characterization of toxigenic vibrios isolated from the freshwater environment of hiroshima, japan.the occurrence and characterization of toxigenic vibrios in surface water and sediment samples of the fresh water environment of the ohta river were studied. the membrane filter, pad preenrichment technique, followed by the placement of membranes onto thiosulfate citrate-bile salt-sucrose agar, was used for the enumeration of total vibrios. qualitative examination of pathogenic vibrios was also attempted. in addition, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of clostridium botulinum in ...19892690736
botulism among penned pheasants and protection by vaccination with c1 toxoid.fifty to 100 per cent of about 8000 penned pheasants raised on a farm in hiroshima prefecture died annually for three years. deaths were ascribed to type c botulism. vaccination of four groups of pheasants with partially purified c1 toxoid effectively protected them against type c botulism. the protective efficacy of the toxoid was emphasised by the relatively high susceptibility of the pheasant to c1 toxin.19853883454
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