prevalence of mycobacterium avium complex in respiratory specimens from aids and non-aids patients in a san francisco hospital.over the past several years there has been a large increase in the recovery of mycobacterium avium complex (mac) isolates from respiratory specimens submitted to the clinical laboratory at san francisco general hospital (sfgh). this increase in mac recovery correlates with an increase in the number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) in the community. although it is well known that mac is often isolated from patients with aids, the isolation of mac from respiratory specimens is ...19911986686
geographic distribution, frequency, and specimen source of mycobacterium avium complex serotypes isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.isolates of mycobacterium avium complex from 727 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) were submitted by medical centers across the united states to the centers for disease control for serotyping. we were able to type 630 (87%) of these isolates by our seroagglutination procedure. almost all typeable isolates were m. avium (serotypes 1 to 6 and 8 to 11). blood was the major specimen source for both m. avium and the nontypeable isolates. m. intracellulare serotypes made up only ...19902351735
nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in heart transplant recipients: a seventeen-year experience.a retrospective review was undertaken to determine the clinical features, outcome, and impact on survival of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in 14 (of 502) heart transplant recipients. the prevalence of these infections was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) during the precyclosporine than during the cyclosporine era. the mean interval from transplantation to diagnosis was 3.5 +/- 0.7 years (+/- sem). the 14 patients had a higher (p less than 0.05) linearized rejection rate than did ...19902398429
environmental source of mycobacteriosis in a california swine herd.between july 1985 and april 1986, mycobacterial lymphadenitis was recorded in six of 2407 slaughter pigs from a commercial swine herd in which the majority of pigs were raised in confinement. records showed that all six affected pigs had access to dirt-floored pens at least 81 days prior to slaughter. the mycobacteriosis lesion rate for pigs exposed to dirt pens was 9.4% while in nonexposed pigs the lesion rate was zero. the risk associated with movement of pigs from concrete floored pens to dir ...19892914225
serologic survey of california wild hogs for antibodies against selected zoonotic disease agents.blood samples were collected from trapped or hunter-killed wild hogs (sus scrofa) in 4 areas of california. sera were tested for antibodies against 7 zoonotic disease agents. antibodies against brucella sp were detected in 21 (15%) of 136 samples. antibodies against coxiella burnetii were found in 50% of the collected samples (67 of 135 tested). of the 135 wild hogs screened for pseudorabies virus, 4 (3%) were seropositive. leptospira interrogans antibodies were discovered in 118 (87%) of the 13 ...19836315659
bacteria isolated from lymph nodes of california slaughter swine.lymph nodes from 280 slaughter swine from 9 california ranches were examined for the presence of aerobic microflora. genera of interest which were isolated (and percentage of animals from which they were isolated) included salmonella (4.3%), beta-hemolytic streptococci (8.2%), mycobacterium avium-complex (6.4%), corynebacterium pyogenes (0.4%), and aeromonas hydrophila (5.7%). patterns of bacterial isolations from swine herds may be of assistance in predicting herd health problems.19846383150
mycobacterium avium complex in water, food, and soil samples collected from the environment of hiv-infected part of an epidemiologic study of mycobacterium avium complex (mac) infection in san francisco, water, food and soil samples were collected from the home environment of 290 persons with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection and cultured for mycobacteria. isolates recovered from the environment were compared with isolates cultured from study patients. although mycobacteria were recovered from numerous environmental samples, isolates reactive with mac-specific dna probes were recovered f ...19957749796
evolving trends revealed by autopsies of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 565 autopsies in adults with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, los angeles, calif, 1982-1993 [corrected].to determine changes in causes of death, survival, and organ system distribution of major opportunistic infections and neoplasms in adults dying with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) following the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis for opportunistic infections since 1988.19948080357
origins of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques at the new england regional primate research center.a cohort of rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta), obtained from the california regional primate research center (crprc) and necropsied in 1970-72 with lesions suggestive of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) infection, was identified at the new england regional primate research center (nerprc). polymerase chain reaction (pcr), dna sequence analysis, and in situ hybridization were used to confirm the presence of siv nucleic acids. this represents the earliest case of siv infection at the nerprc and ...19958751050
retinal findings and characteristics in aids patients with systemic mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex and toxoplasmic encephalitis.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of retinal and choroidal manifestations of toxoplasmosis and/or mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (mac) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids).19979031305
radiometric culture of mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis from the feces of tule determine if mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis has persisted in tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) at point reyes national seashore (california, usa), 100 fresh fecal samples were collected. feces were cultured on a modified bactec 12b radiometric medium for detection of m. avium paratuberculosis. four samples, coming from two separate groups of elk tested positive for m. avium paratuberculosis. thus, a noninvasive technique was used to document the continued presence of m. avium paratuber ...19979249713
