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is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (tse's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called bse or "mad cow disease"), creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. they remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. but between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in england came down with cjd, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. current mad cow diagnosis lies solely in the detection of late appearing "prions", an acronym for hypothesized, ge ...200415325025
no increase in human cases of mycobacterium bovis disease despite resurgence of infections in cattle in the united kingdom.a resurgence of mycobacterium bovis infections in cattle in the united kingdom since the 1980s has raised concern about risks to human health. enhanced surveillance data for england, wales and northern ireland between 1993 and 2003 of culture-positive human m. bovis cases identified 315 m. bovis infections; the mean annual number of cases was 28 (range 12-41). the most frequently reported exposures were consumption of unpasteurized dairy products 41/83 (49%) and exposure to cattle 45/123 (37%). ...200716740186
mycobacterium bovis genotypes in northern ireland: herd-level surveillance (2003 to 2008).surveillance genotyping (variable number tandem repeat profiling and spoligotyping) of mycobacterium bovis isolates from culture-confirmed bovine tuberculosis (tb)-affected herds in northern ireland is presented for the years 2003 to 2008 inclusive. a total of 175 m bovis genotypes were identified in 8630 isolates from 6609 herds. on average, 73 genotypes were identified each year, with 29 genotypes present in all six years. highly significant differences (p<0.0001) were observed between the rel ...201021257483
epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis disease in humans in england, wales, and northern ireland, 2002-2014.despite control efforts, mycobacterium bovis incidence among cattle remains high in parts of england, wales, and northern ireland, attracting political and public health interest in potential spread from animals to humans. to determine incidence among humans and to identify associated factors, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of human m. bovis cases in england, wales, and northern ireland during 2002-2014. we identified 357 cases and observed increased annual case numbers (from 17 to ...201728220748
the phylogeny and population structure of mycobacterium bovis in the british isles.to further understand the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis in great britain, northern ireland and the republic of ireland, we identified 16 mutations that are phylogenetically informative for mycobacterium bovis strains from these regions. we determined the status of these mutations among a collection of 501 strains representing the molecular diversity found in these three regions of the british isles. the resulting linear phylogenies from each region were concordant, showing that the same lineag ...201323933404
risk factors for visible lesions or positive laboratory tests in bovine tuberculosis reactor cattle in northern ireland.an observational case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for confirmed bovine tuberculosis (btb) infection in cattle reacting positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical test (sicct) in northern ireland in the years 1998, 2002 and 2006. macroscopic lesions were detected at slaughter (positive visible lesion (vl) status) in 43.0% of reactor cattle, whilst 45.3% of those sampled were confirmed as btb positive due to the presence of lesions or positive histopathol ...201525957973
should they stay, or should they go? relative future risk of bovine tuberculosis for interferon-gamma test-positive cattle left on farms.bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, is a serious infectious disease that remains an ongoing concern for cattle farming worldwide. tuberculin skin-tests are often used to identify infected animals (reactors) during test-and-cull programs, however, due to relatively poor sensitivity, additional tests can be implemented in parallel. for example, in northern ireland interferon-gamma (ifn-g) testing is used in high-risk herds. however, skin-test negative animals which are positi ...201526338808
herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis and adoption of related biosecurity measures in northern ireland: a case-control study.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in northern ireland. as it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the european badger (meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. the aim was to identify risk factors for btb breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of btb related biosecurity measures on farms. face-to-face questionnaires with farmer ...201627240911
risk factors for failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in cattle from infected herds across northern ireland (2004-2010).correctly identifying animals that are truly infected with a pathogen using ante-mortem tests is the cornerstone of any disease eradication programme. failure to identify all infected animals will impede the progress towards controlling and eradicating disease and may also have unforeseen consequences when specific prevention measures are in place to avoid animal-to-animal transmission. in the case of bovine tuberculosis (btb), the screening ante-mortem test, the single comparative intradermal t ...201627474001
bovine tuberculosis in northern ireland: risk factors associated with duration and recurrence of chronic herd breakdowns.this study investigated 8058 bovine tuberculosis (btb) confirmed breakdowns occurring in northern ireland during the period 2005-2010 inclusive. the methodology used two case-control studies; one determined the risk factors associated with long duration btb breakdowns and the other with recurrent btb breakdowns. the analyses were implemented using a generalized linear mixed model analysis with variables relating to repeated measures on herds, locality and year of breakdown included as random eff ...201627544245
