human babesiosis in new york state: an epidemiological description of 136 cases.epidemiological data on 136 cases of human babesiosis reported from laboratories and clinicians in the state of new york from 1982 to 1991 were reviewed. all but two patients, who had traveled to nantucket island in massachusetts, acquired disease in suffolk county, long island. the highest average age-group-specific annual incidence rates occurred among men > or = 80 years of age (7.72 per 100,000) and among women 70-79 years of age (3.61 per 100,000). seven patients (5%) had previously undergo ...19921457632
dogs as sentinels for lyme disease in investigation of the relationship between incident human cases of lyme disease and seroprevalence of antibodies to b. burgdorferi in dogs was undertaken in order to determine whether dogs might serve as sentinels for lyme disease.19911951802
longitudinal assessment of the clinical and epidemiological features of lyme disease in a defined population.from 1979 to 1983, lyme disease was studied longitudinally in the 162 long-term residents of great island, massachusetts. in retrospect, the index case occurred in 1962, and the peak years of disease transmission (about three new cases per 100 residents per year) were the late 1970s. thereafter, during the period of active surveillance, attack rates declined by half. altogether, 26 (16%) of the 162 residents developed symptoms of the disease. most of those affected had erythema chronicum migrans ...19863722867
vectorial capacity of north american ixodes ticks.ixodes dammini, the vector of lyme disease and babesiosis, is distributed in various locations in the northeastern quadrant of the united states and nearby canada. the life cycle of this tick, which includes larval, nymphal, and adult stages, spans at least two years. the tick over-winters between larval and nymphal feeding. horizontal transmission of pathogens is facilitated by a feeding pattern in which both the larval and nymphal stages feed on the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus, and ...19846516453
antibody response of the mouse reservoir of borrelia burgdorferi in determine whether the white-footed mouse reservoir host (peromyscus leucopus) of the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) naturally mounts an immune response against the full range of antigens expressed by this zoonotic pathogen, we analyzed the pattern of immunoreactivity of these rodents at sites in which the intensity of transmission differs. although the incidence of seroconversion within the reservoir population relates proportionally to the density of subadult deer ticks (ixodes ...19957622226
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in museum specimens of peromyscus determine whether borrelia burgdorferi was enzootic within the united states at the beginning of the 20th century, ear skin samples taken from museum specimens of the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) were examined for evidence of spirochetal dna. in total, 280 samples from mice collected between 1870 and 1919 were analyzed by a nested polymerase chain reaction protocol. of these, 2 specimens from the vicinity of dennis, massachusetts, during 1894 were reproducibly positive for b. burg ...19947930700
canine exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and prevalence of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) on deer as a measure of lyme disease risk in the northeastern united states.surveillance programs that identify areas where both the vector (ixodes dammini) and etiologic agent (borrelia burgdorferi) are present may identify the risk of lyme disease and its spread earlier and more accurately than do programs relying on any single method, particularly human case reports. hunter-killed deer (n = 1,204) from 22 counties in maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new york, and pennsylvania were examined in fall 1989 and all ectoparasites were identified. the following sprin ...19938433324
compatibility of two species of ixodes ticks with murid hosts and its effect on transmission of lyme disease spirochaetes. 19968887343
cosegregation of a novel bartonella species with borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti in peromyscus leucopus.during surveillance for various tickborne pathogens in the upper midwest during the summer and early fall of 1995, a bartonella-like agent was detected in the blood of mice that were concurrently infected with borrelia burgdorferi or babesia microti (or both). the organism was isolated in pure culture after inoculation of blood from wild-caught mice into c.b-17 scid/scid mice. phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rrna and the citrate synthase genes showed that the novel bartonella species and a bart ...19989466529
intralaboratory reliability of serologic and urine testing for lyme disease. 200111182109
distribution of borreliae among ticks collected from eastern states.lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the united states and is transmitted by borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes species. the disease is typically characterized by an erythema migrans (em) rash at the site of tick feeding. em rashes have also been associated with feeding by amblyomma americanum ticks despite evidence suggesting that they are incompetent vectors for lyme disease. in 1996, a borrelia organism only recently cultivated in the laboratory was described i ...200516417434