genetic similarity among mycobacterium avium isolates from blood, stool, and sputum of persons with aids.large-restriction-fragment pattern comparison of mycobacterium avium from 85 blood, stool, and respiratory specimens from 25 human immunodeficiency virus-infected san francisco patients revealed 4 strains that infected multiple people (3 groups of 2 patients and 1 group of 3 patients). most patients harbored a single m. avium strain, but 2 strains were recovered from 8 patients. the significance of recovering 2 strains is not clear, since the second strain was seldom recovered more than once. th ...19979333156
splenomegaly in 2,505 patients at a large university medical center from 1913 to 1995. 1963 to 1995: 449 patients.splenomegaly was studied retrospectively at the university of california, san francisco (ucsf), school of medicine in 301 patients from 1963 to 1995 and compared with the ucsf service of the san francisco general hospital medical center (sfgh) in 148 patients from 1979 to 1994. the combined 449 patients were classified into several diagnostic groups and were studied by means of several clinical and laboratory associations. hepatic disease in the percentage of patients at ucsf (with those at sfgh ...19989735689
comparison of large restriction fragments of mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from aids and non-aids patients with those of isolates from potable water.we examined potable water in los angeles, california, as a possible source of infection in aids and non-aids patients. nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospitals. large-restriction-fragment (lrf) pattern analyses were done with asei. the lrf patterns of mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from potable water in three homes, two commercial buildings, one reservoir, and eight ...199910074518
related strains of mycobacterium avium cause disease in children with aids and in children with lymphadenitis.sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer of 56 mycobacterium avium complex isolates from pediatric patients with aids or lymphadenitis revealed (similar to the situation in adults) that the closely related mav-b and mav-a sequevars caused the vast majority of disease. is1245 restriction fragment-polymorphism analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed sets of isolates with closely related patterns among strains from patients in the boston area and among isolates ...200010753729
accuracy of self-reports of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions in investigate the validity of self-reported acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) among women enrolled in a prospective study of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, the authors compared the self-reported occurrence of aids-specific diagnoses with aids diagnoses documented by county aids surveillance registries. also examined was the association between participant characteristics and the validity of self-reports. among the 339 hiv-infected participants in the northern california w ...200111390333
aids and africa.this article describes the aids situation in africa and pinpoints the differences, so far as they are known, between that continent and the us and europe. there is currently evidence of infection in up to 15% of the general urban population of some african countries, although it is impossible to estimate the total number of cases. among san francisco homosexuals who are sero-positive, about 1/3 are expected to develop aids within 5 years; among infected newborns the development of aids is even ...198712340978
seroprevalence of johne's-disease infection in dairy cattle in california, usa.a total of 1,950 serum samples from dairy cattle in california, usa were tested for the presence of antibodies to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit. the sampled animals came from 65 herds and were sampled to reflect the relative numbers and distribution of dairy herds within three geographic regions in the state. using the manufacturers suggested cut-off for a positive test, 89 animals (4.6%) were positive. the ...200312900163
testing for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in asymptomatic free-ranging tule elk from an infected herd.forty-five adult tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) in good physical condition were translocated from a population located at point reyes national seashore, marin county (california, usa), to a holding pen 6 mo prior to release in an unfenced region of the park. because infection with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (mptb) had been reported in the source population, the translocated elk underwent extensive ante-mortem testing using three johne's disease assays: enzyme linked immunoso ...200312910759
evaluation of microbial culture of pooled fecal samples for detection of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in large dairy evaluate sensitivity of microbial culture of pooled fecal samples for detection of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (map) in large dairy herds and assess the use of the method for estimation of map prevalence.200415334839
detection of viable mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in retail pasteurized whole milk by two culture methods and pcr.cattle with johne's disease can shed live mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in their milk, and map can survive under simulated commercial pasteurization conditions. in several studies conducted in the united kingdom and canada, map dna has been detected in retail pasteurized milk samples; however, in one study in the united kingdom viable map was identified in commercially pasteurized milk. a double-blind study involving two laboratories was undertaken to evaluate retail pasteuri ...200515895728
environmental sampling for detection of mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on large california dairies.environmental samples collected from each of 3 locations on 23 large california dairies were cultured to evaluate the utility of this approach for identifying herds infected with mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. results were compared with concurrent elisa testing of > or = 60 animals in each herd, and with previously performed individual and pooled fecal cultures of 60 animals. the estimated proportions of infected herds did not differ significantly among the testing methods (environme ...200616507690
mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infections in a tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) herd.between 2 august and 22 september 2000, 37 hunter-killed tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) were evaluated at the grizzly island wildlife area, california, usa, for evidence of paratuberculosis. elk were examined post-mortem, and tissue and fecal samples were submitted for radiometric mycobacterial culture. acid-fast isolates were identified by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) that discriminates among members of the mycobacterium avium complex (mac). histopathologic evaluations were c ...200617255437
amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of mycobacterium avium complex isolates recovered from southern california.fine-scale genotyping methods are necessary in order to identify possible sources of human exposure to opportunistic pathogens belonging to the mycobacterium avium complex (mac). in this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis was evaluated for fingerprinting 159 patient and environmental mac isolates from southern california. aflp analysis accurately identified strains belonging to m. avium and mycobacterium intracellulare and differentiated between strains within each spe ...200717761476
isolation of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from waste milk delivered to california calf ranches.the objective of this study was to determine if viable mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) was present in waste milk delivered and fed to calves on california calf ranches. four calf-raising facilities in the central valley of california that fed pasteurized waste milk to calves were enrolled. pre- and post-pasteurization waste milk samples were cultured for map using liquid and solid media over a 5-day period during each of four seasons. aerobic cultures were performed simultaneou ...200818681799
association between mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection and milk production in two california dairies.the association between mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) and milk production was estimated on 2 california dairies using longitudinal data from 5,926 cows. both study herds had moderate map seroprevalence, housed cows in freestalls, and had johne's disease control programs. cow map status was determined using both serum elisa and fecal culture results from cows tested at dry-off and from whole-herd tests. potential confounders were evaluated based on a causal diagram. mixed models ...201020172223
correlation between herrold egg yolk medium culture and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in pooled fecal and environmental samples.real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) testing for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) in fecal samples is a rapid alternative to culture on herrold egg yolk medium (heym), the traditional antemortem reference test for map. although the sensitivity and specificity of these 2 tests have been estimated based on dichotomized test results, the correlation between real-time qpcr threshold cycle (ct) values and colony-forming units (cfu) on heym for fresh and thawed ...201020807920
reliability of environmental sampling to quantify mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis on california free-stall dairies.the reliability of environmental sampling to quantify mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) based on collector and time was evaluated. fecal slurry samples were collected using a standardized protocol simultaneously by 2 collectors of different experience levels. samples were collected from 30 cow pens on 4 dairies every other day on 3 occasions while cow movements between pens were minimal. the 4 study herds had moderate map seroprevalence and were housed in free-stall dairies in cent ...200919620644
whole-genome analysis of mycobacteria from birds at the san diego zoo.mycobacteria isolated from more than 100 birds diagnosed with avian mycobacteriosis at the san diego zoo and its safari park were cultured postmortem and had their whole genomes sequenced. computational workflows were developed and applied to identify the mycobacterial species in each dna sample, to find single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) between samples of the same species, to further differentiate snps between as many as three different genotypes within a single sample, and to identify whi ...201728267758
cmv.cytomegalovirus (cmv) occurs 25 percent less often than it did before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart), according to a recent study by the university of california at san francisco. cmv is the most common infection in hiv-positive persons with t-cell counts below 50, and it can cause blindness. researchers have also found that macrolide antibiotic treatment for mycobacterium avium complex (mac) may lead to resistance in people with aids who have been treated for mac in ...200011366342
missed tb in aids unit leads to tighter isolation.the san francisco general hospital recently tightened its tuberculosis (tb) policies for isolating hiv-positive patients after learning that active tb patients had been admitted without respiratory protection. the new policy resulted from what was initially believed to be a tb outbreak on the aids unit. however, an investigation concluded that the patients were infected outside the hospital. the hospital now automatically screens patients for tb when they are admitted to the aids ward. hiv-posit ...199611363656
non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections at san francisco general hospital.the epidemiology of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (ntm) infection is not well defined. we evaluated the trends in incidence of ntm infections at san francisco general hospital (sfgh), a large metropolitan county hospital.201524799125
off-site rearing of heifers reduces the risk of mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis elisa seroconversion and fecal shedding in a california dairy herd.the objective of this cohort study was to evaluate whether rearing dairy heifers at different premises than the dairy of origin (off-site) reduced the risk of mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) infection more effectively than rearing on the dairy of origin (on-site). from 2003 to 2005, 3 cohorts of jersey heifers were born on a single california dairy, with heifers in the first cohort raised on-site until first calving (n=797); heifers in the second cohort raised on-site until appro ...201525597977
early-life exposures and johne's disease risk in zoo ruminants.johne's disease, caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map), is a chronic, progressive bacterial enteritis of ruminants that can cause serious losses in both livestock and exotic species. infection risk in exotic ruminants is associated with maternal infection status, but the effect of other herdmates on risk of infection has not been reported, to our knowledge. we conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between map infection status and early-life cont ...201828985710
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