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infant botulism. identification of clostridium botulinum and its toxins in faeces.clostridium botulinum and its toxin were identified in the faeces of four infants, aged 6 to 13 weeks, who had symptoms consistent with botulism. two cases had type-a toxin and two cases had type-b toxin present in their faeces. no toxin was detectable in sera c. botulinum and toxin could be recovered from faeces more than 8 weeks after admission to hospital. all four cases occurred within a 6-month period. the source of the toxin in these infants may have been in-vivo production from ingested o ...197662164
infant botulism. epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects.clostridium botulinum organisms and toxin were identified in the feces of six infants, aged 5 to 20 weeks, who had illnesses clinically consistent with botulism. five of the infants lived in california and became ill within a six-month period in 1976; one infant became ill in new jersey in 1975. three cases were type a botulism, and three were type b. no source of ingested botulinal toxin could be found in any case. however, one infant with type b botulism had ingested a food containing c botuli ...1977321825
infant botulism in 1931. discovery of a misclassified case. 1979375716
food and environmental aspects of infant botulism in california.in an effort to identify vehicles by which clostridium botulinum spores might have reached the intestine of patients with infant botulism, 555 samples of foods, drugs, and environmental specimens were examined. of the food items, c. botulinum was only found in nine of 90 (10%) honey specimens. five patients had been exposed to honey that contained c. botulinum, and ingestion of honey was found to be a significant risk factor for type b infant botulism (p = 0.005). in addition, c. botulinum was i ...1979399377
comparative studies on clostridium botulinum type a strains associated with infant botulism in japan and in california, usa.twenty strains of clostridium botulinum type a associated with infant botulism cases, six in japan and 14 in california, usa, were compared in their characters. all six japanese strains produced medium-sized progenitor toxin (m toxin; mr 300 k) but no hemagglutinin and showed lower 50% infective doses (id50) in the infant mouse test; whereas most american strains produced large-sized progenitor toxin (l + ll toxins; mr 500 k and 900 k) and hemagglutinin in addition to m toxin and showed higher i ...19902129272
clostridium botulinum type f: isolation from venison jerky.a clostridium botulinum type f was isolated from the venison jerky responsible for the only type f botulism outbreak reported in the united states. the isolate differed from the prototype langeland type f strain in being nonproteolytic.19724561099
epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory aspects of wound botulism. 19734582478
infant botulism in the united states: an epidemiologic study of cases occurring outside of california.data were obtained for the 96 hospitalized cases of infant botulism reported to the centers for disease control between 1976-1980 from all states other than california. forty-one cases were associated with clostridium botulinum type a, 53 with type b, one with type f, and one with a strain of c. botulinum capable of producing both type b and f toxin. cases occurred in 25 states; the disease was more common in the western part of the united states, with the highest attack rates reported for utah ...19836638233
infant botulism: epidemiology and relation to sudden infant death syndrome. 19817030764
seasonal prevalence of clostridium botulinum type c in sediments of a northern california wetland.the prevalence of clostridium botulinum type c (% of positive sediment samples) was determined in 10 marshes at sacramento national wildlife refuge (snwr), located in the central valley of california (usa), where avian botulism epizootics occur regularly. fifty-two percent of 2,200 sediment samples collected over an 18-mo period contained c. botulinum type c (both neurotoxic and aneurotoxic) which was present throughout the year in all 10 marshes. the prevalence of c. botulinum type c was simila ...19938258850
wound botulism associated with black tar heroin among injecting drug users.wound botulism (wb) is a potentially lethal, descending, flaccid, paralysis that results when spores of clostridium botulinum germinate in a wound and elaborate neurotoxin. since 1988, california has experienced a dramatic increase in wb associated with injecting "black tar" heroin (bth), a dark, tarry form of the drug.19989516001
the inhibition of clostridium botulinum type c by other bacteria in wetland sediments.bacteria with inhibitory activity against clostridium botulinum type c were isolated from 32% of sediment samples (n = 1600) collected from 10 marshes in a northern california wetland over a 12 mo period. aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with inhibitory activity were isolated from 12% and 23% of the samples, respectively. bacteria with inhibitory activity were isolated from all 10 study sites and throughout the year. this study demonstrates that bacteria with inhibitory activity against c. botulin ...19989813858
in situ detection of the clostridium botulinum type c1 toxin gene in wetland sediments with a nested pcr assay.a nested pcr was developed for detection of the clostridium botulinum type c1 toxin gene in sediments collected from wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks had or had not occurred. the c1 toxin gene was detected in 16 of 18 sites, demonstrating both the ubiquitous distribution of c. botulinum type c in wetland sediments and the sensitivity of the detection assay.199910388729
desert bighorn sheep mortality due to presumptive type c botulism in california.during a routine telemetry flight of the mojave desert (california, usa) in august 1995, mortality signals were detected from two of 12 radio-collared female desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in the vicinity of old dad peak in san bernardino county (california). a series of field investigations determined that at least 45 bighorn sheep had died near two artificial water catchments (guzzlers), including 13 bighorn sheep which had presumably drowned in a guzzler tank. samples from water conta ...200010682765
outbreak of necrotizing fasciitis due to clostridium sordellii among black-tar heroin users.in california, black tar heroin (bth) use among injection drug users (idus) has resulted in an increased number of cases of wound botulism due to clostridium botulinum, tetanus due to clostridium tetani, and necrotizing soft-tissue infections due to a variety of clostridia. from december 1999 to april 2000, nine idus in ventura county, california, developed necrotizing fasciitis; 4 died. cultures of wound specimens from 6 case patients yielded clostridium sordellii. some of the patients appeared ...200415127359
prevalence of neurotoxic clostridium botulinum type c in the gastrointestinal tracts of tilapia (oreochromis mossambicus) in the salton sea.tilapia (oreochromis mossambicus) have been implicated as the source of type c toxin in avian botulism outbreaks in pelicans (pelecanus erythrorhynchos, pelecanus occidentalis californicus) at the salton sea in southern california (usa). we collected sick, dead, and healthy fish from various sites throughout the sea during the summers of 1999 through 2001 and tested them for the presence of clostridium botulinum type c cells by polymerase chain reaction targeting the c(1) neurotoxin gene. four o ...200415465707
botulism from drinking pruno.foodborne botulism occurred among inmates at 2 prisons in california in 2004 and 2005. in the first outbreak, 4 inmates were hospitalized, 2 of whom required intubation. in the second event, 1 inmate required intubation. pruno, an alcoholic drink made illicitly in prisons, was the novel vehicle for these cases.200919116055
molecular epidemiology of infant botulism in california and elsewhere, 1976-2010.infant botulism (ib), first identified in california in 1976, results from clostridium botulinum spores that germinate, multiply, and produce botulinum neurotoxin (bont) in the immature intestine. from 1976 to 2010 we created an archive of 1090 bont-producing isolates consisting of 1012 ib patient (10 outpatient, 985 hospitalized, 17 sudden death), 25 food, 18 dust/soils, and 35 other strains.201424924163
an outbreak of equine botulism type a associated with feeding grass clippings.in september 2010, an outbreak of type a botulism involved 4 horses in northern california that were fed grass clippings obtained from a nearby park. all 4 animals developed a progressive flaccid paralysis syndrome clinically consistent with exposure to preformed clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (bont). within 48 hr of consuming the grass clippings, all 4 horses showed marked cervical weakness (inability to raise their heads to a normal position) and died or were euthanized within 96 hr. one hor ...201222529134
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