type a and type b botulism in the north: first reported cases due to toxin other than type e in alaskan inuit.botulism outbreaks shown to be due to type a and type b toxin occurred in alaska, a region previously known for only type e botulism. the outbreak due to type a toxin involved three people, two of whom died. the outbreak due to type b toxin involved nine people, none of whom died. both outbreaks were in inuit villages, and native foods were incriminated. the occurrence of these outbreaks strongly suggests that clostridium botulinum, types a and b are indigenous to alaska. the outbreaks underscor ...1977332309
the food and drug administration's role in the canned salmon recalls of 1982.the alaska salmon industry conducted 9 recalls of 7 3/4-oz cans of salmon in 1982 after a 7 3/4-oz can of alaskan salmon was implicated in illness and one death in belgium from clostridium botulinum type e toxin. by the code number on the can, the food and drug administration (fda), seattle district, traced it to a specific salmon packer. subsequently, the fda received a report about a defect in the can. investigation of the salmon packer's plant by the agency revealed that the equipment used at ...19836414026
human botulism caused by clostridium botulinum type e: the birmingham outbreak. 1979575566
whale meat again. 200312901898
outbreak of botulism type e associated with eating a beached whale--western alaska, july 2002.botulism is a neuroparalytic illness caused by toxins produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum, an obligate anaerobe found commonly in the environment. intoxication with toxin type e is associated exclusively with eating animal foods of marine (salt or fresh water) origin. persons who eat raw or fermented marine fish and mammals are at high risk for botulism from type e toxin. on july 17, 2002, the alaska division of public health investigated a cluster of suspected botulism cases among r ...200312608715
observations on the distribution and ecology of clostridium botulinum type e in alaska.environmental samples collected along the coastline and from the interior of alaska were examined for the presence of clostridium botulinum. clostridium botulinum type e was detected in soils from 5 of 12 beaches; in 7 of 115 non-coastal soil samples; in sediments from six of eight locales; in gills of salmon from two fishing areas; and in the feces of 1 of 44 colonic samples from marine mammals. the basic biochemical characteristics of the isolates were determined. tube tests for demonstrating ...19751097074
foodborne botulism in the united states, 1990-2000.foodborne botulism, a potentially lethal neuroparalytic disease, is caused by ingesting preformed clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. we reviewed surveillance data and reports from 1990 to 2000. of 263 cases from 160 foodborne botulism events (episode of one or more related cases) in the united states, 103 (39%) cases and 58 events occurred in alaska. patients' median age was 48 years; 154 (59%) were female; the case-fatality rate was 4%. the median number of cases per event was 1 (range 1-17). to ...200415498163
incidence of clostridium botulinum type e in alaskan salmon.the incidence of clostridium botulinum type e in salmon captured in the coastal waters and rivers of alaska during the 1968 commercial fishing season was determined.19694905610
botulism among alaska natives. the role of changing food preparation and consumption practices.alaska natives have one of the highest rates of food-borne botulism worldwide. all outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of native foods, but in recent years outbreaks have occurred in previously unaffected areas and have involved new food items. five botulism outbreaks occurred between 1975 and 1985 in an area of southwestern alaska without previous confirmed outbreaks and among one ethnic group, the yupik eskimo. of the 5 outbreaks, 3 were associated with fermented beaver tail, a ...19902244373
possible origin of clostridium botulinum contamination of eskimo foods in northwestern alaska.soils from beaches in northwestern alaska have been found to contain clostridium botulinum type e, providing evidence of one environmental source of food contamination.19724552895
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