strategies for reducing the risk of lyme borreliosis in north america.the incidence of lyme borreliosis continues to increase in the united states. in 1991, when lyme borreliosis first became a nationally reportable disease to the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc), a total of 9470 cases were reported; in contrast, by 2002 a total of 23,763 cases were reported, >2.5x the total in 1991. area-wide acaricides can be highly effective in killing nymphal ixodes scapularis, with >95% of nymphs killed in studies using cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, or carbaryl. t ...200616524769
detection of babesia and anaplasma species in rabbits from texas and georgia, usa.rabbits have been shown to harbor a suite of zoonotic organisms, including a babesia species, borrelia burgdorferi, and anaplasma phagocytophilum. in this study, we conducted a molecular survey for various tick-borne pathogens in three species of rabbits from texas and georgia. of 18 black-tailed jackrabbits (lepus californicus) tested from texas, six (28%) were polymerase chain reaction (pcr) positive for babesia, and nucleotide sequencing revealed two distinct species or strains. two jackrabbi ...200616584322
surveillance for lyme disease--united states, 1992-2006.lyme disease is a multisystem disease that occurs in north america, europe, and asia. in the united states, the etiologic agent is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a spirochete transmitted to humans by infected ixodes scapularis and i. pacificus ticks. the majority of patients with lyme disease develop a characteristic rash, erythema migrans (em), accompanied by symptoms of fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, myalgia, or arthralgia. other manifestations of infection can include arthritis, card ...200818830214
multivariate morphometric discrimination of nymphal and adult forms of the blacklegged tick (acari: ixodidae), a principal vector of the agent of lyme disease in eastern north america.a morphological study of postlarval stages of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, was conducted to examine congruence between northern (formerly i. dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin) and southern morphotypes. the character set totaled 17 for females, 25 for males, and 28 for nymphs. populations from 6 geographic areas, f1 progeny from reciprocal crosses between i. scapularis from massachusetts and georgia, and i. pacificus cooley & kohls from california were measured. charact ...19958551506
occurrence and distribution in rhode island of hunterellus hookeri (hymenoptera: encyrtidae), a wasp parasitoid of ixodes dammini.the wasp hunterellus hookeri howard parasitizes several species of ixodid ticks including ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, the vector of lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi, in the northeastern united states. we detected the occurrence and evaluated the distribution of this wasp parasitoid in populations of i. dammini in rhode island. there has been no intentional introduction of a tick parasitoid recorded anywhere in rhode island; yet, we found this wasp at one of ...19938433338
serological responses in lyme disease: the influence of sex, age, and the laboratory, the serodiagnosis of lyme disease is a difficult decision, especially in early disease. the variability in the immune response to the borrelia burgdorferi spirochete and the lack of specificity and sensitivity of commercial assays for the detection of antibodies in early disease have contributed to the difficulty of serodiagnosis. this study examines the serological data of over 20,000 serum specimens submitted for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and/or western blot ...19938323257
passive surveillance of ixodes scapularis (say), their biting activity, and associated pathogens in massachusetts.a passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006-2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the university of massachusetts for pcr testing. the vast majority of these ticks were ixodes scapularis from massachusetts (nā€‰=ā€‰2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. two taqman duplex qpcr assays were developed to test i. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesi ...201627248292
lyme disease: a growing threat to urban populations.lyme disease or lyme borreliosis, which is caused by three groups of the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted in north america, europe, and asia by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. the primary areas around the world that are now affected by lyme disease are near the terminal moraine of the glaciers 15,000 years ago. the emergence of lyme disease in the united states in this century is thought to have occurred because of ecological conditions favorable for deer. from 1982 through 1 ...19948146126
