avian botulism and the high prevalence of clostridium botulinum in the norflok account is given of a severe outbreak of type c botulism in waterfowl that occurred on the norfolk broads during the exceptionally warm summer of 1975. forty-five mud samples were collected from 22 well distributed aquatic sites representing a considerable proportion of the total number of broads. all samples except one (ie, 97-8 per cent) were shown to contain clostridium botulinum and 58 per cent contained more than one type of the organism. types b, c and e were demonstrated in 62-2 per ce ...1977320751
clostridium botulinum in soil on the site of the former metropolitan (caledonian) cattle market, london.sixty soil samples were collected from the redeveloped site of the former metropolitan (caledonian) cattle market, islington, london. of these, 15 (25%) contained clostridium botulinum and no less than four types (b, c, d and e) were demonstrated. early british soil surveys suggested that only 4--8% of samples contained cl. botulinum (type a or b). although there can be no absolute proof, it seems likely that the striking prevalence at the market site was the result of faecal contamination by a ...1979385765
clostridium botulinum in the lakes and waterways of london.mud samples collected during 1974 from a large proportion of the lakes and waterways of london were examined for clostridium botulinum. of 69 such sites, 50 (72.5%) contained at least one type of the organism. of the 50 positive sites, 31, 12, 1 and 10 contained, respectively, types b, c, d and e. most of the demonstrations of type b required trypsinization of culture filtrates. an examination of 7 lakes in edinburgh, made for the purpose of comparison, showed that 4 contained type b and one typ ...19751104711
botulism. 19902405056
an outbreak of type-c botulism in broiler chicken. 19734583959
losses from botulism in mallard duck and other water fowl. 19694901480
thirteen cases of botulism in horses fed big bale outbreak of pharyngeal and limb paresis involving four horses and nine ponies in the south east of england is described. nine of the animals died or were destroyed on humane grounds. the clinical features suggested a diagnosis of botulism and mouse innoculation tests confirmed the presence of type b toxin in the serum of one case. all animals were fed big bale silage. it is describe how, in plastic wrapped silage manufacture, conditions of fermentation may be inadequate to prevent the growth ...19846394315
clostridium botulinum type c in the mersey estuary.nineteen of 98 samples of mud or sand taken from the mersey estuary in 1981 contained clostridium botulinum type c, the organism almost always responsible for botulism in water birds. in the dungeon and score bank areas, where many dead and dying birds were found during the period september-december 1979, almost half the samples contained type c. most of the positive samples were essentially muddy rather than sandy. the findings do not prove that botulism contributed to the 1979 mortality but ar ...19826759578
landfill sites, botulism and gulls.botulism due to clostridium botulinum type c causes considerable mortality in gulls in the uk, and refuse disposal sites are suspected as a major source of toxin. c. botulinum types b, c and d were each found in 12 (63.2%) of 19 landfill sites examined. type e was detected in only one (5.2%) and types a, f and g were not found. the prevalence of type c spores was much higher than that demonstrated in the uk environment by earlier surveys. the presence of these spores, together with the rotting o ...19948150012
recent association of cattle botulism with poultry litter. 200415214523
association between key-gaskell syndrome and infection by clostridium botulinum type c/d.there is growing evidence that equine dysautonomia is a toxicoinfection with clostridium botulinum type c. the possibility that feline dysautonomia has the same aetiology was investigated by attempting to detect botulinum type c neurotoxin in the food, faeces and the contents of the ileum of affected cats, and by serology. the toxin was detected directly in four of eight affected cats and after enrichment in seven of them, and in their dried food. no toxin was detected in healthy control cats or ...200415328740
clustering of equine grass sickness cases in the united kingdom: a study considering the effect of position-dependent reporting on the space-time k-function.equine grass sickness (egs) is a largely fatal, pasture-associated dysautonomia. although the aetiology of this disease is unknown, there is increasing evidence that clostridium botulinum type c plays an important role in this condition. the disease is widespread in the united kingdom, with the highest incidence believed to occur in scotland. egs also shows strong seasonal variation (most cases are reported between april and july). data from histologically confirmed cases of egs from england and ...200515816161
