Investigation of serology for diagnosis of outbreaks of botulism in cattle.Serology has been used to diagnose retrospectively types C and D outbreaks of botulism in cattle in Australia and this study has investigated whether the approach would be applicable in England and Wales. Three hundred sera from routine surveillance submissions in England and Wales were used as a negative control population. Some stored sera were available from a small number of clinical cases of botulism and 125 samples were collected from cohort groups of clinical cases in four new outbreaks o ...201121955441
a nationwide surveillance scheme for equine grass sickness in great britain: results for the period 2000-2009.reasons for performing study: equine grass sickness (egs) remains a frequently fatal disease of equids in great britain (gb). the first nationwide surveillance scheme for egs was developed to obtain information on the occurrence of egs and to help facilitate future proposed intervention studies, such as vaccine trials. objectives: to collect both retrospective and prospective data on cases of egs occurring in gb since 2000 and to assess potential risk factors for categories of egs and survival a ...201121649713
emergence of suspected type d botulism in ruminants in england and wales (2001 to 2009), associated with exposure to broiler litter.scanning surveillance by the veterinary laboratories agency revealed the emergence of suspected botulism in ruminants in 2003, presented as flaccid paralysis. from 2003 to 2009, 168 cattle and 19 sheep incidents were recorded, with mortality between 5 and 80 per cent. all sheep incidents and 95 per cent of cattle incidents had proximity to broiler litter. from july 2006, the gut contents collected from 74 affected cattle and 10 affected sheep were tested for clostridium botulinum toxins using mi ...201121652657
wound botulism in injectors of drugs: upsurge in cases in england during 2004.wound infections due to clostridium botulinum were not recognised in the uk and republic of ireland before 2000. c. botulinum produces a potent neurotoxin which can cause paralysis and death. in 2000 and 2001, ten cases were clinically recognised, with a further 23 in 2002, 15 in 2003 and 40 cases in 2004. all cases occurred in heroin injectors. seventy cases occurred in england; the remainder occurred in scotland (12 cases), wales (2 cases) and the republic of ireland (4 cases). overall, 40 (45 ...200516280612
clustering of equine grass sickness cases in the united kingdom: a study considering the effect of position-dependent reporting on the space-time k-function.equine grass sickness (egs) is a largely fatal, pasture-associated dysautonomia. although the aetiology of this disease is unknown, there is increasing evidence that clostridium botulinum type c plays an important role in this condition. the disease is widespread in the united kingdom, with the highest incidence believed to occur in scotland. egs also shows strong seasonal variation (most cases are reported between april and july). data from histologically confirmed cases of egs from england and ...200515816161
recent association of cattle botulism with poultry litter. 200415214523
clostridium botulinum in aquatic environments in great britain and ireland.mud samples from aquatic environments in many parts of great britain and ireland were collected, mainly in 1975 and 1976, and examined for clostridium botulinum. the samples were taken from lakes, ponds, reservoirs, marshes, mudflats, streams, rivers and canals, and the sampling areas included a number of bird refuges and reserves. of 554 samples 194 (35.0%) were positive and 167 (30.1%), 19 (3.4%), 6 (1.1%) and 15 (2.7%) contained types b, c, d and e respectively; 13 (2.3%) contained more than ...1978349077
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