controlling tick infestations and diseases in sheep by pour-on formulations of synthetic pyrethroids. a field study.the use of synthetic pyrethroids in pour-on formulations reduced tick infestations and the incidence of tick-associated diseases in lambs more than dipping in organophosphate acaricides. though the use of pyrethroids did not prevent the lambs from being infected with tick-borne fever (tbf), the incidence of lambs with lameness (tick pyaemia) or lambs suddenly found dead (pasteurella haemolytica septicaemia), which often are seen in association with tbf, was reduced. the use of pyrethroids for th ...19921295204
economic analysis of vaccination applied to ovine economic model for determining whether vaccination against a disease would be beneficial financially on individual farms is proposed; it is based on four pieces of information: the costs of a disease case including its treatment, the cost of vaccinating each animal including veterinary fees, the expected incidence of the disease, and the efficacy of the vaccine. the model was applied to ovine listeriosis, which is a serious disease problem in norway. vaccination appeared to be beneficial for ...19912031291
prevalence of a salmonella subspecies diarizonae in norwegian sheep herds.we studied the prevalence of salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:k:1,5,(7) (s. iiib 61:k:1,5,(7)) in 133 norwegian sheep herds from throughout the country. we used a nested case-control study to identify major risk factors. two pooled samples (one from lambs and one from adult sheep) were collected from each herd from (10 different) abattoirs. the regional prevalence varied from 0 to 45%, and was more prevalent in adults than in lambs. sixteen of the 133 herds tested positive to ...200211849722
serological investigation of granulocytic ehrlichia infection in sheep in norway.serum samples of 749 sheep from 75 sheep flocks in norway, i.e. 361 lambs (6 to 7 months old) and 388 adults (> 1.5 year), were analysed for antibodies to ehrlichia equi. ten animals from each flock were examined. seropositive animals were found along the coast of southern norway from vestfold to sør-trøndelag (as far north as 63 degrees 38'n). seropositive sheep were not found in southeast, east or northern norway. thirty-two flocks were seropositive, although tick-borne fever had only been dia ...200111887393
brucellosis in the european union and norway at the turn of the twenty-first century.control and eradication programs of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs have been more or less successfully implemented within the member states (ms) of the european union (eu) and norway after word war ii. as a result, the epidemiological situation of animal brucellosis is extremely diverse among different ms or regions within a ms and among the different animal species. some ms, mainly north european countries, and norway are declared "officially bovine brucellosis free" and/or "offic ...200212414139
the agreement in isolation of salmonella enterica iiib 61:k:1,5,(7) from rectal swabs, faecal samples and ileo-caecal lymph nodes from sheep.the agreements between various culturing-method combinations and specimens to detect sheep naturally infected by salmonella enterica iiib 61:k:1,5,(7) were tested. rectal swabs, faecal samples and ileo-caecal lymph nodes were collected from each individual. rectal swabs called "group i" (n = 54) were cultured directly on selective media (selenite cysteine, sc). rectal swabs called "group ii" (n = 47) were pre-incubated in buffered peptone water. the four other combinations of culturing-method an ...200312900156
genetic diversity of small-ruminant lentiviruses: characterization of norwegian isolates of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.small-ruminant lentiviruses (srlvs), including caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev) in goats and maedi-visna virus (mvv) in sheep, are lentiviruses that, despite overall similarities, show considerable genetic variation in regions of the srlv genome. to gain further knowledge about the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among field isolates of srlvs occurring in geographically distinct areas, the full-length genomic sequence of a caev isolate (caev-1ga) and partial env seque ...200616476978
the prevalence of, associations between and conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in escherichia coli isolated from norwegian meat and meat investigate the distribution of, associations between and the transferability of antimicrobial resistance genes in resistant escherichia coli strains isolated from norwegian meat and meat products.200616931539
sapogenin levels in narthecium ossifragum plants and ovis aries lamb faeces during two alveld outbreaks in møre og romsdal, norway, 2001.the proposal that saponins produced by the lily bog asphodel (narthecium ossifragum) may be the direct cause of the hepatogenous photosensitization disease alveld seen in norwegian lambs was investigated by comparing sapogenin levels in two control and two toxic pastures, and in faeces from lambs grazing the four pastures in the halsa and surnadal municipalities, møre og romsdal county, norway. generally similar levels of sapogenins, determined after hydrolysis of parent plant saponins, were fou ...200717279463
