Publications

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comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppf for testing cattle. 3. national trial in great britain.a field trial on a country-wide basis was undertaken to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of single and comparative tuberculin tests in cattle using either weybridge human or weybridge bovine ppd. the tests were made on 10,305 cattle in 179 herds distributed throughout all regions of england, scotland and wales. results showed that a comparative tuberculin test using avian ppd with either human or bovine ppd had a much higher efficiency than a single injection of mammalian tubercul ...197547752
fasciola hepatica is associated with the failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a significant and intractable disease of cattle caused by mycobacterium bovis. in the united kingdom, despite an aggressive eradication programme, the prevalence of btb is increasing with an unexplained, exponential rise in cases year on year. here we show in a study involving 3,026 dairy herds in england and wales that there is a significant negative association between exposure to the common, ubiquitous helminth parasite, fasciola hepatica and diagnosis of btb. the ...201222617293
mycobacterial disease in cats in great britain: i. culture results, geographical distribution and clinical presentation of 339 cases.this study investigated 339 cases of feline mycobacterial disease from cats with cutaneous lesions or masses found at exploratory laparotomy. tissue samples were submitted to the veterinary laboratories agency for mycobacterial culture over a 4-year period to december 2008. the study assessed which species of culturable mycobacteria were involved, where the cats lived, and their clinical presentation (physical findings, serum biochemistry, radiography, feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodef ...201122079343
estimating the risk of cattle exposure to tuberculosis posed by wild deer relative to badgers in england and wales.wild deer populations in great britain are expanding in range and probably in numbers, and relatively high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (btb, caused by infection with mycobacterium bovis) in deer occurs locally in parts of southwest england. to evaluate the m. bovis exposure risk posed to cattle by wild deer relative to badgers in england and wales, we constructed and parameterized a quantitative risk model with the use of information from the literature (on deer densities, activity pattern ...200919901384
evaluation of the cervidtb stat-pak for the detection of mycobacterium bovis infection in wild deer in great britain.deer are acknowledged as hosts of mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb), and determining the prevalence of infection in deer species is one of the key steps in understanding the epidemiological role played by cervids in the transmission and maintenance of btb in the united kingdom. this study evaluated a rapid lateral-flow test for the detection of btb in samples from wild deer species in the united kingdom. fallow deer (dama dama), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), ...200919656989
tuberculosis in humans and animals: are we a threat to each other? 200617021307
introduction of bovine tuberculosis to north-east england by bought-in cattle.the source of bovine tuberculosis was investigated in 31 herds in north-east england that experienced confirmed breakdowns between january 2002 and june 2004; nine of the herds had been restocked after the uk outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in 2001. in all but one of the breakdowns the most likely source of infection was identified as one or more purchased animals. in 17 of the breakdowns, reactor animals were traced to herds from which the same combination of spoligotype and variable number ...200616946308
the population structure of mycobacterium bovis in great britain: clonal expansion.we have analyzed 11,500 isolates of mycobacterium bovis (the cause of tuberculosis in cattle and other mammals) isolated in great britain (england, wales and scotland)] and characterized by spoligotype. genetic exchange between cells is rare or absent in strains of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex so that, by using spoligotypes, it is possible to recognize "clones" with a recent common ancestor. the distribution of variable numbers of tandem repeats types in the most common clone in the da ...200314657373
audit of scope and culture techniques applied to samples for the diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis by hospital laboratories in england and wales.this audit examines the ability of english and welsh laboratories to diagnose mycobacterium bovis infection. all 164 clinical laboratories submitting samples to the phls mycobacterium reference unit and regional centres for mycobacteriology were surveyed. twenty per cent of responding centres did not use a pyruvate-containing medium or incubate for the minimum recommended period of 8 weeks. this study demonstrates the potential for the underdiagnosis of m. bovis infection in england and wales. p ...200312733491
observations on the incidence of herds with non-visible lesioned tuberculin test reactors in south-west england.the herd incidence of confirmed mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle in the south-west of england has been approximately ten times that of the remainder of england and wales; this greater incidence has been attributed to infection from badgers. the incidence of herds with only non-visible lesioned tuberculin test reactors, from which m. bovis was not isolated, has also remained higher in the south-west region. the incidences of these latter unconfirmed incidents were compared in parishes in t ...19873609171