three sudden cardiac deaths associated with lyme carditis - united states, november 2012-july 2013.lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete transmitted by certain species of ixodes ticks. approximately 30,000 confirmed and probable cases of lyme disease were reported in the united states in 2012, primarily from high-incidence states in the northeast (connecticut, delaware, maine, maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, pennsylvania, rhode island, and vermont) and upper midwest (minnesota and wisconsin). common manifestations incl ...201324336130
childhood neurologic disorders and lyme disease during determine the prevalence of clinically significant nervous system disease attributable to transplacental transmission of borrelia burgdorferi, we surveyed neurologists in areas of the united states in which lyme disease is endemic (i.e., massachusetts, rhode island, connecticut, new york, new jersey, wisconsin, and minnesota). overall, 162 of the 176 (92%) pediatric neurologists contacted responded to the survey with a range of 90-100% in the different geographic areas. one pediatric neurolog ...19947986291
short report: density of lyme disease spirochetes within deer ticks collected from zoonotic sites.we determined whether the density of lyme disease spirochetes varied between individual host-seeking deer ticks. guts were dissected from 30 adult ixodes dammini collected from three intensely zoonotic coastal massachusetts sites, and the number of borrelia burgdorferi present was estimated by a modified counting technique using indirect immunofluorescence. a median of 1,925 spirochetes was observed; ticks from the three sites contained similar numbers of spirochetes. no tick contained more than ...19957573717
mice as reservoirs of the lyme disease evaluating the white-footed mouse as a reservoir host for the lyme disease spirochete, we compared spirochete infection in vector ticks (ixodes dammini) having different histories of attachment to these mice, estimated their relative importance as hosts for immature i. dammini and compared the seasonality of tick activity and spirochetemia in mice. infection in trapped white-footed mice appears to be universal. prevalence of spirochetal infection in i. dammini correlates with frequency of att ...19853985277
transovarially acquired lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) in field-collected larval ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae). 19863701806
seasonal variation of transmission risk of lyme disease and human babesiosis.the seasonal host-seeking pattern of nymphal ixodes dammini infected with babesia microti or borrelia burgdorferi was determined on nantucket island, massachusetts, during 1985. the peak period of host-seeking by infected nymphal i. dammini occurred in may and june. on a per person-hour basis, the number of infected ticks collected reached a maximum in may (babesia = 17.3; borrelia = 16.2). the number of infected ticks remained high in june, but decreased notably in july, august, and september. ...19873687924
incompetence of deer as reservoirs of the lyme disease determine whether deer may serve as reservoir hosts for the lyme disease spirochete, we sought evidence of infection in nymphal ixodes dammini derived from larvae that had engorged on white-tailed deer. a total of 19 deer were shot in two lyme disease foci in massachusetts during september 1986, the season in which larvae were most abundant. an average of 342 larval ticks of this species were collected from each deer. of those that developed to the nymphal stage, the gut contents of 185 were ...19883400797
greater risk of borrelia burgdorferi infection in dogs than in people. 19883198950
the geographic distribution of lyme disease in the united 1982, national surveillance for lyme disease was established by the centers for disease control to monitor trends and determine endemic geographic areas. initially, the endemic areas corresponded to the known distribution of ixodes dammini, a five-state area of the northeastern seaboard (new york, new jersey, connecticut, rhode island, and massachusetts) and wisconsin and minnesota. increasing numbers of cases have been reported outside these areas, however, 86% of the provisional 5731 cases ...19883190099
absence of spirochaetes (borrelia burgdorferi) and piroplasms (babesia microti) in deer ticks (ixodes dammini) parasitized by chalcid wasps (hunterellus hookeri).an entomophagous wasp (hunterellus hookeri howard) parasitizes about a third of the host-seeking nymphal ixodes dammini spielman et al. ticks on naushon island in massachusetts (u.s.a.) where the agents of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al.) and human babesiosis (babesia microti franca) are enzootic. following blood-feeding, wasp-parasitized ticks are destroyed by the developing wasp. the prevalence of either human pathogen in host-seeking ticks collected in wasp-infested sites is ...19872979518
rapid emergence of a focal epidemic of lyme disease in coastal massachusetts.we describe a focal epidemic of lyme disease, which spread from a nature preserve and affected an adjacent community of permanent residents in coastal massachusetts. the attack rate from 1980 through 1987 was 35 percent among 190 residents living within 5 km of the nature preserve and was greatest (66 percent) among those living closest to the preserve. the risk of infection bore little relation to sex or age. late lyme disease, which clustered near the preserve, occurred mainly in residents inf ...19892911294
