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borrelia burgdorferi infection in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in hemlock (tsuga canadensis) habitat in western pennsylvania.white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were captured and their tissues sampled from 27 sites in seven counties of western pennsylvania in 1990 for isolation and identification of borrelia burgdorferi. two hundred sixty mice were captured from which there were 27 isolations. significantly more mice were captured and significantly more isolations made from hemlock (tsuga canadensis) habitat than from deciduous species forest. hemlock habitat is sparse and focal but evidently increases winter surv ...19921512867
serologic survey for borrelia burgdorferi antibody in horses referred to a mid-atlantic veterinary teaching hospital.blood samples obtained from 13 of 100 (13%) and 6 of 91 (7%) horses at the george d. widener hospital for large animals in the months of june and october, respectively, had antibody to borrelia burgdorferi as determined by elisa. horses from the states of new york, maryland, delaware, new jersey, and pennsylvania were seropositive for b burgdorferi. the frequency of antibody response in horses from new jersey was greater (p less than 0.05) than the frequency of antibody response in horses from p ...19902332371
surveillance of lyme disease in the united states, 1982.lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that has been reported from three regions in the united states--the northeast, midwest, and west--which correspond to the distribution of the recognized vectors of the disease, ixodes dammini and ixodes pacificus. in 1982, a surveillance system designed to define the morbidity and geographic distribution for lyme disease by using a clinical case definition received information on 491 definite cases and 38 probable cases. of the definite cases, 489 were acquir ...19853998509
distribution of borrelia burgdorferi in host mice in pennsylvania.host mice (peromyscus leucopus and peromyscus maniculatus) were sampled throughout the state of pennsylvania to determine the geographical and ecological distribution of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. all 67 counties of the state were sampled. a total of 1,619 mice were captured from a total of 157 sites during the period 1990 to 1993 for an overall capture rate of 29.69%. a total of 112 (6.92%) isolations of b. burgdorferi were made. the distribution of isolations revealed th ...19947814489
serological responses in lyme disease: the influence of sex, age, and environment.in the laboratory, the serodiagnosis of lyme disease is a difficult decision, especially in early disease. the variability in the immune response to the borrelia burgdorferi spirochete and the lack of specificity and sensitivity of commercial assays for the detection of antibodies in early disease have contributed to the difficulty of serodiagnosis. this study examines the serological data of over 20,000 serum specimens submitted for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and/or western blot ...19938323257
serologic evidence for a novel ehrlichia species in woodchucks (marmota monax) from pennsylvania, usa. 200312860605
characterization of anaplasma phagocytophila and borrelia burgdorferi genotypes in ixodes scapularis ticks from pennsylvania. 200312860614
lyme disease--united states, 2003-2005.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks (ixodes spp.). early manifestations of infection include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. left untreated, late manifestations involving the joints, heart, and nervous system can occur. a healthy people 2010 objective (14-8) is to reduce the annual incidence of lyme disease to 9.7 new cases per 100,000 population in 1 ...200717568368
infection and co-infection rates of anaplasma phagocytophilum variants, babesia spp., borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial endosymbiont in ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) from sites in indiana, maine, pennsylvania, and wisconsin.in total, 394 questing adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae), collected at four sites were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for five microbial species: anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia microti, babesia odocoilei, borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial i. scapularis endosymbiont. identities of genetic variants of a. phagocytophilum were determined by sequencing a portion of the 16s dna. in 55% of infected ticks (193/351), a single agent was detected. in ...200818402145
detection of lyme disease and anaplasmosis pathogens via pcr in pennsylvania deer ked.borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum are obligate intracellular parasites that maintain their life cycles in enzoonotic vector-host cycles with ixodes scapularis as a vector. in addition to ticks, the hosts are commonly infested with insects from the hippoboscidae family. this study confirms the presence of b. burgdorferi and a. phagocytophilum in deer keds (lipoptena cervi) removed from white-tailed deer using pcr. detection of these pathogens in deer ked represents a potential no ...201627860010
prevalence rates of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae), anaplasma phagocytophilum (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae), and babesia microti (piroplasmida: babesiidae) in host-seeking ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) from pennsylvania.the etiological agents responsible for lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum), and babesiosis (babesia microti) are primarily transmitted by the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say. despite pennsylvania having in recent years reported the highest number of lyme disease cases in the united states, relatively little is known regarding the geographic distribution of the vector and its pathogens in the state. previous attempts at climate- ...201526335476
