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quantification of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent based on analysis of rrna isolated from control and infected hl-60 cells.human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) is an emerging vector-borne disease caused by an ehrlichia species similar or identical to e. equi and e. phagocytophila. previous studies have shown that the pathogen can be cultivated in vitro in permissive cells such as human promyelocytic hl-60 leukemia cells. the mechanism(s) of its infection and propagation in target cells, however, is not well understood, due in part to lack of a method capable of quantitatively determining the amount of the infectiou ...199910448059
detection of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and borrelia burgdorferi in ticks by polymerase chain reaction.adult ixodid ticks were collected from westchester county, new york, and ipswich, massachusetts, to determine the presence of infection with a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the presence of borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected from new york was also determined by pcr. of the 229 ticks from new york and 47 ticks from massachusetts, 9% (22/229) and 25% (12/47) of ticks contained hge agent, respectively. fifty-four percent (123/229) of t ...19989526861
serological responses to ehrlichia equi, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and borrelia burgdorferi in patients from new york state.serological testing at the new york state department of health for human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the residents of westchester county, n.y., was performed with specimens from 176 patients by the indirect fluorescent-antibody (ifa) technique with ehrlichia equi mrk-infected neutrophils. to understand whether human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis also occurs in this northeastern geographic region, specimens were also tested for antibodies to ehrlichia chaffeensis arkansas. screening tests and immu ...19979276387
avian reservoirs of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis? 200212498679
changes in expression of the 44-kilodalton outer surface membrane antigen (p44 kd) for monitoring progression of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent in hl-60 cells.changes in human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge)-specific major outer membrane protein (p44 kd) were assayed by western blot analysis in hl-60 cells in vitro infected by the hge agent. time course study demonstrated that the expression of p44 preceded the rise in cell infection as determined by the presence of intracellular morulae. to test whether the expression of p44 may be suitable for evaluating the effects of antibiotics in vitro, three recent isolates of the hge agent were exposed to doxy ...199910198216
human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in new york.human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), a potentially fatal tick-borne disease, was first described in the upper midwest in 1994. following reports of suspected cases of ehrlichiosis from new york physicians, descriptive and case-control studies were conducted to characterize the epidemiology and risk factors for hge in new york residents.19989554683
serologic testing for human granulocytic ehrlichiosis at a national referral center.an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) was used to identify patients with antibodies reactive to the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent. serum samples collected from clinically ill individuals were submitted to the centers for disease control and prevention by physicians via state health departments from throughout the united states and tested against a panel of ehrlichial and rickettsial pathogens. antibodies reactive to the hge agent were detected in 142 (8.9%) of 1,602 individual ...19999986812
assessment of polymicrobial infections in ticks in new york state.ixodes scapularis ticks are clinically important hematophagous vectors. a single tick bite can lead to a polymicrobial infection. we determined the prevalence of polymicrobial infection with borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia microti, borrelia miyamotoi, and powassan virus in 286 adult ticks from the two counties in new york state where lyme disease is endemic, utilizing a masstag multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. seventy-one percent of the ticks harbored at least ...201019725770
the prevalence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in ixodes scapularis collected in the hudson valley, new york state.ixodes scapularis, the blacklegged tick, is capable of transmitting the pathogens that cause lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi), babesiosis (babesia microti), anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum), and to a lesser extent powassan encephalitis (deer tick virus [dtv]). these pathogens represent significant public health problems, but little is known about the occurrence and co-infection prevalence of these pathogens in i. scapularis. here, we used standard pcr and pathogen-specific primers to ...201424689680
human granulocytic anaplasmosis during pregnancy: case series and literature review.we describe the clinical and laboratory manifestations and pregnancy outcomes of 6 women who received a diagnosis of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis during pregnancy. human granulocytic ehrlichiosis did not seem to present in a fulminant fashion, and all treated patients had excellent responses to rifampin or doxycycline therapy. perinatal transmission was documented in 1 neonate, who responded well to treatment. there do not appear to be any long-term adverse sequelae in children born from thes ...200717682993