genotype by environment interaction for lamb weaning weight in two norwegian sheep breeds.genotype x environment interaction (g x e) effects on live weaning weights of lambs were studied by using the 2 breeds norwegian white sheep (nws; heavy, long-tailed) and spel sheep (spel; lighter, short-tailed) as genetic groups (g). a total of 37,338 nws lambs and 30,075 spel lambs born from 1989 to 1999 on 40 farms that kept both breeds together were included in the analyses. environment was characterized by farm x year (e). in a mixed linear model framework, significance of the random g x e ...200817911228
outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in norway caused by stx2-positive escherichia coli o103:h25 traced to cured mutton sausages.on 20-21 february 2006, six cases of diarrhoea-associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (hus) were reported by paediatricians to the norwegian institute of public health. we initiated an investigation to identify the etiologic agent and determine the source of the outbreak in order to implement control measures.200818387178
individual animal risk factors for clinical mastitis in meat sheep in m:n matched case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for ovine clinical mastitis (cm). data were from a national sheep registry and only ewes that lambed in the spring of 2004 were included. eligible cases (n = 2857) and controls (n = 76,716) from 1056 flocks of meat sheep were matched on flock and conditional logistic regression was used for analysis of the data. cm risk was associated with age of the ewe and whether or not assistance at lambing was needed owing to dystocia; ...200818514940
infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 in norwegian herds with a history of previous outbreaks of malignant catarrhal fever.infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) in healthy cattle, swine, sheep, and goats was investigated on 43 selected norwegian farms; of which, 41 (95%) had experienced outbreaks of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in cattle and/or swine during the preceding 5 years. two of the farms had no history of mcf and were included for control purposes. blood samples from 384 cattle, 40 sows, 75 sheep, and 4 goats were examined for ovhv-2 by polymerase chain reaction assay (pcr) and for antibodies using ...200919286510
impact of two myostatin (mstn) mutations on weight gain and lamb carcass classification in norwegian white sheep (ovis aries).our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (mstn) mutations in norwegian white sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the texel breed.201020113462
experimental infection in lambs with a red deer (cervus elaphus) isolate of anaplasma phagocytophilum.anaplasma phagocytophilum transmitted by ixodes spp. ticks is the causative agent of tick-borne fever (tbf) in domestic ruminants. tbf is widespread along the coast of southern norway and may cause a severe problem for the sheep industry. red deer (cervus elaphus) are important hosts for ticks and have been found to be infected naturally with a. phagocytophilum. however, it is unclear whether red deer could serve as reservoir hosts for a. phagocytophilum infections in sheep. we infected lambs ex ...201020688686
experimental evidence for herbivore limitation of the treeline.the treeline ecotone divides forest from open alpine or arctic vegetation states. treelines are generally perceived to be temperature limited. the role of herbivores in limiting the treeline is more controversial, as experimental evidence from relevant large scales is lacking. here we quantify the impact of different experimentally controlled herbivore densities on the recruitment and survival of birch betula pubescens tortuosa along an altitudinal gradient in the mountains of southern norway. a ...201021141202
prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth.abstract: background: a major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western norway is tick-borne fever (tbf) caused by the bacteria anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick ixodes ricinus. methods: a study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of a. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. the study included 1208 lambs from farms in sunndal ram circle in more and romsdal county in mid-norway, wh ...201121569524
Investigation of an Escherichia coli O145 outbreak in a child day-care centre--extensive sampling and characterization of eae- and stx1-positive E. coli yields epidemiological and socioeconomic insight.On October 29th 2009 the health authorities in the city of Trondheim, Norway were alerted about a case of Shiga toxin-positive E. coli (STEC) O145 in a child with bloody diarrhoea attending a day-care centre. Symptomatic children in this day-care centre were sampled, thereby identifying three more cases. This initiated an outbreak investigation.201121902833
density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. we investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer capreolus capreolus, modulates individual eurasian lynx lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern norway from 1995 to 2011 along ...201324278123
fluoride exposure in cervids inhabiting areas adjacent to aluminum smelters in norway. i. residue levels.mandibular fluorine concentrations were determined in 1,425 red deer (cervus elaphus), 240 moose (alces alces), and 424 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) collected in norway from 1990 to 1993 in seven municipalities in which aluminum smelters are located, in eight neighboring municipalities, and in eight reference areas representing background levels. background fluorine concentration was significantly correlated with age in all three species. roe deer had the highest mean background fluorine level ...19968722253
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