the dog as a sentinel for human infection: prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi c6 antibodies in dogs from southeastern and mid-atlantic states.lyme disease is the most frequently reported human vector-associated disease in the united states. infection occurs after the bite of an ixodid tick that is infected with borrelia burgdorferi. dogs have often been reported to serve as effective sentinel animals to assess the risk of human b. burgdorferi infection. based on published data of human lyme disease case numbers and our clinical impressions, we hypothesized that canine exposure to b. burgdorferi would be lower in north carolina when co ...200516011425
the dog as a sentinel for human infection: prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi c6 antibodies in dogs from southeastern and mid-atlantic states.lyme disease is the most frequently reported human vector-associated disease in the united states. infection occurs after the bite of an ixodid tick that is infected with borrelia burgdorferi. dogs have often been reported to serve as effective sentinel animals to assess the risk of human b. burgdorferi infection. based on published data of human lyme disease case numbers and our clinical impressions, we hypothesized that canine exposure to b. burgdorferi would be lower in north carolina when co ...200415631067
canine exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and prevalence of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) on deer as a measure of lyme disease risk in the northeastern united states.surveillance programs that identify areas where both the vector (ixodes dammini) and etiologic agent (borrelia burgdorferi) are present may identify the risk of lyme disease and its spread earlier and more accurately than do programs relying on any single method, particularly human case reports. hunter-killed deer (n = 1,204) from 22 counties in maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new york, and pennsylvania were examined in fall 1989 and all ectoparasites were identified. the following sprin ...19938433324
three sudden cardiac deaths associated with lyme carditis - united states, november 2012-july 2013.lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete transmitted by certain species of ixodes ticks. approximately 30,000 confirmed and probable cases of lyme disease were reported in the united states in 2012, primarily from high-incidence states in the northeast (connecticut, delaware, maine, maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, pennsylvania, rhode island, and vermont) and upper midwest (minnesota and wisconsin). common manifestations incl ...201324336130
exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in gettysburg national military park, south-central pennsylvania, 2009.since 1998, lyme disease cases have increased in south-central pennsylvania, which includes gettysburg national military park (nmp). limited information is available about tick populations or pathogens in this area, and no data regarding frequency of tick bites or prevention measures among gettysburg nmp employees are available. to address these gaps, ticks were collected, classified, and replaced (to minimize disruptions to tick populations) at two sites within gettysburg nmp during april-septe ...201424689815
detection of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum in the black-legged tick, ixodes scapularis, within southwestern pennsylvania.prevalence studies of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum have been rare for ticks from southwestern pennsylvania. we collected 325 ixodes scapularis ticks between 2011 and 2012 from four counties in southwestern pennsylvania. we tested for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum using pcr. of the ticks collected from pennsylvania, b. burgdorferi (causative agent of lyme disease) was present in 114/325 (35%) and anaplasma phagocytophilum (causative agent ...201526047199
relatively low prevalence of babesia microti and anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodes scapularis ticks collected in the lehigh valley region of eastern pennsylvania.several human pathogens are transmitted by the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis. these include the spirochetes that cause lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) which is endemic to the lehigh valley region of eastern pennsylvania. emerging and currently rare tick-borne diseases have been of increasing concern in this region, including tick-borne relapsing fever (caused by borrelia miyamotoi), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum), and human babesiosis (caused by b ...201526318263
borrelia burgdorferi ospc heterogeneity among human and murine isolates from a defined region of northern maryland and southern pennsylvania: lack of correlation with invasive and noninvasive genotypes.b. burgdorferi invasiveness correlates with ospc genotype. to test this hypothesis and whether identical genotypes infect humans and small mammals in specific sites, b. burgdorferi ospc heterogeneity was tested among isolates from northern maryland and southern pennsylvania. six culture-positive patients allowed collection of small animals from their properties, and spirochetes from animals trapped within 300 yards of each patient's home were isolated. 3' ospc sequences were compared to referenc ...200515815012
molecular characterization of anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes scapularis ticks from pennsylvania.ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in 2000 and 2001 from two areas in pennsylvania and tested for the presence of anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi by pcr and dna sequencing. of the ticks collected from northwestern and southeastern pennsylvania, 162 of 263 (61.6%) and 25 of 191 (13.1%), respectively, were found to be positive for b. burgdorferi. dna sequencing showed >99% identity with b. burgdorferi strains b31 and jd1. pcr testing for a. phagocytophilum revealed that 5 of ...200312682147