human granulocytic ehrlichiosis: a case series from a medical center in new york state.human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) is a newly described illness with few reports in the literature.19968967671
effects of anaplasma phagocytophilum infection on the molting success of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) larvae.we assessed the effects of sympatric (occupying the same or overlapping geographic areas) and allopatric (occurring in separate geographic areas) isolates of anaplasma phagocytophilum on the survival of ixodes scapularis say larvae that were derived from ticks collected in bridgeport, ct. seven isolates of a. phagocytophilum, originating from different geographic regions of the united states, were tested: four isolates from the northeast (bridgeport, dawson, gaillard, and ny-8), two from the mid ...200415185953
molecular analysis of microbial communities identified in different developmental stages of ixodes scapularis ticks from westchester and dutchess counties, new york.ixodes scapularis ticks play an important role in the transmission of a wide variety of pathogens between various mammalian species, including humans. pathogens transmitted by ticks include borrelia, anaplasma and babesia. although ticks may harbour both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microflora, little is known about how the diversity of the microflora within ticks may influence the transmission of pathogens. to begin addressing this question, we examined the composition of bacterial communities ...200616623735
antibiotic susceptibilities of anaplasma (ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the united states.we tested the antibiotic susceptibilities of eight strains of anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) collected in various geographic areas of the united states, including minnesota, wisconsin, california, and new york. the results are homogeneous and show that doxycycline, rifampin, and levofloxacin are the most active antibiotics against these strains in vitro.200312499227
reactivity of serum samples of dogs and horses tested by use of class-specific recombinant-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of granulocytic ehrlichiosis.to test serum samples of dogs and horses by use of class-specific recombinant-based elisa for establishing a diagnosis of granulocytic ehrlichiosis attributable to infection with organisms from the ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup.200111560261
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae), anaplasma phagocytophilum (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae), and babesia microti (piroplasmida: babesiidae) in ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) collected from recreational lands in the hudson valley region, new york state.abstract blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, were collected from 27 sites in eight new york state counties from 2003 to 2006 to determine the prevalence and distribution of tick-borne pathogens in public-use areas over a 4-yr period. in total, 11,204 i. scapularis (3,300 nymphs and 7,904 adults) were individually analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of borrelia burgdorferi (causative agent of lyme disease), anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly ehrlichia phagocytop ...201424605473
seroprevalence of antibodies that react with anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, in different populations in westchester county, new york.we determined the frequencies of antibodies to anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), in different groups of adults and children from westchester county, new york. the groups included 159 adult blood donors and 215 children who were seronegative for borrelia burgdorferi antibodies, 118 adult patients and 57 children who were seropositive for b. burgdorferi antibodies, and 42 adult patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans. eighteen (11.3%) of the blo ...200212089287
seroprevalence and seroconversion for tick-borne diseases in a high-risk population in the northeast united states.to determine the prevalence of serologic reactivity, the 1-year incidence of seroconversion, and the frequency of multiple infections, and their associations with symptoms in a group of volunteers at high risk for tick-borne infections in new york state.199910225242
neutrophilic inclusions in a hunter. 201020925504
clinical and laboratory spectrum of culture-proven human granulocytic ehrlichiosis: comparison with culture-negative cases.we describe the clinical and laboratory manifestations of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) in eight patients for whom cultures were positive for the hge agent and compare them with 15 patients for whom cultures were negative but who fulfilled a modified new york state surveillance definition for hge. polymerase chain reaction analysis was positive in 8 (100%) of 8 culture-positive cases vs. 3 (20%) of 15 culture-negative cases (p < .001), morulae were detected in 7 (100%) of 7 culture-posit ...19989827289
a real-time pcr assay for differentiating pathogenic anaplasma phagocytophilum from an apathogenic, woodrat-adapted genospecies from north america.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen of humans and animals comprising strains that cause clinical disease in people, dogs and horses (the pathogenic a. phagocytophilum "genospecies") and more distantly related strains. a rodent-adapted genospecies named du1, found primarily in woodrats, is unable to infect horses. we developed a real-time pcr (rt-pcr) assay, which targets an 85 base pair region of the ank gene and is specific for the pathogenic genospecies of a. pha ...201526188998