national survey of notifications of tuberculosis in england and wales in 1988. medical research council cardiothoracic epidemiology group.a survey was undertaken to determine the distribution of tuberculosis in england and wales and, by comparison with the findings of similar surveys in 1978-9 and 1983, to study trends in the incidence of the disease by ethnic group over the decade.19921481174
no increase in human cases of mycobacterium bovis disease despite resurgence of infections in cattle in the united kingdom.a resurgence of mycobacterium bovis infections in cattle in the united kingdom since the 1980s has raised concern about risks to human health. enhanced surveillance data for england, wales and northern ireland between 1993 and 2003 of culture-positive human m. bovis cases identified 315 m. bovis infections; the mean annual number of cases was 28 (range 12-41). the most frequently reported exposures were consumption of unpasteurized dairy products 41/83 (49%) and exposure to cattle 45/123 (37%). ...200716740186
bovine tuberculosis in cats. 200616489166
epidemiological features of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in great britain.particular epidemiological features of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle herds in great britain during the period 1972-8 were examined. during these seven years 1099 herds became infected, the mean annual incidence of herd infection being of the order of one infected herd per 1000 cattle herds. infection in herds was predominantly a sporadic occurrence; 938 (85.4%) herds experienced only one incidence of infection which persisted for less than 12 months. the concentration of infected herds ...19836833744
mycobacterium bovis in england and wales: past, present and future.this report reviews the literature concerning tuberculosis resulting from infection with mycobacterium bovis in man and cattle and summarises data derived from surveillance of m. bovis in england and wales from 1986 to 1990. of the 228 isolates of m. bovis examined in this period, 122 (53%) were from patients aged over 60 years and are largely the result of reactivation of infection acquired prior to the institution of control measures. however, eight isolates (3.5%) were from patients aged less ...19921499671
assessing the impact of tailored biosecurity advice on farmer behaviour and pathogen presence in beef herds in england and wales.the term 'biosecurity' encompasses many measures farmers can take to reduce the risk of pathogen incursion or spread. as the best strategy will vary between settings, veterinarians play an important role in assessing risk and providing advice, but effectiveness requires farmer acceptance and implementation. the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of specifically-tailored biosecurity advice packages in reducing endemic pathogen presence on uk beef suckler farms. one hundred and sixt ...201627931934
the effect of oral vaccination with mycobacterium bovis bcg on the development of tuberculosis in captive european badgers (meles meles).the european badger (meles meles) is a reservoir host of mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (tb) cases seen in cattle in the united kingdom and republic of ireland. an injectable preparation of the bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the uk and its use forms part of the bovine tb eradication plans of england and wales. however, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badg ...201728174695
epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis disease in humans in england, wales, and northern ireland, 2002-2014.despite control efforts, mycobacterium bovis incidence among cattle remains high in parts of england, wales, and northern ireland, attracting political and public health interest in potential spread from animals to humans. to determine incidence among humans and to identify associated factors, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of human m. bovis cases in england, wales, and northern ireland during 2002-2014. we identified 357 cases and observed increased annual case numbers (from 17 to ...201728220748
outbreak of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in golden guernsey goats in great britain.an outbreak of caprine tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was disclosed in june 2008, affecting goats of the golden guernsey breed kept on 10 separate smallholdings in south-west wales and the west of england. following the initial diagnosis at postmortem examination, 30 goats that reacted positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (sicct) test, together with five in-contact animals, were euthanased and subjected to postmortem examination and mycobacterial cultu ...200919767636
bovine tuberculosis. 199910378292
geographical association between the genotype of bovine tuberculosis in found dead badgers and in cattle herds.in a survey, 457 badgers that had been found dead in wales were postmortem-examined, and samples were examined by histology and by extended culture (for up to 12 weeks). mycobacterium bovis was cultured from 55 badgers (12.0 per cent), and the histology typical of m bovis infection was seen in a further six (1.3 per cent). the prevalence in badgers in each of 10 geographical areas varied between 0 and 26 per cent (p<0.001), and was associated with the incidence of confirmed m bovis infection in ...201222331501
pathology of naturally occurring bovine tuberculosis in england and wales.the aim of this study was to obtain a contemporary data set of pathology in tuberculin reactor and in-contact cattle in england and wales. four hundred animals (200 reactors and 200 in-contacts) from 242 farms located in 14 counties in western england and wales were examined. the mean number of lymph nodes (lns) with tuberculosis (tb)-like lesions per tb-confirmed animal was 1.7 in reactors and 1.5 in in-contact animals. tuberculous lesions in both reactor and in-contact animals were most common ...200817728162
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