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comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppd for testing cattle. 2. south-eastern england.a tuberculin testing trial was carried out in eight counties of south-eastern england to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of weybridge human ppd with that of rotterdam bovine ppd. the matching of these two tuberculins for potency in naturally infected cattle had already been established, the bovine ppd being approximately one-and-a-half times more potent than the human ppd per unit of weight. in 1110 cattle in 25 herds with histories of long-standing freedom from tuberculosis and ...197547751
comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppf for testing cattle. 3. national trial in great britain.a field trial on a country-wide basis was undertaken to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of single and comparative tuberculin tests in cattle using either weybridge human or weybridge bovine ppd. the tests were made on 10,305 cattle in 179 herds distributed throughout all regions of england, scotland and wales. results showed that a comparative tuberculin test using avian ppd with either human or bovine ppd had a much higher efficiency than a single injection of mammalian tubercul ...197547752
rapid misdiagnosis by mycobacterium avium-intracellulare masquerading as tuberculosis in pcr/dna probe tests. 19921360081
classification of mycobacterium avium and related opportunist mycobacteria met in england and wales. 19674864326
infection with the avian-battey group of mycobacteria in england and wales.of 109 cases in england and wales in which mycobacteria of the avian-battey group were isolated from man 89 were considered genuine infections (including 32 with mycobacterium avium) and six were doubtful. almost half the significant cases were lung infections in men in dusty occupations, mostly coal miners with pneumoconiosis, and just over a quarter were non-pulmonary, mostly cervical adenitis in children. the prognosis in lung infections was serious, especially in the presence of pneumoconios ...19695813802
mycobacterium avium infection in ugandans with aids living in london. 19947911944
an abattoir-based study of the prevalence of subclinical johne's disease in adult cattle in south west england.the prevalance of subclinical johne's disease was estimated in adult cattle slaughtered at three major abattoirs in south west england. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) based on is900 was used to detect mycobacterium paratuberculosis in intestinal lymph nodes of 1553 cattle. culture was also carried out on all pcr positive and inconclusive samples. the prevalence of subclinical disease in adult cattle was 3.5% (95% confidence intervals (ci) 2.6-4.7) by pcr and 2.6% (ci 1.8-3.6) by culture. the ...19968666083
is900 pcr to detect mycobacterium paratuberculosis in retail supplies of whole pasteurized cows' milk in england and wales.is900 pcr for mycobacterium paratuberculosis was applied to cream, whey, and pellet fractions of centrifuged whole cows' milk. the test and simultaneous control reactions gave correct results for spiked milk and for native milk samples obtained directly from m. paratuberculosis-free, subclinically infected, and clinically infected cows. the test was then applied to units of whole pasteurized cows' milk widely obtained from retail outlets throughout central and southern england from september 199 ...19968795236
opportunist mycobacteria in england and wales: 1982 to 1994.three thousand and fifty-two infections with opportunist mycobacteria were reported to the phls communicable disease surveillance centre from 1982 to 1994. the commonest reported species was mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (mai), followed by m. kansasii and m. malmoense. the annual totals of opportunist mycobacteria increased steadily over this period, mostly, but not exclusively, due to an increase in reports of mai associated with hiv infection. there were also increases in reports of mai n ...19968917989
the incidence of aids-defining illnesses in 4883 patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. royal free/chelsea and westminster hospitals collaborative group.acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids)-defining illnesses are known to occur at different levels of immunosuppression, and the incidence of diagnoses may also vary according to the cd4 lymphocyte count strata. information about the incidence of disease at different levels of immunosuppression would help clinicians monitoring patients and would allow prophylaxis to be targeted at the most appropriate population.19989508227
highly active antiretroviral therapy. 19989546534
an outbreak of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in a london teaching hospital.we describe the epidemiology and control of a hospital outbreak of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (mdr-tb). a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-negative patient with drug-sensitive tuberculosis developed mdr-tb during a period of unsupervised therapy. she was admitted to an isolation room in a ward with hiv-positive patients, but the room, unbeknown to hospital staff, was at positive-pressure relative to the main ward. seven hiv-positive contacts developed mdr-tb. the diagnosis in the second ...19989651855
changes in aids-defining illnesses in a london clinic, 1987-1998.to describe the incidence of aids-defining illnesses within a single large clinic setting, to describe temporal changes over a 10-year period in the overall incidence and of individual aids-defining illnesses and to investigate the impact of hiv treatment regimen on the incidence of aids-defining illnesses.199910458621
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium avium complex isolated from patients with and without aids in brazil and england.mycobacterium avium complex (mac) is ubiquitous throughout the world. it is an opportunistic pathogen in aids patients but the number of cases in hiv negative patients is also increasing. the aim of this study was to determine whether patients were being infected with different mac strains or whether one strain was dominant. dna obtained from isolates in brazil and england were compared using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge). strains from 22 brazilian patients clustered into 7 groups but ...199910459647
incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw sheep and goats' milk in england, wales and northern ireland.a blind survey of 104 raw sheep and goats' milk samples (90 goat, 14 sheeps) from bulk tanks on farms throughout england, wales and northern ireland was carried out over a 5-month period (january-may 1998) in order to determine the incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. each milk sample (100 ml) was divided into two 50ml portions. one portion was decontaminated with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h before culture on slopes of herrold's egg yolk medium and in bactec radiometric med ...200111230934
crohn's disease caused by mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: a public health tragedy whose resolution is long overdue. 200211800469
nontuberculous mycobacteria in non-hiv patients: epidemiology, treatment and response.recent international guidelines published in 1997 and 1999 have proposed diagnostic and treatment criteria for disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (ntm). in this paper, the epidemiological data, diagnostic criteria, treatment regimens and outcomes from 117 hiv-negative patients who had a positive culture for ntm between 1995-1999 are reviewed. the authors wished to identify factors associated with improved outcome in these patients. a total of 71 patients were believed to have a clinic ...200415176690