detection of borrelia miyamotoi and other tick-borne pathogens in human clinical specimens and ixodes scapularis ticks in new york state, 2012-2015.borrelia miyamotoi (bm) is a recently emerging bacterial agent transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks. diagnosis of bm infection can be challenging, as the organism is not easily cultivable. we have developed and validated a multiplex real-time pcr to simultaneously identify bm infection and the agents causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, anaplasma phagocytophilum and ehrlichia chaffeensis, respectively. the assay is 100% specific; highly sensitive, d ...201728131594
serologic evidence of infection with ehrlichia spp. in wild rodents (muridae: sigmodontinae) in the united states.rodent (muridae: sigmodontinae) blood and sera collected from 14 states were tested for seroreactivity to a cultured isolate of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent by using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. of the 1,240 samples tested, 136 (11%) were found to be reactive at titers of > or = 32. rodents with hge agent-specific antibodies were found in new york (23% of 491 samples; geometric mean endpoint titer [gmt] = 441), connecticut (11% of 100 samples; gmt = 481), california ( ...19989508298
transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by host-seeking ixodus scapularis (acari:ixodidae) in southern new york state.ixodes scapularis say nymphs collected from a natural focus of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) in westchester county, new york, transmitted the hge agent to uninfected mice in the laboratory. infection was demonstrated in 3 of 8 mice by polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood and microscopic examination of blood smears for morulae. two of these mice were also positive by xenodiagnosis. positive xenodiagnostic larvae maintained infection through molting and transferred infection t ...19979220669
polymorphism and transcription at the p44-1/p44-18 genomic locus in anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from diverse geographic regions.a polymorphic multigene family (p44) of anaplasma phagocytophilum encodes the immunodominant 44-kda major outer membrane proteins. with p44-specific pcr and gene-specific probes, p44-1 was found in all human isolates from new york state but not in isolates from minnesota, whereas p44-18 and two other p44 species were found in isolates from both regions. we therefore sequenced the genomic locus corresponding to the p44-1/p44-18 tandem locus of a. phagocytophilum hz in 14 other geographically dive ...200415385454
comparison of major antigenic proteins of six strains of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent by western immunoblot analysis.the etiologic agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) is an obligate intracellular bacterium. in 1996, blood specimens from 53 patients suspected of having hge were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) testing with the hge agent no. 13 isolate as the antigen, by nested pcr, and by culture. all patients resided in westchester county, n.y. twelve patient specimens were positive for ifa (titer > or = 1:40). seven of these were also positive by pcr. of the seven specimens positive ...19979316916
ultrastructural and antigenic characterization of a granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent directly isolated and stably cultivated from a patient in new york state.a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent with 16s rdna sequence identical to the published sequence of hge agents was isolated from a patient from new york state by inoculation of the blood leukocyte fraction directly into a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line hl-60. the hge agent was also isolated from the leukocyte fraction of the blood and bone marrow of a mouse inoculated with the leukocyte fraction of the patient's blood. the isolate has been passaged in tissue culture 30 times over ...19978985223
antibodies to ehrlichia equi in dogs from the northeastern united states.to determine whether dogs living in tickinfested areas of the northeastern united states had been exposed to ehrlichia equi, an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis.19979364226
coinfection of blacklegged ticks (acari: ixodidae) in dutchess county, new york, with the agents of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, collected from forested sites in dutchess county, ny, were tested for infection with the etiologic agents of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge). rates of infection with the 2 pathogens were high and independent of one another, confirming prior findings and suggesting that a variety of hosts may be competent reservoirs of the hge agent.19989775627
agents of human anaplasmosis and lyme disease at camp ripley, minnesota.the transmission dynamics of anaplasma phagocytophilum (ap) and borrelia burgdorferi (bb) among ixodes scapularis (is) and mammalian hosts was investigated at camp ripley, an area representative of central minnesota. prevalence of white-footed mouse infection with ap and bb were 20% and 42%, respectively, with a coinfection level of 14%. peak levels of infection with both agents occurred in may. the average levels of seropositivity to ap and bb were 29.3% and 48%, respectively. of the mice infec ...201121867420
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