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concentration of mycobacterium avium by hospital hot water systems.water from 34 sites on two temporarily vacant hospital floors was analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. these sites included 18 cold water taps and 16 hot water taps, including shower heads. a total of 14 sites (41%) demonstrated the presence of mycobacterium avium as confirmed by biochemical characterization, dna/rrna probe analysis, and seroagglutination. of positive sites, 11 were hot water sources with an average temperature of 55 degrees c and yielding up to 500 colony-forming units pe ...19883411741
mycobacterium avium complex, an emerging pathogen in massachusetts.we report a study of 1,953 patients whose laboratory records from 1972 through 1983 at the massachusetts mycobacteria reference laboratory indicated the isolation of mycobacterium avium complex (mac) organisms. at least one clinical specimen from each patient during this period exhibited the organism. the incidence of isolation of mac has increased fivefold since 1972, with a doubling of the number of patients with positive mac specimens from normally sterile sites occurring since 1980. a concom ...19853874880
persistent colonisation of potable water as a source of mycobacterium avium infection in aids.the source of mycobacterium avium infection in aids has not been identified and it is not known whether most patients with aids acquire the organism from recent infection or by reactivation of previous infection. as part of a prospective epidemiological study, we isolated multiple colonies of m avium from patients with aids and from potable water to which they had been exposed. all isolates were analysed with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge). as judged by pfge, 29 (81%) of 36 patients wer ...19947910236
evidence of previous infection with mycobacterium avium-mycobacterium intracellulare complex among healthy subjects: an international study of dominant mycobacterial skin test reactions.skin tests with 0.1 ml of intermediate-strength mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (ppd) and 0.1 ml of mycobacterium avium sensitin were conducted on 484 healthy subjects from diverse geographic sites. reactions of > or = 5 mm to one antigen that exceeded the reaction to the other by > or = 3 mm were considered m. avium- or ppd-dominant. ppd-dominant reactions were more frequent at sites where routine bacille calmette-guérin immunization is done or where there are high rates ...19938245545
isolation of mycobacterium avium complex from water in the united states, finland, zaire, and kenya.disseminated infection with organisms of the mycobacterium avium complex (mac) is a common complication of aids in the united states and other developing countries, but it is rare or absent in sub-saharan africa. to assess the comparative likelihood of exposure to mac in these geographic areas, we used a standard protocol to culture 91 water samples from environmental sites and piped water supply systems in the united states, finland, zaire, and kenya. mac was isolated from all geographic areas ...19938308115
related strains of mycobacterium avium cause disease in children with aids and in children with lymphadenitis.sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer of 56 mycobacterium avium complex isolates from pediatric patients with aids or lymphadenitis revealed (similar to the situation in adults) that the closely related mav-b and mav-a sequevars caused the vast majority of disease. is1245 restriction fragment-polymorphism analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed sets of isolates with closely related patterns among strains from patients in the boston area and among isolates ...200010753729
experience with etanercept in an academic medical center: are infection rates increased?there is little established information regarding the safety of antitumor necrosis factor therapies used outside the setting of clinical trials. this study evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of open-label use of etanercept when used to treat patients with a variety of systemic rheumatic diseases. reduction of concomitant corticosteroid and disease-modifying antirheumatic drug was also assessed.200211932873
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