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[further inquiries on paramphistomosis (paramphistomum cervi) in sardinia]. 196314123058
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in sardinia. 197986077
hydatidosis in sardinia: review and recommendations.in sardinia, hydatidosis due to echinococcus granulosus is endemic and constitutes a current and important problem in the economy and public health. this paper reviews the epidemiological aspects, including the geographical distribution, and the socio-cultural factors involved in the dissemination of hydatidosis. hospital data indicate that about 200 people undergo surgery for hydatid cysts every year with an average of 8.8 deaths annually. an average of 80% of the sheep are infected, constituti ...19854002284
[hydatidosis in sardinia. co-involved parameters and hypothesis for a control campaign].although hydatidosis provokes in man and livestock losses of economic significance, there has been no comprehensive study on this disease. this article is an account of sardinia as an important area of echinococcosis-hydatidosis. the incidence and distribution of infection in the intermediate and definitive hosts are reviewed and the current status of hydatid disease is evaluated. the review is divided into main sections: (a) geographical and environmental data; (b) domestic intermediate hosts; ...19853870643
[human hydatidosis in sardinia. epidemiologic study of the cases operated on from 1974 to 1981].a retrospective survey of surgical cases to obtain baseline data on hydatid disease in sardinia from 1974 to 1981 revealed an annual mean rate of 11.1/100.000 population. however, real prevalence is obviously higher, since infection is not always synonymous with disease and surgical incidence should be regarded as the figure that counts. information on sex, age, residence, occupation, cyst location, number of re-operations was collected to assess the public health impact to hydatidosis within th ...19853870642
[epidemiology and social/health implications of hydatidosis in sardinia].all surgically treated cases of hydatidosis registered in sardinia from 1969 to 1984 have been analysed. the 16-year period clearly shows that unilocular hydatid disease caused by larvae of tapeworm, echinococcus granulosus, is endemic in sardinia. in this region there are foci of human infection notably in the sheep rearing areas, of nuoro and sassari. the incidence of human hydatidosis shows a marked regional variation varying during the last survey (1982-1984) between 16.9/1000 in the provinc ...19892491290
[distribution of ovine hydatidosis in sardinia, 1987-1988].the prevalence of echinococcus granulosus in sheep was examined in sardinia between june and september 1987-1988. of the examined sheep 243 were being pastured in fenced fields while 1084 were being pastured in open fields. an infection rate of 1.6% was recorded in the first group of sheep, and 86.7% in the second. the prevalence rate differed in various parts of the region, ranging from 79.4% (oristano province) to 95% (nuoro province). of the parasitized sheep 7.9% harboured only fertile cysts ...19892487004
epidemiology of hydatid disease in sardinia: a study of fertility of cysts in sheep.hydatidosis, caused by echinococcus granulosus, is a cyclozoonotic disease of economic significance in sardinia. the life-cycle involves stray and sheep dogs as definitive hosts and sheep, pigs, goats and cattle as intermediate hosts. the most important intermediate host is sheep, due to home slaughtering with ready access of the viscera to dogs. this survey was undertaken in 1987 to ascertain the epidemiological significance of sheep in maintaining the life-cycle. a total of 700 (91.3%) of 767 ...19902230030
haemoglobin phenotypes of the wild european mouflon sheep living on the island of sardinia.haemoglobin (hb) phenotypes have been studied in 100 wild european mouflons living on the island of sardinia by means of isoelectric focusing (ph 6.7-7.7 range) of the native tetramers, acid-urea-triton gel-electrophoresis, and reversed-phase hplc of globin chains. the result indicates the presence of two beta-globin alleles one of which, corresponding to the beta b, being the most common (f = 0.94). none were carriers of the earlier described hb a. the new hb was provisionally named hb m. sever ...19912024783
heavy metal bioaccumulation in lamb and sheep bred in smelting and mining areas of s.w. sardinia (italy). 19911863796
[modifications of the portoscuso ecosystem. distribution, accumulation,and dynamics of pollutants. i. observations on animal tissues].in order to assess the extent of environmental pollution by pb, cd and zn in the industrial area of portoscuso (southwestern sardinia-italy), anatomohistopathological, histochemical and chemical tests were carried out on the heart, liver, kidneys and bones of sheep slaughtered in the local abattoir. on microscopic examination, degenerative lesions were severe in liver and kidneys and slight in the heart; histochemical stainings clearly showed a notable presence of zn, while spectrophotometric ex ...19921457102