report of two unlinked cases of infant botulism in the uk in october 2007.infant botulism is a rare disease in the uk, with the first case being recognized in 1978 and only five subsequent cases being reported before 2007. this study reports two unlinked cases of infant botulism, caused by two distinct strains of clostridium botulinum (toxin types a and b, respectively), that occurred within a single month in the south-east of england in october 2007. the use of real-time pcr to detect c. botulinum neurotoxin genes in clinical specimens to improve the diagnostic proce ...200919661202
a nationwide surveillance scheme for equine grass sickness in great britain: results for the period 2000-2009.reasons for performing study: equine grass sickness (egs) remains a frequently fatal disease of equids in great britain (gb). the first nationwide surveillance scheme for egs was developed to obtain information on the occurrence of egs and to help facilitate future proposed intervention studies, such as vaccine trials. objectives: to collect both retrospective and prospective data on cases of egs occurring in gb since 2000 and to assess potential risk factors for categories of egs and survival a ...201121649713
emergence of suspected type d botulism in ruminants in england and wales (2001 to 2009), associated with exposure to broiler litter.scanning surveillance by the veterinary laboratories agency revealed the emergence of suspected botulism in ruminants in 2003, presented as flaccid paralysis. from 2003 to 2009, 168 cattle and 19 sheep incidents were recorded, with mortality between 5 and 80 per cent. all sheep incidents and 95 per cent of cattle incidents had proximity to broiler litter. from july 2006, the gut contents collected from 74 affected cattle and 10 affected sheep were tested for clostridium botulinum toxins using mi ...201121652657
wound botulism in injectors of drugs: upsurge in cases in england during 2004.wound infections due to clostridium botulinum were not recognised in the uk and republic of ireland before 2000. c. botulinum produces a potent neurotoxin which can cause paralysis and death. in 2000 and 2001, ten cases were clinically recognised, with a further 23 in 2002, 15 in 2003 and 40 cases in 2004. all cases occurred in heroin injectors. seventy cases occurred in england; the remainder occurred in scotland (12 cases), wales (2 cases) and the republic of ireland (4 cases). overall, 40 (45 ...200516280612
clostridium botulinum in british soil.soil samples from various parts of britain were examined for clostridium botulinum by a sensitive technique comparable with that recently used for mud samples from british aquatic environments. the results showed beyond doubt that in britain the prevalence of the organism in soil is much lower than in mud. of 174 samples from all sites examined only 10 (5 . 7%) could be shown to contain cl. botulinum; this finding was consistent with the results of surveys made by less sensitive techniques in 19 ...19807005328
human botulism caused by clostridium botulinum type e: the birmingham outbreak. 1979575566
clostridium botulinum in aquatic environments in great britain and ireland.mud samples from aquatic environments in many parts of great britain and ireland were collected, mainly in 1975 and 1976, and examined for clostridium botulinum. the samples were taken from lakes, ponds, reservoirs, marshes, mudflats, streams, rivers and canals, and the sampling areas included a number of bird refuges and reserves. of 554 samples 194 (35.0%) were positive and 167 (30.1%), 19 (3.4%), 6 (1.1%) and 15 (2.7%) contained types b, c, d and e respectively; 13 (2.3%) contained more than ...1978349077
a comparison of the distribution of clostridium botulinum in soil and in lake 1975, 25 soil samples were collected from the london area. of these, 20 were obtained 200-300 yards from 20 lakes that had been shown in 1974 to contain mud contaminated with one or more of types of b, c, d, and e of clostridium botulinum. by means of a technique comparable with that use for the examination of mud, the 20 soil samples were found negative. the remaining 5 soil samples, obtained from sites that were not in close proximity to lakes, were also negative except for one that contain ...1977319167
Investigation of serology for diagnosis of outbreaks of botulism in cattle.Serology has been used to diagnose retrospectively types C and D outbreaks of botulism in cattle in Australia and this study has investigated whether the approach would be applicable in England and Wales. Three hundred sera from routine surveillance submissions in England and Wales were used as a negative control population. Some stored sera were available from a small number of clinical cases of botulism and 125 samples were collected from cohort groups of clinical cases in four new outbreaks o ...201121955441
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