comparing the relative potential of rodents as reservoirs of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).the authors compared the contribution of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), chipmunks (tamias striatus), and meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) to infection of vector ticks with the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgddorferi. at one massachusetts location where lyme disease is endemic, all three species of rodents were found to be infected. prevalence of infection, however, varied from 90% for mice, and 75% for chipmunks to just 5.5% for meadow voles. infectivity of these hosts for ...19892787105
comparative prevalence of babesia microti and borrelia burgdorferi in four populations of ixodes dammini in eastern massachusetts.we determined the prevalence of babesia microti and borrelia burgdorferi in four populations of ixodes dammini in eastern massachusetts. the feulgen's reaction was more sensitive than the giemsa method for detecting salivarian babesia. a combination of darkfield and direct-fluorescent-antibody examination proved more sensitive than either method alone for detecting spirochetal infection. the prevalence of spirochetes was greater than the prevalence of babesia in each of the tick populations stud ...19862430433
short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of lyme disease and human determine whether short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by b. burgdorferi. one of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected t ...19902213411
vegetation structure influences the burden of immature ixodes dammini on its main host, peromyscus determine whether the relative abundance of immature ixodes dammini (the vector of lyme disease and human babesiosis) is related to habitat structure, we examined tick burdens on their main host, the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), in 4 structurally diverse sites on great island, massachusetts, usa. vegetation structure at each site was quantified with respect to 25 habitat variables. principal components analysis was used to reduce this set of habitat variables to seven new and ort ...19921437266
2-tiered antibody testing for early and late lyme disease using only an immunoglobulin g blot with the addition of a vlse band as the second-tier test.standard 2-tiered immunoglobulin g (igg) testing has performed well in late lyme disease (ld), but igm testing early in the illness has been problematic. igg vlse antibody testing, by itself, improves early sensitivity, but may lower specificity. we studied whether elements of the 2 approaches could be combined to produce a second-tier igg blot that performs well throughout the infection.201019947857
behavioral and attitudes survey about lyme disease among a brazilian population in the endemic area of martha's vineyard, massachusetts.disease prevention models have shown individuals are more likely to engage in precautionary behavior if they have confidence in their ability to identify disease symptoms and understand health risks. in immigrant populations, communicating the risks poses greater challenges since linguistic and cultural barriers may impede acceptance of the new behavior. the brazilian population on martha's vineyard, massachusetts, is at high risk for lyme disease (ld), the most common vector-borne illness in th ...201018792780
lyme disease--united states, 2003-2005.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks (ixodes spp.). early manifestations of infection include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. left untreated, late manifestations involving the joints, heart, and nervous system can occur. a healthy people 2010 objective (14-8) is to reduce the annual incidence of lyme disease to 9.7 new cases per 100,000 population in 1 ...200717568368
enzootic transmission of deer tick virus in new england and wisconsin determine whether rodents that are intensely exposed to the deer tick-transmitted agents of lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis are also exposed to deer tick virus (dtv), we assayed serum samples from white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) in sites densely infested by deer ticks. to conduct serosurveys, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and western blot assay by cloning, expressing, and purifyi ...200011357992
the cost-effectiveness of vaccination against lyme disease.vaccination against lyme disease appears to be safe and effective; however, the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (qaly) gained with vaccination is unknown.200111252114
detection of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and borrelia burgdorferi in ticks by polymerase chain ixodid ticks were collected from westchester county, new york, and ipswich, massachusetts, to determine the presence of infection with a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the presence of borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected from new york was also determined by pcr. of the 229 ticks from new york and 47 ticks from massachusetts, 9% (22/229) and 25% (12/47) of ticks contained hge agent, respectively. fifty-four percent (123/229) of t ...19989526861