hydatidosis: a comprehensive view of the sardinian case.in sardinia the close association of sheep, dogs and humans still exists in some parts of the region, so that ideal conditions persist for the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle. two factors contribute to the spread of the disease: the practice of slaughtering sheep at home and the proliferation of dogs, mainly strays. this paper reviews the epidemiological picture and the economic consequences of the disease in man and livestock, strongly suggesting that this endemic disease is a major p ...19979802093
ticks infesting domestic animals in italy: current acarological studies carried out in sardinia and basilicata regions.the note reviews published and unpublished data on acaralogical studies carried out by different parasitologists' groups in sardinia and basilicata regions. in sardinia 72 collecting sites were investigated and a total of 4,086 ticks were collected from hosts (cattle, sheep, goats and pigs) and from soil. so far 2,413 ticks belonging to six genera have been identified: rhipicephalus (67.2%), haemaphysalis (24.1%), hyalomma (2.7%), boophilus (0.7%), dermacentor (4.9%), ixodes (0.3%). host-associa ...199911071541
study on immunobiology in endoparasites of public health interest: echinococcosis-hydatidosis.cystic echinococcosis caused by echinococcus granulosus is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the mediterranean, endemic in some regions such as sardinia. some aspects of the research conducted in this area are briefly reviewed for an integrated analysis of both epidemiological and immunobiological knowledge, gained from field observations and experimental studies. data on epidemiology in intermediate hosts, immunological assessment of exposure in humans, immune response and th1/th2 polariza ...200112078473
sheep oestrosis (oestrus ovis linné 1761, diptera: oestridae) in sardinia, italy.oestrosis, the nasal myiasis of sheep and goats, is caused by the larvae of oestrus ovis l. 1758 (diptera, oestridae) that develop from the first to the third stage larva in the nasal cavities and frontal sinuses of affected animals. the authors report the results of an epidemiological study of oestrosis of sheep in sardinia, italy. heads of 6-month to 10-year-old sardinian sheep (n=566) from 124 free-ranging flocks were examined for the presence and location o. ovis larvae from december 1996 to ...200111705659
characterization of the geographical origin of pecorino sardo cheese by casein stable isotope ((13)c/(12)c and (15)n/(14)n) ratios and free amino acid ratios.the stable isotope ratios ((13)c/(12)c and (15)n/(14)n) of casein measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (irms) and some free amino acid ratios (his/pro, ile/pro, met/pro, and thr/pro) determined by hplc in samples of ewes' milk cheese from sardinia, sicily, and apulia were found to be parameters independent of ripening time. multivariate data treatments performed by applying both unsupervised (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) and supervised [linear discriminant analysis ( ...200111312872
chronobiology of oestrus ovis (diptera: oestridae) in sardinia, italy: guidelines to chemoprophylaxis.oestrus ovis (linné 1761) larvae are obligatory parasites of the nasal and sinus cavities of sheep and goats. infestation is prevalent in hot and dry regions, such as mediterranean countries. the current work was developed to establish the chronobiology of o. ovis in sardinia, to determine the most suitable time for chemoprophylaxis. a survey was carried out during 1998, and sheep heads were collected monthly from local flocks. a total of 443 heads was examined, and the prevalence of oestrosis w ...200212144298
distinction of scrapie phenotypes in sheep by lesion profiling.major determinants of the pathological phenotype of natural scrapie are considered to be the agent strain and host prion protein (prp) genotype, but the relationship between these is far from clear. little is known about the strains that produce natural scrapie. a method of brain vacuolation profiling was developed which enables this aspect of disease phenotype to be characterized in detail. this method distinguished at least two distinct pathological phenotypes in sheep of a single genotype (ar ...200212354545
survey of ovine and caprine toxoplasmosis by ifat and pcr assays in sardinia, italy.during the period 1999-2002, we have analyzed 9639 serum samples and 815 aborted samples (670 fetuses and 145 placenta) from 964 ovine and caprine farms distributed over all sardinia island. after abortion notification, sera collected at random from adult animals were examined to detect simultaneously igg and igm antibodies specific to toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence assay, whereas fetuses and placenta were analyzed by a single tube nested pcr assay. specific igg antibodies were ...200314597274