the northern ireland programme for the control and eradication of mycobacterium bovis.bovine tuberculosis is endemic in northern ireland and a comprehensive eradication scheme has been in operation since 1959. the current programme involves annual testing, extensive computerized tracing, short-interval testing of herds contiguous to outbreaks and compulsory slaughter of positive cattle. despite initial reductions in disease prevalence, eradication has proved elusive and potential explanatory factors include high cattle density and potential for between-herd contact, the impact of ...200616326042
field-isolated genotypes of mycobacterium bovis vary in virulence and influence case pathology but do not affect outbreak size.strains of many infectious agents differ in fundamental epidemiological parameters including transmissibility, virulence and pathology. we investigated whether genotypes of mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, btb) differ significantly in transmissibility and virulence, combining data from a nine-year survey of the genetic structure of the m. bovis population in northern ireland with detailed records of the cattle population during the same period. we used the size of ...201324086351
metabolic fingerprints of mycobacterium bovis cluster with molecular type: implications for genotype-phenotype links.mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. various genetic typing techniques have been used to trace the reservoirs of infection; however, they have limited success in population genetics and outbreak studies. fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ft-ir) is a rapid phenotypic typing technique, which may be used to generate a metabolic fingerprinting and is increasingly used to characterize bacteria. when coupled with multivariate cluster analysis, this powerful combina ...200616946270
discrimination of isolates of mycobacterium bovis in northern ireland on the basis of variable numbers of tandem repeats (vntrs).the ability to reproducibly discriminate mycobacterium bovis isolates and trace their transmission has the potential to clarify sources of infection and major routes of transmission for bovine tuberculosis (tb). a pcr-based genotyping assay has been developed to discriminate between strains of m bovis by examining multiple sites in its genome that consist of variable numbers of tandem repeats (vntrs). the discriminatory power and reproducibility of this vntr typing has been compared with that of ...200516244231
detectability of bovine tb using the tuberculin skin test does not vary significantly according to pathogen genotype within northern ireland.strains of many infectious diseases differ in parameters that influence epidemic spread, for example virulence, transmissibility, detectability and host specificity. knowledge of inter-strain variation can be exploited to improve management and decrease disease incidence. bovine tuberculosis (btb) is increasingly prevalent among farmed cattle in the uk, exerting a heavy economic burden on the farming industry and government. we aimed to determine whether strains of mycobacterium bovis (the causa ...201323712123
bovine tuberculosis in northern ireland: risk factors associated with time from post-outbreak test to subsequent herd breakdown.compulsory bovine tuberculosis testing has been implemented since 1959 in northern ireland. initial rapid progress in the eradication of the disease was followed by a situation where disease levels tended to fluctuate around a low level. this study explores recrudescence of bovine tuberculosis (btb) in northern ireland herds by assessing risk factors associated with time from the six-month post-outbreak skin test until a further herd breakdown. bovine herds (n=3377) were recruited in 2002 and 20 ...201425023906
northern ireland disease surveillance report for january to march 2014.listerial encephalitis in adult cattle oxalate nephrosis in zwartble ewes and lambs histomonosis in chickens feline tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis these are among matters discussed in the northern ireland animal disease surveillance quarterly report for january to march 2014.201424853706
use of water troughs by badgers and cattle.the frequency of visits by badgers and cattle to five water troughs was examined using motion-activated infra-red cameras in a farming landscape in northern ireland between may and july 2013. cattle visit rates varied significantly across troughs, were greatest during daylight periods, and more frequent during dry weather. badgers were recorded visiting only one of the five water troughs. these visits were recorded on 14 different nights between midnight and 0300 h and were mainly by individual ...201425458885
optimizing antigen cocktails for detection of mycobacterium bovis in herds with different prevalences of bovine tuberculosis: esat6-cfp10 mixture shows optimal sensitivity and specificity.bovine tuberculosis is a major problem in many countries; hence, new and better diagnostic tools are urgently needed. in this work, we have tested esat6, cfp10, pe13, pe5, mpb70, tb10.4, and tb27.4 for their potentials as diagnostic markers in field animals from northern ireland, mexico, and argentina, regions with low, medium, and high prevalences of bovine tuberculosis, respectively. at all three sites, esat6 and cfp10 were superior diagnostic antigens, while their combination performed even b ...200617005738
rapid diagnosis and strain differentiation of mycobacterium bovis in radiometric culture by spoligotyping.an assessment of spoligotyping for rapid detection and strain typing of mycobacterium bovis isolates in radiometric culture was made. spoligotyping was applied to bactec 12b broth cultures of 54 lesioned bovine lymph node specimens from 44 herds in northern ireland. a nucleic acid sequence capture technique was performed on bactec cultures at growth index points of approximately (approximately) 60, approximately 200, and 999. definitive spoligotype patterns were obtained for 90.4% and 94.2% of a ...19989646467
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