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bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging white-tailed deer from michigan.a 4.5 yr-old male white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) killed by a hunter during the 1994 firearm hunting season in northeastern michigan (usa) had lesions suggestive of tuberculosis and was positive on culture for mycobacterium bovis the causative agent for bovine tuberculosis. subsequently, a survey of 354 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for tuberculosis was conducted in this area from 15 november 1995 through 5 january 1996. heads and/or lungs from deer were examined grossly and micr ...19979391958
mycobacterium bovis in coyotes from michigan.during a survey for tuberculosis in wild carnivores and omnivores, mycobacterium bovis was cultured from pooled lymph nodes of three adult female coyotes (canis latrans) harvested by hunters in michigan (usa). no gross or histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were seen in these animals. one coyote was taken from montmorency county and two coyotes from alcona county located in the north-eastern portion of michigan's lower peninsula where free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginia ...19989706576
naturally occurring tuberculosis in white-tailed deer.to determine the distribution of lesions and extent of tissues infected with mycobacterium bovis in a captive population of white-tailed deer.200010863589
bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from michigan.during a survey of carnivores and omnivores for bovine tuberculosis conducted in michigan (usa) since 1996, mycobacterium bovis was cultured from lymph nodes pooled from six coyotes (canis latrans) (four adult female, two adult male), two adult male raccoons (procyon lotor), one adult male red fox (vulpes vulpes), and one 1.5-yr-old male black bear (ursus americanus). one adult, male bobcat (felis rufus) with histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was negative on culture but positive for ...200111272505
tuberculous lesions in free-ranging white-tailed deer in michigan.descriptions of the anatomical distribution of mycobacterium bovis gross lesions in large samples of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) are lacking in the scientific literature. this report describes the distribution of gross lesions in the 58 white-tailed deer that cultured positive for m. bovis among the 19,500 submitted for tuberculosis testing in michigan (usa) in 1999. for the vast majority (19,348) of those tested, only the head was submitted; for others, only extracranial tissues ...200111504235
susceptibility of raccoons (procyon lotor) to infection with mycobacterium bovis.tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis infection is endemic in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of the lower michigan peninsula (usa). various wild carnivores and omnivores, including raccoons (procyon lotor), are infected with m. bovis within the endemic area. to investigate the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in raccoons and the likelihood of m. bovis transmission from infected raccoons to other susceptible hosts, we experimentally inoculated raccoons with s ...200212038124
experimental inoculation of north american opossums (didelphis virginiana) with mycobacterium bovis.eight north american opossums (didelphis virginiana) were inoculated with 1 x 10(5) colony forming units of mycobacterium bovis to investigate their potential as reservoir hosts for bovine tuberculosis in michigan. four animals received this dose orally and four were inoculated intramuscularly (i.m.). in each group, two animals were euthanized 1 mo postinoculation (pi) and two at 2 mo pi. four control animals were housed separately and sacrificed in the same manner as those inoculated. one of fo ...200212038125
epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging white-tailed deer, michigan, usa, 1995-2000.an endemic area of bovine tuberculosis (tb) (mycobacterium bovis) currently affecting wild white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in northern lower michigan, usa, constitutes the first self-sustaining outbreak of the infection in free-ranging north american cervids. given this precedent, epidemiologic insights gained from the outbreak afford the opportunity to guide not only current surveillance and intervention but also control efforts for future outbreaks involving wildlife reservoirs. our ...200212062519
tonsillar lesions in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) naturally infected with mycobacterium bovis. 200212199435
environmental and farm management factors associated with tuberculosis on cattle farms in northeastern michigan.to identify major environmental and farm management factors associated with the occurrence of tuberculosis (tb) on cattle farms in northeastern michigan.200212322923
bovine tuberculosis in michigan wildlife.white-tailed deer in michigan are now recognized as a reservoir host of bovine tuberculosis (tb). it has been determined that the most likely cause of bovine tb infection in the deer is from congregating in artificially high numbers at feed sites. the presence of a wildlife reservoir of tb in michigan poses a serious threat to the control and eradication programs that are now in their final stages in the united states.200212381602