is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (tse's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called bse or "mad cow disease"), creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. they remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. but between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in england came down with cjd, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. current mad cow diagnosis lies solely in the detection of late appearing "prions", an acronym for hypothesized, ge ...200415325025
the epidemiology of atypical mycobacterial diseases in northern england: a space-time clustering and generalized linear modelling approach.the incidence of infection by mycobacteria, other than tubercle bacilli (mott) is increasing in the united kingdom, europe and the united states. these diseases increase morbidity and are an increasing public health concern. however, the epidemiology of disease due to these species is not well characterized. we used space-time clustering approaches and generalized linear modelling to investigate the potential predictors of disease in cases of infection by organisms of the mycobacterium avium com ...200717083748
seroprevalence and epidemiological characteristics of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on 114 cattle farms in south west england.between december 2002 and april 2006, 114 cattle farms in the south west of england were visited at least once, with 100 farms visited three times. a total of 29,782 serum samples were collected from 15,736 individually identified cattle. the sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the mean seroprevalence in herds sampled three times was 7.1%; 10.1% of cattle had at leas ...200919327856
increasing reports of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in england, wales and northern ireland, 1995-2006.non-tuberculous mycobacteria have long been identified as capable of causing human disease and the number at risk, due to immune-suppression, is rising. several reports have suggested incidence to be increasing, yet routine surveillance-based evidence is lacking. we investigated recent trends in, and the epidemiology of, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in england, wales and northern ireland, 1995-2006.201020950421
mycobacterial disease in cats in great britain: i. culture results, geographical distribution and clinical presentation of 339 cases.this study investigated 339 cases of feline mycobacterial disease from cats with cutaneous lesions or masses found at exploratory laparotomy. tissue samples were submitted to the veterinary laboratories agency for mycobacterial culture over a 4-year period to december 2008. the study assessed which species of culturable mycobacteria were involved, where the cats lived, and their clinical presentation (physical findings, serum biochemistry, radiography, feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodef ...201122079343
a post-mortem study of respiratory disease in small mustelids in south-west england.stoat (mustela erminea) and weasel (mustela nivalis) populations in south-west england are declining whilst polecats (mustela putorius), absent for over a century, are increasing. little is known about the health status of these species nationally. this study aimed at investigating respiratory disease in specimens found dead in south-west england.201627052849
analyzing disease risks associated with translocations.translocations of species are expected to be used increasingly to counter the undesirable effects of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems, including loss of species. methods to assess the risk of disease associated with translocations have been compiled in a comprehensive manual of disease-risk analysis for movement of domestic animals. we used this manual to devise a qualitative method for assessing the probability of the occurrence of disease in wild animals associated with translocations. we a ...201222533691
assessing the impact of tailored biosecurity advice on farmer behaviour and pathogen presence in beef herds in england and wales.the term 'biosecurity' encompasses many measures farmers can take to reduce the risk of pathogen incursion or spread. as the best strategy will vary between settings, veterinarians play an important role in assessing risk and providing advice, but effectiveness requires farmer acceptance and implementation. the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of specifically-tailored biosecurity advice packages in reducing endemic pathogen presence on uk beef suckler farms. one hundred and sixt ...201627931934
pulmonary mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is the main driver of the rise in non-tuberculous mycobacteria incidence in england, wales and northern ireland, 2007-2012.the incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (ntm) isolation from humans is increasing worldwide. in england, wales and northern ireland (ew&ni) the reported rate of ntm more than doubled between 1996 and 2006. although ntm infection has traditionally been associated with immunosuppressed individuals or those with severe underlying lung damage, pulmonary ntm infection and disease may occur in people with no overt immune deficiency. here we report the incidence of ntm isolation in ew&ni between ...201627154015
non-tuberculous slow-growing mycobacterial pulmonary infections in non-hiv-infected patients in south london.uk data on slow-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterial (ntm) pulmonary infections are sparse and there is little consensus on optimal treatment regimens.201223078529
the changing pattern of aids-defining illnesses with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart)in a london clinic.to quantify the progressive impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (art) on the incidence of aids-defining illnesses (adis) over a 9-year period.200111531320
isolation of mycobacteria from patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in south east england: 1984-92.tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections are well recognised complications of hiv infection and surveillance is thus required.19938256246
control of johne's disease in a flock of sheep by vaccination. 19938236728
bacteriologically confirmed non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in south east england: a recent increase in the number of cases.the annual numbers of cases of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in south east england has increased over the period 1973 to 1993, most notably during the last few years. the most frequent cause is the mycobacterium avium complex, followed by m malmoense. the reason for the increase is unknown but it could be due to an increased awareness in mycobacterial disease, an external factor such as pollution, or both.19957618936
mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.disseminated infection with mycobacterium avium and m. intracellulare (mai) is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to both increased illness and death in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. early reports of treatment of mai were disappointing but recent studies have shown that combination antimycobacterial therapy may provide symptomatic relief and an improvement in mycobacteraemia.19911958928
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