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delayed excess mortality after exposure to measles during the first six months of life.in an urban area of guinea-bissau, 71 children exposed to measles before age 6 months had a mortality risk of 34% (95% confidence interval (cl) 24-47) between 6 and 60 months of age. the mortality risk for the 205 other children of the same birth cohort who had not been exposed to or developed measles was 11% (95% cl 9-15), a significant difference compared with exposed children. with a version of the cox regression model, maternal education was found to be the only background factor with a sign ...19902372002
augmented antibody response to live attenuated measles vaccine in children with plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia.the impact of malarial infection on the humoral immunological response to measles virus antigen was studied in 184 children aged 8-19 months in guinea-bissau. pre- and post-immunization measles serology was performed using dried blood on absorbent paper and the elisa technique. blood smears obtained at the time of vaccination and 2 and 4 weeks afterwards were examined for malaria parasites. pre-vaccination antibodies to measles were found in 44 out of 184 children (24%). plasmodium falciparum wa ...19862425725
increased perinatal mortality among children of mothers exposed to measles during pregnancy.a survey done after a severe epidemic of measles in an urban area of guinea-bissau has shown that children born to women exposed to measles during pregnancy had a perinatal mortality rate of 15%, compared with only 4% for other children in the community (or = 4.2; 95% ci 2.1-8.5). none of the women had clinical evidence of measles. adjusting for background variables, logistic regression analysis showed no tendency towards reduced risk of perinatal mortality among children of women exposed during ...19882893927
vaccinated children get milder measles infection: a community study from guinea-bissau.we studied the occurrence of measles in vaccinated children from an urban area of guinea-bissau where measles causes high mortality. vaccinated children who developed measles required more-intense exposure to become infected (they had a higher ratio of secondary cases [infected in the house] to index cases [infected outside the house]), had a lower mortality among secondary cases, and were less infectious (they generated fewer secondary cases than did unvaccinated children with measles). the att ...19863772165
trials of edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine in guinea-bissau: serological responses following vaccination with edmonston-zagreb strain at 4-8 months versus vaccination with schwarz strain at 9-12 months of age.in two trials of measles vaccination in guinea-bissau, children were randomized to receive either the edmonston-zagreb (ez) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the schwarz (sw) virus at 9-12 months. in the first trial a medium dose of ez virus (40,000 p.f.u.) was used and in the later trial a high dose (150,000 p.f.u.). pre- and postvaccination blood samples were analysed with a haemagglutination inhibition (hai) test and an enzyme-linked immunosorben ...19947975843
child mortality following standard, medium or high titre measles immunization in west africa.the world health organization (who) recommended the use of high titre measles vaccine in 1989. subsequent long term follow-up of several trials yielded results suggesting higher mortality among children inoculated with medium and high titre vaccines compared to standard titre vaccines, although none of the individual trials found significant differences in mortality.19968671571
measles antibody responses after early two dose trials in guinea-bissau with edmonston-zagreb and schwarz standard-titre measles vaccine: better antibody increase from booster dose of the edmonston-zagreb vaccine.in guinea-bissau, children were randomised at 6 months of age to receive either two doses of standard-titre measles vaccine at 6 and 9 months of age or an inactivated polio vaccine at 6 months and standard-titre measles vaccine at 9 months of age. during the first 5 months, children received edmonston-zagreb (ez) vaccine and during the following 11 months, the schwarz (sw) vaccine. five percent of the mothers, 74% of children at 6 months of age, and 92% of unvaccinated children at 9 months of ag ...200111228365
randomised trial of effect of vitamin a supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in guinea-bissau, west africa.who has recommended vitamin a supplementation for children aged 6 months or older in developing countries at the same time as immunisation. one study has reported significantly lower seroconversion ratios among children who have received vitamin a supplements with measles vaccine at age 6 months. the aim of our study was to assess the effect of vitamin a supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccination at age 9 months, which is the more common age for immunisation in developing countr ...19979228962
high measles mortality in infancy related to intensity of exposure.in a west african urban community, measles infection in infants was examined over 5 years (1979-1983). in the age group 0 to 11 months, measles mortality was higher among secondary cases (infected in the house) than among index cases (infected outside the house), and the proportion of secondary cases was significantly higher for this age group than for older children. intensive exposure related to the social pattern of disease transmission may be important in explaining the high infant mortality ...19863723239
measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban african areas with high vaccination coverage.measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (bandim 1) and 61% (bandim 2). there was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.6%, respectively). between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in bandim 1 and 13.7% in bandim 2. even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in bandi ...19902230232
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