bovine tuberculosis in michigan wildlife and livestock.since 1994, the state of michigan has recognized a problem with bovine tuberculosis (tb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, in wild white-tailed deer from a 12-county area in northeastern lower michigan. a total of 65,000 free-ranging deer have been tested, and 340 have been found to be positive for m. bovis. the disease has been found in other wildlife species, and, in 1998, in domestic cattle, where to date 13 beef cattle and 2 dairy cattle herds have been diagnosed with bovine tb. unfortunately, ...200212381603
prevalence of mycobacterium bovis infection in cervids on privately owned ranches.to determine prevalence of tuberculosis caused by infection with mycobacterium bovis in cervids on privately owned ranches in northeastern lower michigan.200212418527
epidemiologic investigation of mycobacterium bovis in a population of cats.to determine whether cats exposed at a residence were infected with mycobacterium bovis, whether the tuberculin skin test can identify cats infected with m bovis, and whether an elisa could identify tuberculosis-infected cats.200212428659
evaluation of the influence of supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) on the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the michigan wild deer population.a retrospective study was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from 1995 to 1997 was associated with the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in free-ranging deer in northeastern michigan. bovine tb prevalence data were obtained from an ongoing surveillance program, while data relating to supplemental feeding and other risk factors were collected via in-person interviews. a multivariable poisson regression modeling approach wa ...200312685071
the sensitivity of gross necropsy, caudal fold and comparative cervical tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.bovine tuberculosis (btb) was diagnosed in 22 cattle herds in the northeast comer of michigan's lower peninsula. of these 22 herds, 494 animals in 7 herds were examined by gross necropsy, histopathologic exam, mycobacterial culture, and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay performed only on samples that were histologically compatible for btb. results of culture and pcr assay interpreted in parallel were used as the reference test for calculation of the sensitivity of 1) the caudal fold test (cf ...200415053363
estimating the true prevalence of mycobacterium bovis in hunter-harvested white-tailed deer in michigan.apparent prevalence, although useful as a consistent index, may underestimate the true prevalence of disease. in michigan, the ability to estimate the true prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (tb; caused by mycobacterium bovis) in free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) will become increasingly important to accurately assess progress towards eradication. our objectives were threefold: to estimate the true prevalence of m. bovis in free-ranging deer in michigan, to evaluate the effe ...200415137487
the role of wild animal populations in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic animals: how to assess the risk.tuberculosis is present in wild animal populations in north america, europe, africa and new zealand. some wild animal populations are a source of infection for domestic livestock and humans. an understanding of the potential of each wild animal population as a reservoir of infection for domestic animals is reached by determining the nature of the disease in each wild animal species, the routes of infection for domestic species and the risk of domestic animals encountering an infectious dose. the ...200616326039
regionalization: a strategy that will assist with bovine tuberculosis control and facilitate trade.it is expected that the revised chapter on bovine tuberculosis in the terrestrial animal health code of the office internationale des epizooties (oie) will embrace regionalization as a functional means of assisting countries, states or regions to meet the requirements for freedom from tuberculosis and to facilitate trade. the benefits and applications of regionalization, which comprises zoning and compartmentalisation, are discussed. regionalization requires that a country's veterinary administr ...200616337346
patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in michigan wildlife and bovine isolates of mycobacterium bovis.the state of michigan has recognized the presence of mycobacterium bovis in its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. this endemic infection is primarily located in a 12-county area in the northeastern lower peninsula of michigan. a statewide surveillance and eradication program of the disease has been in effect since 1994. worldwide, mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms have a known predilection toward development of antimicrobial resistance. the objective of this study ...200616921884
survival of mycobacterium bovis on feedstuffs commonly used as supplemental feed for white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has become established in free-ranging white-tailed deer odocoileus virginianus in northeastern michigan. the practice of supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer during the winter is believed to contribute to transmission of m. bovis between deer. the current study was conducted to determine the ability of m. bovis to survive on various feedstuffs commonly used as supplemental feed for deer in northeast michigan (i.e., apples, co ...200617255455
