diseases caused by species of the genus leishmania and characterized by a spectrum of clinical manifestations. parasite properties (infectivity, pathogenicity, virulence), host factors, and host responses regulate heterogeneous disease expression. sicily is one of the major islands of the mediterranean basin and is considered to be a hypo-endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. leishmania infantum is the most common species on the island ...200919261018
multilocus microsatellite polymorphism analysis to characterize leishmania infantum strains isolated in sicily.different approaches are being developed to improve the differentiation of leishmania genus using biochemical and molecular methods. in this study, 11 independent polymorphic microsatellites were used for the typing of strains of l. infantum isolated in sicily. polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify the microsatellites contained in 12 dna regions selected from among more investigated loci. a total of 51 isolates of l. infantum from dogs were tested by using the same locus panel. the p ...201020537100
latency time in cutaneous leishmaniasis.latency period in cutaneous leishmaniasis was very rarely studied so far. we describe three patients, aged 71, 50 and 32 years, respectively, who contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in sicily. in all patients, clinical diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and polymerase chain reaction: the latter was positive for leishmania infantum in two patients and leishmania canis in one. all cases were characterized by a very long period of latency, ranging from 11 to 16 months. these ca ...201121505401
significance of persistence of antibodies against leishmania infantum in sicilian patients affected by acute visceral leishmaniasis.the background of this article is as follows: few data are available about the persistence of serum-specific igg antibodies to l. infantum after acute vl. the objective of this article is to evaluate the persistence of antibodies against l. infantum in patients healed from acute vl, and the kinetic of the same antibodies observed in 2 cases of vl relapse and 2 cases of resistance to therapy. the methods which we used to obtain our objective are the following: 55 apparently immunocompetent, hiv-n ...201121713520
ticks and associated pathogens collected from cats in sicily and calabria (italy).limited information is available about the species of ticks infesting the cat and the pathogens that they harbor. the aims of the present study were to identify the species of ticks removed from cats living in sicily and calabria (italy) and to detect dna of vector-borne pathogens in the same ticks.201526445916
detection of leishmania infantum, babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in italy.the aims of this study were to determine natural infections by anaplasma phagocytophilum/anaplasma platys, bartonella henselae, ehrlichia canis, leishmania infantum, rickettsia spp., babesia spp., and hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. ticks from dogs living in southern italy were all ident ...201223182545
effect of night time-intervals, height of traps and lunar phases on sand fly collection in a highly endemic area for canine leishmaniasis.the activity of phlebotomine sand flies was monitored in a sub-urban area of sicily in order to acquire data on seasonality and to elucidate the effect of the night time-intervals, height of traps from ground and lunar phases on the abundance of the capture. the study was conducted in the farm of the university of messina (italy). light traps were placed as in the following: biweekly, from dusk to dawn, and from may to november; for three consecutive nights from 18:00 to 6:00, with the net bag b ...201424561074
prevention of feline leishmaniosis with an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar.leishmaniosis caused by leishmania infantum is one of the most important vector-borne diseases affecting animals and humans worldwide. dogs are considered main reservoirs of the zoonotic forms, though in the last years the role of cats as reservoirs has been increasingly investigated. feline leishmaniosis (fel) occurs in endemic areas and no specific preventive measures have been investigated so far. in this study the efficacy of a 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin polymer matrix collar, licensed ...201728705248
suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in a sample of westerns sicily residents: what correlation with occupation?leishmaniasis is a widespread infectious disease, but there is not much information about its prevalence in high risk occupational categories.201728446739
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