lyme disease surveillance in the united states, 1983-1986.during 1983-1986, 5,016 cases of lyme disease were reported to the centers for disease control. cases were acquired in 31 states; however, 86% of the cases were acquired in seven states: massachusetts, rhode island, connecticut, new york, new jersey, wisconsin, and minnesota. for 63% of patients the disease began in summer; 52% recalled a tick bite. erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) occurred in 91% of the patients; arthritis, in 57%; neurologic complications, in 18%; and cardiac manifestations, i ...20092682955
the effectiveness of permethrin-treated deer stations for control of the lyme disease vector ixodes scapularis on cape cod and the islands: a five-year experiment.the use of animal host-targeted pesticide application to control blacklegged ticks, which transmit the lyme disease bacterium between wildlife hosts and humans, is receiving increased attention as an approach to lyme disease risk management. included among the attractive features of host-targeted approaches is the reduced need for broad-scale pesticide usage. in the eastern usa, one of the best-known of these approaches is the corn-baited "4-poster" deer feeding station, so named because of the ...201424965139
validation of random sampling as an estimation procedure for lyme disease surveillance in massachusetts and minnesota.many disease surveillance programs, including the massachusetts department of public health and the minnesota department of health, are challenged by marked increases in lyme disease (ld) reports. the purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyse ld reports from 2005 through 2012 to determine whether key epidemiologic characteristics were statistically indistinguishable when an estimation procedure based on sampling was utilized. estimates of the number of ld cases were produced by taking ...201627488080
emerging cases of powassan virus encephalitis in new england: clinical presentation, imaging, and review of the literature.powassan virus (powv) is a rarely diagnosed cause of encephalitis in the united states. in the northeast, it is transmitted by ixodes scapularis, the same vector that transmits lyme disease. the prevalence of powv among animal hosts and vectors has been increasing. we present 8 cases of powv encephalitis from massachusetts and new hampshire in 2013-2015.201626668338
clinical predictors of lyme disease among children with a peripheral facial palsy at an emergency department in a lyme disease-endemic area.although lyme disease can cause peripheral facial palsy in lyme disease-endemic areas, diagnostic predictors in children have not been described.200818931349
lyme disease serology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.lyme disease is sometimes part of the differential diagnosis for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als). herein we report on 414 individuals with als at the massachusetts general hospital who underwent laboratory testing for lyme disease. twenty-four (5.8%) were seropositive, but only 4 (0.97%) had confirmed past immunoreactive infection. two of these patients received ceftriaxone for 1 month without clinical improvement. lyme disease was rare in 414 patients with als and is not likely to be causat ...200919697382
a controlled trial of a novel primary prevention program for lyme disease and other tick-borne evaluate a theory-based educational program to prevent lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses (tbi), a randomized controlled trial of an educational program was delivered to ferry passengers traveling to an endemic area in southeastern massachusetts. rates of tbi and precautionary and tick check behaviors were measured over three summers in 30,164 passengers. there were lower rates of tbi among participants receiving tbi education compared with control participants receiving bicycle safe ...200717468463
lyme disease acquired in europe and presenting in conus.lyme disease is recognized in many parts of the world, including large areas of north america, europe, asia and australia. diagnosis and treatment of the disease is essential to avoid the debilitating and potentially life-threatening long-term effects of the infection; however, many physicians may not be aware of the international scope of the disease. this is particularly important for military physicians whose patients may visit or live in endemic areas and whose activities may bring them in c ...19938264931
lyme disease and preventive behaviors in residents of nantucket island, determine the age-specific prevalence of lyme disease and whether preventive behaviors on nantucket island correlate with lyme disease, we surveyed island residents.200111275450
national surveillance of lyme disease, 1987 and 1988, 6876 lyme disease cases from 43 states were reported to the centers for disease control. the 4507 cases reported in 1988 was nearly double the case number reported in 1987, and ninefold the number reported in 1982, when a systematic system of national surveillance was established. the average annual incidence of reported lyme disease in the united states in 1987-1988 was 1.4/100,000. new york led the nation in reported cases in 1988 with 57% of the cases reported nationally. ei ...19892758820
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