experimental inoculation of meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), house mice (mus musculus), and norway rats (rattus norvegicus) with mycobacterium bovis.mycobacterium bovis has a wide host range that includes several wildlife species, and this can hamper attempts to eradicate bovine tuberculosis from livestock. the purpose of this study was to determine if common rodent species, namely meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), house mice (mus musculus), and norway rats (rattus norvegicus), that inhabit the bovine tuberculosis endemic area of michigan, can be experimentally infected with m. bovis. the objectives of the study were: 1) to determine i ...200717699074
absence of mycobacterium bovis infection in dogs and cats residing on infected cattle farms: michigan, 2002.a cross-sectional field study was performed to evaluate infection in dogs and cats living on farms with mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. the purpose was to determine pet infection status and assess their risk to farm families and/or tuberculosis-free livestock. data and specimens were collected from 18 cats and five dogs from nine participating farms. elisa testing for m. bovis and m. avium was conducted. fifty-one biological samples were cultured; all were negative for m. bovis, although ot ...200818325127
human mycobacterium bovis infection and bovine tuberculosis outbreak, michigan, 1994-2007.mycobacterium bovis is endemic in michigan's white-tailed deer and has been circulating since 1994. the strain circulating in deer has remained genotypically consistent and was recently detected in 2 humans. we summarize the investigation of these cases and confirm that recreational exposure to deer is a risk for infection in humans.200818394288
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis: usefulness in international trade.tuberculosis (tb) represents a barrier for free trade of livestock between mexico and the united states of america (us). in spite of efforts from mexico to export tb-free animals, some of those found with tb lesions in slaughterhouses in the us are traced back to that country. therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine, through molecular epidemiology, the most probable source of infection for cattle found with tb lesions in the us. ninety m. bovis isolates, 50 from mexico obtained fro ...200818524398
estimating the true prevalence of mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk in michigan.although relatively small, michigan's elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) herd is highly valued by both hunters and the general public. elk and red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) are highly susceptible to infection with mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (tb), and outbreaks have been documented worldwide. the michigan elk range lies entirely within counties where tb is known to be enzootic in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). consequently, a project was undertaken ...200818957636
surveillance of coyotes to detect bovine tuberculosis, michigan.bovine tuberculosis (tb) is endemic in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of michigan's lower peninsula. bovine tb in deer and cattle has created immense financial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. surveillance identified coyotes (canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of mycobacterium bovis, a finding that generated interest in their potential to serve as sentinels for monitoring disease risk. we sampled 175 coyotes in the bovi ...200819046508
evaluation of blood assays for detection of mycobacterium bovis in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in michigan.surveillance and control activities related to bovine tuberculosis (tb) in free-ranging, michigan white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) have been underway for over a decade, with significant progress. however, foci of higher tb prevalence on private lands and limited agency ability to eliminate them using broad control strategies have led to development and trial of new control strategies, such as live trapping, testing, and culling or release. such strategies require a prompt, accurate liv ...200919204344
epizootiologic survey of mycobacterium bovis in wildlife and farm environments in northern michigan.bovine tuberculosis (bovine tb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, has reemerged in northern michigan, usa, with detections in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in 1994 and in cattle in 1998. since then, significant efforts have been directed toward reducing deer densities in the area in the hopes of reducing the bovine tb prevalence rate in deer and eliminating spillover of the disease into cattle. despite the success of the efforts to reduce deer densities, additional cattle herds have b ...201020688630
spatial analysis of mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in michigan, usa.the wild white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) population in michigan, usa, has endemic mycobacterium bovis. we determined whether there were spatial clusters of retrospective tb cases in white-tailed deer in northeastern michigan and identified specific factors associated with the spatial clusters. data from hunter-harvested deer (age, gender, tb status, and geographic section) were collected by the michigan department of natural resources (mdnr) during tb surveillance from 1995 to 2002. l ...200717597240