geographical and seasonal distribution of the bluetongue virus vector, culicoides imicola, in central italy.following the first incursion of bluetongue virus (btv) into italy, the geographical and seasonal distribution of the biting midge culicoides imicola kieffer (diptera: ceratopogonidae), the main vector of btv and african horse sickness virus, was investigated in two regions of central italy (lazio and tuscany). surveillance of culicoides was carried out between july 2001 and december 2002 using light traps: 1917 collections were made in 381 trap sites, well distributed across both regions. durin ...200314651652
the effect of climate on the presence of culicoides imicola in italy.a model was developed to classify the italian territories in relation to their suitability to harbour populations of culicoides imicola and, as a consequence, also able to sustain a bluetongue (bt) epidemic. italy was subdivided into 3507 10 x 10 km cells. in 546 cells at least one collection was made. the cell was considered the unit for all subsequent analyses. culicoides were collected using onderstepoort-type blacklight traps. some traps were operated weekly at chosen sites; the remainder we ...200312667192
the distribution of culicoides imicola in italy: application and evaluation of current mediterranean models based on climate.in august 2000 bluetongue (bt) disease appeared amongst sheep on the island of sardinia spreading later to sicily and to mainland italy. the majority of areas affected by bt were surveyed for culicoides imicola, the only proven vector of the disease known to occur in the mediterranean region. the data from 1456 light-trap collections, made in months with a mean temperature of 12.5 degrees c, were used to test the accuracy of current models predicting the prevalence and abundance of c. imicola ac ...200312667191
serum antibodies to dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep from sardinia (italy).an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with dicrocoelium dendriticum excretory/secretory antigens was used to evaluate the presence of serum antibodies against the trematode in 738 sheep randomly chosen in sardinia (italy). coprological sedimentation was used to discover egg-output. seropositivity was detected in 86.2% tested sheep, whereas faecal prevalence was 6.7%; all that were faecal-positive also were elisa-positive.200312547170
cystic echinococcosis in italy from the 1950s to present.in italy the epidemiological pattern of cistic echinococcosis (ce) is incomplete and the information for most regions is out of date, contradictory, and almost exclusively limited to the intermediate hosts. the disease is found most frequently in particular social and economic conditions: widespread use of extensive or semi-extensive sheep farming, illegal slaughtering, and high numbers of sheepdogs and other types of dogs. the highest incidence in sheep is found in sardinia (70.6-92.8%), sicily ...200416044697
cystic echinococcosis in sardinia: the current role of sheep.cystic echinococcosis is one of the most widespread parasitosis in the mediterranean region. unfortunately this is also true for sardinia for various reasons, among which is the close relationship between sheep and dogs in the farms. this work first epidemiologically analyses hydatidosis in sheep in sardinia and then examines the most important causes of the persistence of these metacestodosis in sheep. the work looks at the factors which are responsible for the enormous quantity of illegal slau ...200416044699
[human cystic hydatidosis in italy: a public health emergency? past to present].starting from 1991 the central office of statistics istat, according to changed regulations on notification of infective diseases, stopped reporting official national data on human hydatidosis. on the other hand until then notified data, concerning only about a hundred cases per year in mean during the last decades and just 36 in 1991, appeared unreliable, suggesting a diffusion far from the actual. owing to specific studies on different research groups it is possible to try to describe a not ex ...200415305684
[animal echinococcosis in italy: epidemiological update].cystic echinococcosis (ce) is one of the most widespread parasitoses in the mediterranean region (mr). this is due to various factors, the most important being the close association between man, sheep and dogs in areas where open farming is practised. although this disease has been known for several years and many studies have been carried out, nowadays in italy there are no complete epidemiological data on its diffusion and distribution. the available data show that ce is mainly diffused in tho ...200415305683
