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west nile virus activity--united states, september 19-25, 2002, and michigan, january 1-september 24, 2002.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7 a.m. mountain daylight time, september 25, 2002.200212363339
possible west nile virus transmission to an infant through breast-feeding--michigan, 2002.cdc and the michigan department of community health (mdch) continue to investigate west nile virus (wnv) infection in a woman, who received a blood product later found with evidence of wnv, and in her child, who was exposed to breast milk later found to be wnv positive by taqman. this report updates the findings of this investigation.200212375687
update: investigations of west nile virus infections in recipients of organ transplantation and blood transfusion--michigan, 2002.on september 27, 2002, this report was posted on the mmwr website (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr). cdc, the food and drug administration (fda), the health resources and services administration (hrsa), and state and local health departments continue to investigate west nile virus (wnv) infections in recipients of organ transplantation and blood transfusion. this report summarizes two investigations of michigan recipients of blood products, one of whom also received a liver transplant. both persons test ...200212375688
from the centers for disease control and prevention. possible west nile virus transmission to an infant through breast-feeding--michigan, 2002. 200212400536
surveillance for acute insecticide-related illness associated with mosquito-control efforts--nine states, 1999-2002.ground and aerial applications of insecticides are used to control populations of adult mosquitoes, which spread such diseases as west nile virus--related illness, eastern equine encephalitis, and dengue fever. this report summarizes investigations of illnesses associated with exposures to insecticides used during 1999-2002 to control mosquito populations in nine states (arizona, california, florida, louisiana, michigan, new york, oregon, texas, and washington) (estimated 2000 population: 118 mi ...200312855943
culex restuans (diptera: culicidae) oviposition behavior determined by larval habitat quality and quantity in southeastern michigan.oviposition is a critical stage in the mosquito lifecycle, and may determine population levels, distribution, biting behavior, and pathogen transmission. knowledge of the oviposition behavior of culex restuans theobald has become particularly important with the emergence of west nile virus (wnv) in north america. laboratory and field studies have examined some factors that contribute to oviposition choice in culex spp., but few studies have investigated responses to cues of future competition an ...200415061276
survey of peafowl (pavo cristatus) for potential pathogens at three michigan zoos.blood samples collected from 31 free-roaming peafowl from three zoos in michigan were tested serologically. antibody titers were present against avian adenovirus and bordetella avium in 19.3% and 61.3% of the samples, respectively. serum plate agglutination tests were positive for mycoplasma meleagridis and mycoplasma synoviae in 3.2% and 38.7% of the samples, respectively. all birds were seronegative for avian influenza, newcastle disease virus, west nile virus, mycoplasma gallisepticum, salmon ...200315077714
west nile virus activity--united states, june 23-29, 2004.as of june 29, eight states had reported a total of 57 human cases of west nile virus (wnv) illness to cdc through arbonet in 2004. a total of 38 cases had been reported from arizona, 10 from california, three from new mexico, two from florida, and one each from michigan, nebraska, south dakota, and wyoming. thirty-six (64%) of the cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 53 years (range: 9-84 years), and dates of illness onset ranged from april 23 to june 15. of the 57 cases, one ...200415229416
nutrient-dependent reduced growth and survival of larval culex restuans (diptera: culicidae): laboratory and field experiments in michigan.culex restuans theobold, a putative vector of west nile virus among birds in northern north america, also may serve as a bridge vector to mammals. despite its potential public health importance, little is known about what regulates populations of this species. mosquitoes generally are subject to both density-dependent reductions in survival and growth and to density-independent limitations on their population abundances. the mechanisms by which density dependence may occur in this species were e ...200415311456
west nile virus activity--united states, september 15-21, 2004.during september 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 21 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, south dakota, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415385920
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
west nile virus activity--united states, october 6-12, 2004.during october 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (arizona, florida, illinois, kansas, louisiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nevada, new jersey, new mexico, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, tennessee, texas, and utah).200415483530
west nile virus activity--united states, october 13-19, 2004.during october 13-19, a total of 200 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 20 states (arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, illinois, indiana, iowa, kansas, maryland, michigan, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415499683
west nile virus activity--united states, october 20-26, 2004.during october 20-26, a total of 80 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 16 states (arizona, california, florida, iowa, kentucky, louisiana, michigan, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, new york, ohio, south dakota, texas, and utah).200415514584
west nile virus activity--united states, october 27-november 2, 2004.during october 27-november 2, a total of 10 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, iowa, michigan, new mexico, ohio, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415525902
west nile virus activity--united states, november 9-16, 2004.during november 9-16, a total of 31 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, maryland, michigan, missouri, new york, pennsylvania, and texas).200415549023
association of west nile virus illness and urban landscapes in chicago and detroit.west nile virus infection in humans in urban areas of the midwestern united states has exhibited strong spatial clustering during epidemic years. we derived urban landscape classes from the physical and socio-economic factors hypothesized to be associated with west nile virus (wnv) transmission and compared those to human cases of illness in 2002 in chicago and detroit. the objectives were to improve understanding of human exposure to virus-infected mosquitoes in the urban context, and to assess ...200717352825
an outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis virus in free-ranging white-tailed deer in michigan.eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus has been recognized as affecting horses and humans in the eastern united states for 70 yr. evidence of exposure with eee virus has been reported in a variety of free-ranging wild birds and mammals but cases of clinical disease are much less commonly reported. in michigan, reports of outbreaks of eee virus in equine species extend back more than a half century. we report diagnosis of eee virus infection of multiple free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus ...200717984258
temporal and spatial patterns of west nile virus transmission in saginaw county, michigan, 2003-2006.the dynamics of west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) infection in mosquitoes, sentinel pheasants, and wild dead birds were evaluated during 2003-2006 in saginaw co., mi. mosquitoes were collected by new jersey light traps at 22 sites during may-september, pooled by species and sample location, and tested for presence of wnv rna by using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. oral swabs from wild dead birds submitted by the public were tested by ...201121936324
the effect of exogenous corticosterone on west nile virus infection in northern cardinals (cardinalis cardinalis).the relationship between stress and disease is thought to be unambiguous: chronic stress induces immunosuppression, which likely increases the risk of infection. however, this link has not been firmly established in wild animals, particularly whether stress hormones affect host responses to zoonotic pathogens, which can be transmitted to domesticated animal, wildlife and human populations. due to the dynamic effects of stress hormones on immune functions, stress hormones may make hosts better or ...201222520572
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