recent advances in the management of bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging wildlife.established foci of mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis [btb]) in free-ranging wildlife are currently under various stages of management on three continents (africa, europe and north america) and in new zealand. other, as yet undiagnosed, foci seem likely to exist elsewhere. the complex roles that these wildlife foci play in the ecology of btb remain among the greatest challenges facing btb control globally. conceptually, management of btb in free-ranging wildlife can ...201121420260
active use of coyotes (canis latrans) to detect bovine tuberculosis in northeastern michigan, usa.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is endemic in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern michigan, usa, and research suggests transmission to cattle. prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. research suggests coyotes (canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of btb in michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a more efficient surveillance tool to detect presence or spread of the disease. coyotes posse ...201121420801
evaluation of historical factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of mycobacterium bovis infection among wildlife in michigan.to determine historical events leading to establishment of bovine tuberculosis in the white-tailed deer population in the northeastern corner of the lower peninsula (nelp) of michigan and describe factors relevant to the present outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in michigan.200616579753
survivability of mycobacterium bovis on salt and salt-mineral blocks fed to cattle.objective to determine the survivability of mycobacterium bovis on salt and salt-mineral blocks in typical weather conditions in michigan over two 12-day periods at the height of summer and winter. sample 4 salt (nacl) and 4 salt-mineral blocks inoculated with pure cultures of a strain of m bovis currently circulating in michigan livestock and wildlife. procedures in the summer and again in the winter, inoculated blocks were placed in secured outdoor facilities where equal numbers of each block ...201728029286
management of on-farm risk to livestock from bovine tuberculosis in michigan, usa, white-tailed deer: predictions from a spatially-explicit stochastic model.the eradication of bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, from cattle in many locations worldwide is complicated by endemic foci of the disease in free-ranging wildlife. recent simulation modeling of the btb outbreak in white-tailed deer (wtd) in michigan, usa, suggests current management is unlikely to eradicate btb from the core outbreak area (dmu 452) within the next three decades. however, some level of control short of eradication might sufficiently reduce transmission fr ...201627836043
local cattle movements in response to ongoing bovine tuberculosis zonation and regulations in michigan, usa.bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) is an ongoing management issue in the state of michigan with eradication from livestock as the ultimate goal. eradication has been a challenge owing to the presence of a wildlife reservoir; competing interests in managing the livestock and wildlife hosts; and many uncertainties in transmission dynamics of m. bovis. one of the cornerstones of the eradication effort has been to stop movement of infected cattle among farms by imposing strict pre-movement te ...201424685049
managing the wildlife reservoir of mycobacterium bovis: the michigan, usa, experience.historical, social and economic factors combined to provide a focus where bovine tuberculosis has become established in free-ranging wildlife in northeastern lower michigan. white-tailed deer, the primary reservoir and maintenance host of tuberculosis, are highly valued by the public, and particularly hunters, for cultural and economic reasons. since 1995, significant progress has been made in defining and reducing the reservoir of tuberculosis in deer. as yet, no other wildlife species has been ...200616376030
management of bovine tuberculosis in michigan wildlife: current status and near term prospects.surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (btb) in free-ranging michigan white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) have now been underway for over a decade. significant progress has been made, lowering apparent prevalence in deer in the core area by >60%, primarily via reduction of deer densities through hunting, and restrictions on public feeding and baiting of deer. these broad strategies of the michigan department of natural resources (mdnr), implemented with the cooperatio ...201121414734
comparison of pcr versus culture for detection of mycobacterium bovis after experimental inoculation of various matrices held under environmental conditions for extended periods.the purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a molecular detection technique (nested pcr) with that of mycobacterial culture in the detection of mycobacterium bovis dna in a set of 687 samples of experimentally inoculated environmental substrates (hay, soil, corn, water) exposed to natural weather conditions in michigan. four replicates of each substrate were used; half were autoclaved for sterilization, all were inoculated with 50,000 cfu of m. bovis isolated from michigan livest ...201323956383