occurrence, distribution, and role in abortion of coxiella burnetii in sheep and goats in sardinia, italy.between 1999 and 2002, 9349 sera and 517 aborted samples (422 foetuses and 95 placenta) were analysed from 675 sheep and 82 goat farms distributed all over the island of sardinia. after abortion notification, sera collected at random from adult animals were examined to detect antibodies specific to coxiella burnetii by elisa, whereas foetuses and placenta were analysed by pcr assay. specific igg antibodies were detected in 255 (38%) sheep farms and in 39 (47%) goat herds whereas 40 ovine (10%) a ...200415066733
clinicopathological findings in sheep from sardinia showing neurological signs of disease.histopathological and bacteriological examinations were performed on 178 brains from sardinian sheep which were showing neurological signs. the sheep represented the total number of sheep with neurological syndromes submitted for diagnostic investigations over a three-year period in sardinia. scrapie was detected in 57 cases, cerebrocortical necrosis in 25, intoxication by a typical mediterranean plant (cistus species) was suspected in 25, coenurosis was detected in 11 cases, listeria monocytoge ...200415074327
detection and isolation of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from intestinal mucosal biopsies of patients with and without crohn's disease in sardinia.sardinia is an island community of 1.6 million people. there are also about 3.5 million sheep and one hundred thousand cattle in which johne's disease and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection are endemic. the present study was designed to determine what proportion of people in sardinia attending for ileocolonoscopy with or without crohn's disease were infected with this pathogen.200515984976
role of chlamydophila abortus in ovine and caprine abortion in sardinia, italy.between 1999-2003, 14321 sera and 646 abortion samples (498 foetuses and 148 placentae) were analysed from 807 sheep and goat farms distributed all over the island of sardinia. after notification of abortion in a flock, sera collected at random from adult animals were examined to detect antibodies specific to chlamydophila (c.) abortus by elisa, whereas foetuses and placenta were analysed by pcr assay. specific igg antibodies were detected in 611 (4.8%) sheep and 106 (5.8%) goats. from a total o ...200515943071
analysis of the humoral immune response to oestrus ovis in ovine.antibody responses (igg, igm and iga) against oestrus ovis were analyzed in sheep and in first year grazing lambs from sardinia (italy) by an indirect-enzyme-linked immunoassay test and l2 o. ovis excretory/secretory antigens. serum samples from 208 sheep were obtained prior to be slaughtered, and then heads were removed and cut open along their longitudinal axis to collect the parasites from the nasal cavities, turbinates and sinus. besides this, blood samples were monthly collected from the la ...200516043297
cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep in sardinia (italy).of 771 regularly slaughtered sardinian breed sheep, 580 (75%) were found infected with echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts. seventy-nine sheep (10.3%) had at least 1 fertile cyst. the prevalence of sheep infected with purulent/caseous cysts, calcified cysts and sterile cysts was 13, 59 and 28%, respectively. the age of sheep was positively associated with the probability of infection that increased 1.15 fold for each further year of age. fertile cysts were found in the lungs of 46 sheep (6%) a ...200616226378
molecular characterization of echinococcus granulosus strains in sardinia.investigations were undertaken to determine the genotypes of the parasite echinococcus granulosus that were present in livestock animals on the island of sardinia. liver, lung, and spleen samples were obtained from 770 sheep, 229 cattle, and 277 pigs slaughtered in sardinia between january 2003 and april 2005, and the number and fertility of hydatid cysts were determined. protoscoleces and/or germinal layer were collected from individual cysts, dna was extracted from 91 samples, and polymerase c ...200616323021
differentiation between field and vaccine strain of bluetongue virus serotype 16.in august 2000, bluetongue virus (btv) appeared for the first time in sardinia and, since then, the infection spread across sicily and into the mainland of italy involving at the beginning serotypes 2 and 9 and then, from 2002, 4 and 16. to reduce direct losses due to disease and indirect losses due to new serotype circulation, the 2004 italian vaccination campaign included the modified-live vaccines against btv-4 and 16 produced by onderstepoort biological product (obp), south africa. few month ...200616713688
updates on cystic echinococcosis (ce) in italy.an update on cystic echinococcosis (ce) diffusion in italy during 2003-2005 is reported. ce seems to have a sporadic diffusion in the northern part of the country where this disease plays a minor role (prevalence < 1%). recent investigations have shown the occurrence of ce cases in humans from the mountains between reggio emilia and modena, with an average year incidence between 9.4 and 5.6/100,000. in abruzzo prevalences in sheep and cattle are 20.2% and 15.3%, with a fertility of 4.6% and 1.3% ...200616881397