epidemiologic studies of lyme disease in horses and their public health significance.a serologic survey of horses in the new jersey-pennsylvania area demonstrated that about 10% (6.2-14.2%) have significant levels of serum antibody to borrelia burgdorferi. however, in a highly endemic area of central new jersey, up to 60% of the mares and yearlings samples on one farm were seropositive. in 1983, sera from this same farm exhibited only 12% positives in mares and 35% positives in yearlings. longitudinal studies of paired sera obtained from individual yearlings over a 6-month perio ...19883190097
the lyme disease vaccine: conception, development, and implementation.in the past 20 years, remarkable strides have been made toward understanding and preventing lyme disease in humans. in december 1998, the u.s. food and drug administration approved a recombinant outer surface protein a vaccine against lyme disease (lymerix, smithkline beecham, philadelphia, pennsylvania). the vaccine, which is derived from a lipidated outer surface protein of the causative spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, is important because it may decrease the morbidity and financial costs ass ...200010766685
detection of borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein antibodies in wild white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in new york and pennsylvania, usa.borrelia burgdorferi differentially exhibits outer surface proteins (osp) on its outer membrane, and detection of particular osp antibodies in mammals is suggestive of the infection stage. for example, ospf is typically associated with chronic infection, whereas ospc suggests early infection. a fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay was used to test sera from new york and pennsylvania white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) for the presence of antibodies to ospa, ospc, and ospf. ospf seroprev ...201323507438
seasonal activity, density, and collection efficiency of the blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis) (acari: ixodidae) in mid-western pennsylvania.although pennsylvania has recently reported the greatest number of lyme disease cases in the united states, with the largest increase for pa occurring in its western region, the population biology of the blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis say) has not been adequately characterized in western pa. we studied the seasonal activity of host-seeking i. scapularis larvae, nymphs, and adults in mid-western pa over the course of a year, including a severe winter, and determined their absolute densities ...201526336271
an update on lyme disease in pennsylvania. 19921614712
human babesiosis--an unrecorded reality. absence of formal registry undermines its detection, diagnosis and treatment, suggesting need for immediate mandatory reporting.human babesiosis, caused by parasitic protozoa of erythrocytes, has escaped usual associates--lower mammals. thriving in tick guts, it has spread inland from the coasts of america, adopting mankind as a host. babesia spp. threaten life quality of unsuspecting humans in quickly expanding territories worldwide, including the state of pennsylvania, usa. the causative spirochetes of lyme disease often similarly co-exist in ticks. singly or together they may, by causing persistent and chronic infecti ...200415325004
the overdiagnosis of lyme disease in children residing in an endemic area.the medical records of 227 children ages 1 to 19 years referred to the lyme disease pediatric clinic over a 32-month period since may 1990 were reviewed. clinico-serologic criteria for a positive diagnosis were applied. one hundred thirty-eight of 227 referred children did not fulfill those criteria and became the study population. four subsets of patients emerged: (1) 54 patients with predominantly subjective symptoms; (2) 52 patients with objective evidence for an alternative diagnosis; (3) ei ...19947859425
surveillance for lyme disease--united states, 1992-2006.lyme disease is a multisystem disease that occurs in north america, europe, and asia. in the united states, the etiologic agent is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a spirochete transmitted to humans by infected ixodes scapularis and i. pacificus ticks. the majority of patients with lyme disease develop a characteristic rash, erythema migrans (em), accompanied by symptoms of fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, myalgia, or arthralgia. other manifestations of infection can include arthritis, card ...200818830214
national surveillance of lyme disease, 1987-1988.in 1987 and 1988, 6876 lyme disease cases from 43 states were reported to the centers for disease control. the 4507 cases reported in 1988 was nearly double the case number reported in 1987, and ninefold the number reported in 1982, when a systematic system of national surveillance was established. the average annual incidence of reported lyme disease in the united states in 1987-1988 was 1.4/100,000. new york led the nation in reported cases in 1988 with 57% of the cases reported nationally. ei ...19892758820
risk factors for lyme disease in chester county, pennsylvania.to identify factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection for lyme disease in chester county, pennyslvania.200111889282
using exploratory data analysis to identify and predict patterns of human lyme disease case clustering within a multistate region, 2010-2014.lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the united states. the objective of our study was to identify patterns of lyme disease reporting after multistate inclusion to mitigate potential border effects. county-level human lyme disease surveillance data were obtained from kentucky, maryland, ohio, pennsylvania, virginia, and west virginia state health departments. rate smoothing and local moran's i was performed to identify clusters of reporting activity and identify spat ...201728137676
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