rapid detection of serum antibody by dual-path platform vettb assay in white-tailed deer infected with mycobacterium bovis.bovine tuberculosis (tb) in cervids remains a significant problem affecting farmed herds and wild populations. traditional skin testing has serious limitations in certain species, whereas emerging serological assays showed promising diagnostic performance. the recently developed immunochromatographic dual-path platform (dpp) vettb assay has two antigen bands, t1 (mpb83 protein) and t2 (cfp10/esat-6 fusion protein), for antibody detection. we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this test by usin ...201323595504
surveillance and movements of virginia opossum (didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of michigan.wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (btb) include eurasian badgers (meles meles) and brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) in the uk and new zealand, respectively. similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of michigan, usa due to the continued presence of btb on cattle farms. most research in michigan, usa has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious ...201323531427
persistence of mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) danish in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) vaccinated with a lipid-formulated oral vaccine.mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals, has a broad host range, including humans. historically, public health concerns prompted programs to eradicate tuberculosis from cattle in many nations. eradication efforts decreased the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis; nevertheless, some countries encountered significant obstacles, not least of which was a wildlife reservoir of m. bovis. efforts to decrease the size of the affected wildlife populations have neither eliminated ...201423173832
experimental aerosol inoculation of mycobacterium bovis in north american opossums (didelphis virginiana).the goal of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of north american opossums (didelphis virginiana) to aerosol inoculation of mycobacterium bovis at two dose levels in order to gain information on disease pathogenesis, fecal shedding of the organism, and the potential role that opossums play in the spread of this disease in nature. six opossums received high dose (1 x 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) by aerosol inoculation, six opossums received low dose (1 x 10(3) cfu inoculation, and s ...200312910771
public acceptance as a determinant of management strategies for bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging u.s. wildlife.when bovine tuberculosis (btb) is detected in free-ranging wildlife populations, preventing geographic spread and the establishment of a wildlife reservoir requires rapid, often aggressive response. public tolerance can exert a significant effect on potential control measures available to managers, and thus on the success of disease management efforts. separate outbreaks of btb in free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in two midwestern states provide a case study. in minnesota, ...201121439739
mycobacterium bovis (bovine tb) exposure as a recreational risk for hunters: results of a michigan hunter survey, 2001.tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis (bovine tb) is endemic in the white-tailed deer population of north-eastern michigan. hunters may be exposed to m. bovis via cutaneous inoculation while field dressing deer or by ingestion of undercooked venison. michigan hunters have received inconsistent messages about their risk of acquiring tuberculosis from recreational exposure to deer. the most common health advice offered has been to wear gloves while field dressing deer and to cook venison prod ...200314552572
linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using bayesian hierarchical analysis.bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include eurasian badgers (meles meles), brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). risk-assessment efforts in michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on m. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. to incorporate spatially exp ...201424595231
mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. as disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of m. bovis from wildlife to cattle. in epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (r0) and critical community size (ccs) threshol ...201324171844
use of whole-genome sequencing and evaluation of the apparent sensitivity and specificity of antemortem tuberculosis tests in the investigation of an unusual outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in a michigan dairy herd.objective to describe use of whole-genome sequencing (wgs) and evaluate the apparent sensitivity and specificity of antemortem tuberculosis tests during investigation of an unusual outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in a michigan dairy herd. design bovine tuberculosis (btb) outbreak investigation. animals cattle, cats, dog, and wildlife. procedures all cattle in the index dairy herd were screened for btb with the caudal fold test (cft), and cattle ≥ 6 months old were also screened with a ...201728671497
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