updates on morphobiology, epidemiology and molecular characterization of coenurosis in sheep.taenia multiceps (leske, 1780) is a taeniid cestode that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. the metacestode, previously known as coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the nervous system including brain and spinal cord in sheep and other ruminants. the presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal from starvation after some weeks. coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms ...200616881398
genetic variation within taenia multiceps in sardinia, western mediterranean (italy).investigations were undertaken on taenia multiceps to determine if genetic variation was present within the parasites of sardinia (italy). forty samples were obtained from various locations of sardinia and deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) was extracted. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was performed on nadh dehydrogenase i (nd1) and cytochrome c subunit 1 (co1) mitochondrial genes and amplicons were then sequenced and aligned with bioedit software. pairwise comparison between the nd1 sequences of the ...200616614827
sero-epidemiological update on sheep toxoplasmosis in sardinia, italy.in order to better understand the epidemiology of ovine toxoplasmosis in sardinia, a serological survey was carried out on 22 flocks with no fertility problems. in total 1043 sera (9% of the 11,382 sheep raised in the flocks) were examined by means of a commercial elisa kit. to verify the performance of elisa test, 160 selected sera were tested again with a gold standard test (ifat). performance of the commercial elisa kit was summarised in terms of sensitivity (se), specificity (sp), positive a ...200718689234
detection of pathogens in ovine and caprine abortion samples from sardinia, italy, by pcr.during 2003-2005, 399 abortion samples (315 fetuses and 84 placentae) were collected from 107 ovine and caprine farms in northern sardinia. tissues from aborted fetuses and placentae were examined by pcr assay to detect dna from coxiella burnetii, chlamydophila abortus, salmonella enterica serovar abortusovis, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum. the dna from at least 1 of these 5 infectious agents was amplified in 41% of ovine fetuses, while only 17% of the caprine fetuses yielded a positiv ...200717459840
vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of sardinian wild boar (sus scrofa meridionalis).authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from november to january. mean ph of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. mean total capacity (tc) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. mean stuff ratio (cw/tc) between the content weight (cw) and stomachs tc was 0.45. food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (allium spp., arbutus unedo, arisarum vulgare, avena f ...200717516948
cystic echinococcosis in equids in italy.between march 2003 and february 2007, the livers and the lungs of 2,231 horses from various italian regions were examined for cystic echinococcosis presence at the time of slaughter. hydatid cysts were found in six horses, namely four from sardinia, one from sicily, and one from tuscany. the location, number, morphology, and fertility of the cysts found were determined. dna was extracted from the germinal layers and protoscoleces of the fertile cysts and polymerase chain reactions (pcr) were per ...200818180956
specific igg antibody responses in oestrus ovis l. (diptera: oestridae) infected sheep: associations with intensity of infection and larval development.larvae of oestrus ovis (diptera: oestridae) are ubiquitous parasites of nasal and sinusal cavities of sheep and goats. according to the chronobiology of o. ovis infections in sardinia and the seasonal pattern of the igg response, the optimal period to investigate the relationships between o. ovis larval populations and intensity of local and systemic igg antibody responses was mid-july in the summer season. sarda x lacaune ewes (n=186), divided into three ram-families were used in the study. sys ...200818584967
cystic echinococcosis in the sheep: causes of its persistence in sardinia.the authors analyse the current epidemiological situation of sheep cystic echinococcosis (ce) in sardinia, where the prevalence of ovine ce is still very high (70%) and this parasitosis is also frequently found in the human population. for this reason sardinia represents a peculiar model for ce study, because there are particular conditions that allow echinococcus granulosus to complete its life cycle. some social and economical factors support the persistence of sheep ce: over 3 million sarda b ...200919588262
