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[human intestinal parasites in subsaharan africa. iii. pemba island (zanzibar-tanzania)].the authors carried out a coprological survey in pemba island, analysing, by modified ritchie technique, 413 stools samples. the specimens were collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random in a number equal to 2% of the whole population. the examined subjects were divided in 3 age groups, 211 were males, 202 females. the following results were obtained (in order of prevalence): a) protozoa: entamoeba coli 35.6%, giardia intestinalis 5.6%, endolimax nana 4.3%, ...19873508507
a longitudinal study of endemic urinary schistosomiasis in a small east african community.urological abnormalities caused by schistosoma haematobium are apparently common in east, west and central africa. a community of 1074 persons living in an area of endemic urinary schistosomiasis in rural zanzibar, tanzania, was studied for 2 years to determine the importance of these abnormalities and how they affected patients' health.of the total community, 1004 persons (93.5%) were examined and the over-all prevalence of infection with s. haematobium was 65.1% and infection rates of the orde ...19695307237
molecular characterization of bulinus globosus and b. nasutus on zanzibar, and an investigation of their roles in the epidemiology of schistosoma haematobium.the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its) regions of both bulinus globosus and b. nasutus from zanzibar were amplified and restricted with 6 enzymes. restriction products were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by ethidium bromide staining. considerable genetic variation was observed at 3 levels: (i) between species, (ii) among populations and (iii) among individuals. in addition, the 18s ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid gene was amplified from both species and t ...19979231216
new insights into the transmission biology of urinary schistosomiasis in zanzibar.a better understanding of the transmission biology of urinary schistosomiasis in zanzibar, tanzania was only possible after the development of molecular dna markers for identification of bulinus africanus group snails, the potential intermediate hosts of schistosoma haematobium. hitherto, identification of natural populations of b. globosus and b. nasutus was problematic and the intermediate host status and distribution of either species remained speculative. by recourse to molecular markers, sn ...200212474469
urinary schistosomiasis in schoolchildren on zanzibar island (unguja), tanzania: a parasitological survey supplemented with questionnaires.the distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in schoolchildren on zanzibar island (unguja) was surveyed in may 2001 to test a potential correlation with the distribution of snail species of the bulinus africanus group and to record contemporary baseline epidemiological data. quasi-random samples of 40 schoolchildren of mixed sexes were selected from each of 10 schools. schistosoma haematobium infections were detected upon the basis of micro-haematuria with subsequent confirmation by microscopy ex ...200212474477
urinary schistosomiasis on zanzibar: application of two novel assays for the detection of excreted albumin and haemoglobin in urine.as part of a urinary schistosomiasis control programme on zanzibar, an aged cross-sectional survey of 305 children from three schools on unguja was conducted to investigate the relationships between levels of excreted albumin and haemoglobin in urine and schistosoma haematobium infection status. diagnosis was determined by standard parasitological methods, dipstick reagents for microhaematuria, visual inspection for macrohaematuria as well as collection of case-history questionnaire data for sel ...200516153313
use of circulating cathodic antigen (cca) dipsticks for detection of intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis.an evaluation of a commercially available antigen capture dipstick that detects schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (cca) in urine was conducted in representative endemic areas for intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis in uganda and zanzibar, respectively. under field-based conditions, the sensitivity (ss) and specificity (sp) of the dipstick was 83 and 81% for detection of schistosoma mansoni infections while positive predictive (ppv) and negative predictive values (npv) were 84%. light e ...200616386231
an evaluation of urine-cca strip test and fingerprick blood sea-elisa for detection of urinary schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in zanzibar.to develop better monitoring protocols for detection of urinary schistosomiasis during ongoing control interventions, two commercially available diagnostic tests - the urine-circulating cathodic antigen (cca) strip and the soluble egg antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sea-elisa) - were evaluated for detection of schistosoma haematobium infections in 150 schoolchildren from zanzibar. the children originated from five primary schools representative of different levels of disease endemicit ...200919426665
patterns and risk factors of helminthiasis and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community in zanzibar, in the context of helminth control programs.the control of helminth infections and prevention of anemia in developing countries are of considerable public health importance. the purpose of this study was to determine patterns and risk factors of helminth infections and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community of zanzibar, tanzania, in the context of national helminth control programs.201020485491
evaluation of indirect screening techniques for the detection of schistosoma haematobium infection in an urban area, dar es salaam, tanzania.393 primary school children were screened for schistosoma haematobium using four indirect techniques (a) history of haematuria, (b) visual appearance of urine and use of chemical reagent strips to detect presence of (c) blood and (d) protein in urine. results showed that the use of chemical reagent strips for the detection of blood was the most specific and sensitive method, even in areas of lower prevalence and intensity. history of haematuria, protein in urine and visual appearance were respec ...19852865880
micro-epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis in zanzibar: local risk factors associated with distribution of infections among schoolchildren and relevance for control.although it is well recognised that both behavioural and environmental factors play a role in determining small-scale heterogeneities in schistosomiasis transmission, empirical evidence of their relative importance is often limited. a study was conducted around chaani, a village in northern unguja (zanzibar) where urinary schistosomiasis is endemic, in order to shed light upon the micro-epidemiology of schistosoma haematobium and patterns of infection within schoolchildren and the intermediate h ...200817996207
host choice and penetration by schistosoma haematobium miracidia.schistosome parasites commonly show specificity to their intermediate mollusc hosts and the degree of specificity can vary between parasite strains and geographical location. here the role of miracidial behaviour in host specificity of schistosoma haematobium on the islands of zanzibar is investigated. in choice-chamber experiments, s. haematobium miracidia moved towards bulinus globosus snail hosts in preference to empty chambers. in addition, miracidia preferred uninfected over patent b. globo ...200918922204
control of morbidity due to schistosoma haematobium on pemba island: egg excretion and hematuria as indicators of infection.the variability of schistosoma haematobium egg excretion using a quantitative syringe filtration technique and the variability of hematuria detected visually and by reagent strips were studied in a population of 520 subjects from the village of pujini (pemba island, zanzibar, tanzania) for 6 consecutive days. a high degree of day-to-day variability of egg excretion within subjects was found both in the whole population and in the 5-19 year age group. subjects with 1 urinary egg count of greater ...19902121056
urban transmission of urinary schistosomiasis in dar es salaam, tanzania.a cross sectional survey for schistosoma haematobium infections was undertaken in 12 primary schools in the city of dar es salaam. the prevalence in the schools ranged from 5.3 to 55.1%, with an overall prevalence of 19.3%. more males (23.5%) than females (15.0%) were infected, and the highest prevalence was recorded in the 11-16 year age group. intensity of infection was high, ranging from 12 to 96 eggs/10 ml urine in individual schools. 26% of the infected excreted more than 50 eggs/10 ml urin ...19852859753
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