comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppf for testing cattle. 3. national trial in great britain.a field trial on a country-wide basis was undertaken to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of single and comparative tuberculin tests in cattle using either weybridge human or weybridge bovine ppd. the tests were made on 10,305 cattle in 179 herds distributed throughout all regions of england, scotland and wales. results showed that a comparative tuberculin test using avian ppd with either human or bovine ppd had a much higher efficiency than a single injection of mammalian tubercul ...197547752
pulmonary mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is the main driver of the rise in non-tuberculous mycobacteria incidence in england, wales and northern ireland, 2007-2012.the incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (ntm) isolation from humans is increasing worldwide. in england, wales and northern ireland (ew&ni) the reported rate of ntm more than doubled between 1996 and 2006. although ntm infection has traditionally been associated with immunosuppressed individuals or those with severe underlying lung damage, pulmonary ntm infection and disease may occur in people with no overt immune deficiency. here we report the incidence of ntm isolation in ew&ni between ...201627154015
mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lake catchments, in river water abstracted for domestic use, and in effluent from domestic sewage treatment works: diverse opportunities for environmental cycling and human exposure.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from infected animals enters surface waters and rivers in runoff from contaminated pastures. we studied the river tywi in south wales, united kingdom, whose catchment comprises 1,100 km2 containing more than a million dairy and beef cattle and more than 1.3 million sheep. the river tywi is abstracted for the domestic water supply. between august 2002 and april 2003, 48 of 70 (68.8%) twice-weekly river water samples tested positive by is900 pcr. in rive ...200616751517
mycobacterial disease in cats in great britain: i. culture results, geographical distribution and clinical presentation of 339 cases.this study investigated 339 cases of feline mycobacterial disease from cats with cutaneous lesions or masses found at exploratory laparotomy. tissue samples were submitted to the veterinary laboratories agency for mycobacterial culture over a 4-year period to december 2008. the study assessed which species of culturable mycobacteria were involved, where the cats lived, and their clinical presentation (physical findings, serum biochemistry, radiography, feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodef ...201122079343
mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the catchment area and water of the river taff in south wales, united kingdom, and its potential relationship to clustering of crohn's disease cases in the city of south wales, united kingdom, a populated coastal region lies beneath hill pastures grazed by livestock in which mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is endemic. the taff is a spate river running off the hills and through the principal city of cardiff. we sampled taff water above cardiff twice weekly from november 2001 to november 2002. m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected by is900 pcr and culture. thirty-one of 96 daily samples (32.3%) were is900 pcr positive, and 12 grew m. a ...200515812047
increasing reports of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in england, wales and northern ireland, 1995-2006.non-tuberculous mycobacteria have long been identified as capable of causing human disease and the number at risk, due to immune-suppression, is rising. several reports have suggested incidence to be increasing, yet routine surveillance-based evidence is lacking. we investigated recent trends in, and the epidemiology of, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in england, wales and northern ireland, 1995-2006.201020950421
the epidemiology of opportunist mycobacterial infections in wales, 1952--1978.the incidence of infections caused by opportunist mycobacteria in wales during the years 1952--1978 was derived from the records of the mycobacterium reference unit in cardiff. mycobacterium kansasil gave rise to 154 pulmonary and two nonpulmonary infections. most of these patients were middle-aged men, approximately half of whom had pneumoconiosis or occupational exposure to dust. organisms of the mycobacterium avium-intracellulare-scrofulaceum complex caused pulmonary disease in 44 subjects an ...19817339797
incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw sheep and goats' milk in england, wales and northern ireland.a blind survey of 104 raw sheep and goats' milk samples (90 goat, 14 sheeps) from bulk tanks on farms throughout england, wales and northern ireland was carried out over a 5-month period (january-may 1998) in order to determine the incidence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis. each milk sample (100 ml) was divided into two 50ml portions. one portion was decontaminated with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h before culture on slopes of herrold's egg yolk medium and in bactec radiometric med ...200111230934
opportunist mycobacteria in england and wales: 1982 to 1994.three thousand and fifty-two infections with opportunist mycobacteria were reported to the phls communicable disease surveillance centre from 1982 to 1994. the commonest reported species was mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (mai), followed by m. kansasii and m. malmoense. the annual totals of opportunist mycobacteria increased steadily over this period, mostly, but not exclusively, due to an increase in reports of mai associated with hiv infection. there were also increases in reports of mai n ...19968917989
infection with the avian-battey group of mycobacteria in england and wales.of 109 cases in england and wales in which mycobacteria of the avian-battey group were isolated from man 89 were considered genuine infections (including 32 with mycobacterium avium) and six were doubtful. almost half the significant cases were lung infections in men in dusty occupations, mostly coal miners with pneumoconiosis, and just over a quarter were non-pulmonary, mostly cervical adenitis in children. the prognosis in lung infections was serious, especially in the presence of pneumoconios ...19695813802
assessing the impact of tailored biosecurity advice on farmer behaviour and pathogen presence in beef herds in england and wales.the term 'biosecurity' encompasses many measures farmers can take to reduce the risk of pathogen incursion or spread. as the best strategy will vary between settings, veterinarians play an important role in assessing risk and providing advice, but effectiveness requires farmer acceptance and implementation. the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of specifically-tailored biosecurity advice packages in reducing endemic pathogen presence on uk beef suckler farms. one hundred and sixt ...201627931934
is900 pcr to detect mycobacterium paratuberculosis in retail supplies of whole pasteurized cows' milk in england and wales.is900 pcr for mycobacterium paratuberculosis was applied to cream, whey, and pellet fractions of centrifuged whole cows' milk. the test and simultaneous control reactions gave correct results for spiked milk and for native milk samples obtained directly from m. paratuberculosis-free, subclinically infected, and clinically infected cows. the test was then applied to units of whole pasteurized cows' milk widely obtained from retail outlets throughout central and southern england from september 199 ...19968795236
mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is widely distributed in british soils and waters: implications for animal and human the first comprehensive geographical survey of distribution in great britain, mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) was detected in 115 of 1092 (10.5%) soil cores, in the range of 5 × 10(2) to 3 × 10(6) map cell equivalents (ce) g(-1) wet weight soil with the majority of the positive pcr reactions (n = 75; 65%) occurring around the limit of detection (500-5000 ce g(-1) wet weight soil). the distribution of map significantly increased from north to south and was significantly correla ...201323648004
avian tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium avium serotype 3 in captive wildfowl. 19979153747
classification of mycobacterium avium and related opportunist mycobacteria met in england and wales. 19674864326
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