clostridium botulinum in aquatic environments in great britain and ireland.mud samples from aquatic environments in many parts of great britain and ireland were collected, mainly in 1975 and 1976, and examined for clostridium botulinum. the samples were taken from lakes, ponds, reservoirs, marshes, mudflats, streams, rivers and canals, and the sampling areas included a number of bird refuges and reserves. of 554 samples 194 (35.0%) were positive and 167 (30.1%), 19 (3.4%), 6 (1.1%) and 15 (2.7%) contained types b, c, d and e respectively; 13 (2.3%) contained more than ...1978349077
clostridium botulinum in scottish fish farms and farmed trout.rainbow trout and specimens of pond mud were collected from three fish farms and examined for the presence of clostridium botulinum. two of the farms were constructed with concrete channels and one was mud-bottomed. cl. botulinum was isolated only from the mud-bottomed farm (24% of muds), and the isolates were all non-proteolytic type b. the implications of the presence of cl. botulinum spores in the mud of fish farms is discussed.19751089706
clostridium botulinum in the lakes and waterways of london.mud samples collected during 1974 from a large proportion of the lakes and waterways of london were examined for clostridium botulinum. of 69 such sites, 50 (72.5%) contained at least one type of the organism. of the 50 positive sites, 31, 12, 1 and 10 contained, respectively, types b, c, d and e. most of the demonstrations of type b required trypsinization of culture filtrates. an examination of 7 lakes in edinburgh, made for the purpose of comparison, showed that 4 contained type b and one typ ...19751104711
home preservation of food. 19684877883
landfill sites, botulism and gulls.botulism due to clostridium botulinum type c causes considerable mortality in gulls in the uk, and refuse disposal sites are suspected as a major source of toxin. c. botulinum types b, c and d were each found in 12 (63.2%) of 19 landfill sites examined. type e was detected in only one (5.2%) and types a, f and g were not found. the prevalence of type c spores was much higher than that demonstrated in the uk environment by earlier surveys. the presence of these spores, together with the rotting o ...19948150012
clustering of equine grass sickness cases in the united kingdom: a study considering the effect of position-dependent reporting on the space-time k-function.equine grass sickness (egs) is a largely fatal, pasture-associated dysautonomia. although the aetiology of this disease is unknown, there is increasing evidence that clostridium botulinum type c plays an important role in this condition. the disease is widespread in the united kingdom, with the highest incidence believed to occur in scotland. egs also shows strong seasonal variation (most cases are reported between april and july). data from histologically confirmed cases of egs from england and ...200515816161
wound botulism in injectors of drugs: upsurge in cases in england during 2004.wound infections due to clostridium botulinum were not recognised in the uk and republic of ireland before 2000. c. botulinum produces a potent neurotoxin which can cause paralysis and death. in 2000 and 2001, ten cases were clinically recognised, with a further 23 in 2002, 15 in 2003 and 40 cases in 2004. all cases occurred in heroin injectors. seventy cases occurred in england; the remainder occurred in scotland (12 cases), wales (2 cases) and the republic of ireland (4 cases). overall, 40 (45 ...200516280612
a nationwide surveillance scheme for equine grass sickness in great britain: results for the period 2000-2009.reasons for performing study: equine grass sickness (egs) remains a frequently fatal disease of equids in great britain (gb). the first nationwide surveillance scheme for egs was developed to obtain information on the occurrence of egs and to help facilitate future proposed intervention studies, such as vaccine trials. objectives: to collect both retrospective and prospective data on cases of egs occurring in gb since 2000 and to assess potential risk factors for categories of egs and survival a ...201121649713
an outbreak of food-borne botulism in scotland, united kingdom, november investigation is currently underway to explain an outbreak of food-borne botulism in scotland. three children in the same family were confirmed as having botulism following consumption of a meal made with a jar of korma sauce. residual sauce from the jar, the jar lid and a remnant of the meal, all tested positive for clostridium botulinum type a toxin. the children are recovering, although two remain ventilated and in intensive care unit.201122172331
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