small ruminant lentivirus genotype e is widespread in sarda goat.the highly divergent srlv genotype e has recently been characterized in italy as a low pathogenic caprine lentivirus in the roccaverano breed. the availability of a genotype specific diagnostic test based on a comparative assay, using a combination of genotype specific recombinant antigens allows a wide serosurvey in other goat populations. the island of sardinia still has the highest small ruminant population of any italian region and crossbreeding has been limited to goats, mainly with the mal ...201020060658
a retrospective analysis of human cystic echinococcosis in sardinia (italy), an endemic mediterranean region, from 2001 to 2005.to assess the current impact of human ce in sardinia (italy) and to monitor the changes over time, a survey has been carried out for the period 2001-2005 using hospital inpatient discharge reports (hdr) as information source, supplementing data wherever possible with additional information retrieved directly from medical records. the total of 726 admissions with "echinococcosis" as primary diagnosis (annual rate of 8.9 per 100,000 inhabitants) concerned 540 ce cases with an annual mean incidence ...201020601105
larval habitats and seasonal abundance of culicoides biting midges found in association with sheep in northern sardinia, italy.between january 2005 and december 2006, the larval habitats and seasonal abundances of 21 species of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) found in association with livestock on a farm in northern sardinia were studied. culicoides were collected using two light traps (one placed in a sheep shed and the other near water ponds) and reared from mud collected in and along the margins of a small and a large water pond. the mammalophilic culicoides imicola kieffer and culicoides newsteadi austen were ...201020604864
antimicrobial susceptibilities and population structure of staphylococcus epidermidis associated with ovine mastitis.intramammary infections are a serious problem for dairy sheep farms, and staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the main etiological agents of ovine mastitis. in this work, 131 s. epidermidis isolates, collected from 2201 dairy sarda sheep belonging to 14 flocks with high somatic cell count scores, were studied. the flocks were located in diverse geographical areas of sardinia, italy. the aim of study was to assess the susceptibility of isolates to 13 antimicrobial agents, many of which are freque ...201120817422
cystic echinococcosis in sardinia: farmers' knowledge and dog infection in sheep farms.cystic echinococcosis (ce) is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in sardinia, the second largest mediterranean island where almost 3,558,000 milk sheep were raised extensively. the aim of this survey was to evaluate the level of farmers' knowledge on ce transmission, focusing on the role of human to facilitate the persistence of this zoonosis in sardinia after 14 years after the last campaign against ce. the other goal of the survey is to update on presence of echinococcus granulosus ...201121645971
identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nicastrese goat and sardinia sheep mannose-binding lectin.this study was undertaken to detect polymorphisms in the goat and sheep mannose-binding lectin encoding gene (mbl2) and to explore allelic variability of this gene in these two species. the analysis and comparison of the sequences obtained from sheep showed 13 polymorphic sites, six in the promoter and seven in exon 1, four of which were of the missense type. in the goats, 12 polymorphic sites were detected, five intronic, five in the promoter, and one exonic. the exon site was responsible for a ...201121948269
cystic echinococcosis in sheep in sardinia. changing pattern and present status.the epidemiological status of cystic echinococcosis (ce) in sheep in sardinia over the 20 years since the last control attempt at the end of the 1980s has been assessed, comparing the results of two surveys carried out in abattoirs in southern sardinia. in the first, conducted in 1995-1997 (5-7 years after the last control effort), ce prevalence of about 75% was observed in the 1375 sheep sampled, with intensity of 10.0 and mean abundance of 7.5. the most affected organ was the liver, whereas a ...201122178675
first record of gongylonema nepalensis in domestic and wild ruminants in europe.the gullet worm, gongylonema pulchrum, is cosmopolitan in distribution, infecting a variety of mammals including domestic and wild ruminants. gongylonema nepalensis recently collected from the esophageal epithelium of water buffaloes in nepal was separated from g. pulchrum based on its distinctly shorter left spicule relative to body length and unique nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal rna gene (rdna) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox-1). during meat inspections a ...201728969772
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