dna analysis of borrelia burgdorferi nch-1, the first northcentral u.s. human lyme disease isolate.the dna of the first northcentral united states human lyme disease isolate, borrellia burgdorferi nch-1, was characterized and compared with the dnas of nine other b. burgdorferi isolates. strain nch-1 was isolated in august 1989 from a human skin biopsy specimen. dna was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. contour-clamped homogeneous electric field pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed cells was performed to compare the plasmid profile ...19921551988
seroprevalence of lyme disease in gray wolves from minnesota and determine the seroprevalence of lyme disease in gray wolves (canis lupus) from various counties of minnesota and wisconsin (usa), 589 serum samples were collected from 528 wolves from 1972 to 1989. an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test was used to detect the presence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi. titers of greater than or equal to 1:100 were considered positive. results were confirmed by testing a few selected sera by western blotting. of the 589 sera tested, 15 (3%) had i ...19921602567
performance of 45 laboratories participating in a proficiency testing program for lyme disease serology.we show that significant interlaboratory and intralaboratory variations exist in lyme disease proficiency testing.19921640618
lyme disease surveillance--united states, 1989-1990.surveillance for lyme disease (ld) was initiated by cdc in 1982 (1), and in january 1991, ld became nationally reportable (2). forty-six states reported cases in 1989 and 1990 (figure 1), but the occurrence in nature of the causative bacterium, borrelia burgdorferi, has not been documented in all of these states. from 1982 through 1989, the annual reported number of cases of ld increased 18-fold (from 497 to 8803, respectively) and from 1986 through 1989, nearly doubled each year (figure 2). the ...19912046649
antibodies to borrelia sp. in wild foxes and coyotes from wisconsin and minnesota.serum samples from 93 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and nine gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) trapped in wisconsin and 23 coyotes (canis latrans) trapped in wisconsin and minnesota were tested for antibodies to borrelia sp. with an indirect fluorescent antibody test which used borrelia burgdorferi as the whole-cell antigen. seven red foxes (8%) and two coyotes (9%) had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:64. all the positive samples were from areas known to be endemic for human lyme dise ...19892644451
the geographic distribution of lyme disease in the united 1982, national surveillance for lyme disease was established by the centers for disease control to monitor trends and determine endemic geographic areas. initially, the endemic areas corresponded to the known distribution of ixodes dammini, a five-state area of the northeastern seaboard (new york, new jersey, connecticut, rhode island, and massachusetts) and wisconsin and minnesota. increasing numbers of cases have been reported outside these areas, however, 86% of the provisional 5731 cases ...19883190099
borrelia burgdorferi infection surrounding la crosse, wis.this investigation defined the extent of borrelia burgdorferi infection surrounding la crosse, wis. white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus or p. maniculatis, were captured from sites in wisconsin, minnesota, and iowa and cultured for b. burgdorferi to define the local boundaries of the midwestern lyme disease area. all foci of b. burgdorferi infection (n1, n2, n3, and n4) were located north of interstate highway 90 except focus s2, which was south of the highway near fort mccoy, wis. the interst ...19883230137
immunoblot analysis of immunoglobulin g response to the lyme disease agent (borrelia burgdorferi) in experimentally and naturally exposed dogs.immunoblots were used to study the immunoglobulin g response to borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally and naturally exposed dogs. adsorption studies confirmed that the antibodies were specific for b. burgdorferi. experimentally exposed dogs were asymptomatic. naturally exposed dogs included both asymptomatic animals and animals showing signs compatible with lyme disease. naturally exposed dogs were from four geographic regions of the country. no differences were detected between immunoblot patt ...19883366860
borreliosis in free-ranging black bears from wisconsin.blood, kidney and tick samples were obtained from 18 hunter-killed black bears (ursus americanus) from three sites in northern wisconsin. a borrelia sp., morphologically and antigenically similar to borrelia burgdorferi, was isolated from the blood of two of the animals, and from the kidney of a third. ixodes dammini and dermacentor variabilis were found on the bears. this is the first report of borreliosis in the ursidae, and of the primary vector of lyme disease, i. dammini, from this host.19883373646
natural exposure of wisconsin dogs to the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).lyme disease, a tick-borne disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi, has been described recently in dogs. in a serologic survey of specimens obtained from march to september 1984, 53% of 380 dogs from two usda licensed vendors in wisconsin were positive for indirect immunofluorescent antibodies to b. burgdorferi at a serum dilution of 1:64 or greater. b. burgdorferi was cultured from the blood of 8/111 dogs. these findings suggest that exposure to this spirochete is common in endemic areas and tha ...19863523038
lyme disease in minnesota: epidemiologic and serologic findings.during the four years, 1980 to 1983, 83 minnesota residents have been diagnosed with lyme disease. sixty-five of the patients were male. the median age of patients was 39 years with a range from one to 77 years. seventy-five (90 percent) had onset in 1982 and 1983. of these latter cases, 56 (75 percent) recalled a tick bite three to 27 days prior to the development of erythema chronicum migrans. patients experienced possible exposure to ixodes dammini in at least 24 (28 percent) of the 87 minnes ...19846393615
genotypic and phenotypic characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ticks and small animals in illinois.we have characterized 33 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi from northern illinois (32 isolates) and wisconsin (1 isolate) representing the largest series of midwestern isolates investigated to date. the techniques used for molecular analysis of strains included (i) genospecies typing with species-specific pcr primers, (ii) plasmid profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of total genomic dna, (iii) large-restriction-fragment pattern (lrfp) analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of mlui ...19957494019
childhood neurologic disorders and lyme disease during determine the prevalence of clinically significant nervous system disease attributable to transplacental transmission of borrelia burgdorferi, we surveyed neurologists in areas of the united states in which lyme disease is endemic (i.e., massachusetts, rhode island, connecticut, new york, new jersey, wisconsin, and minnesota). overall, 162 of the 176 (92%) pediatric neurologists contacted responded to the survey with a range of 90-100% in the different geographic areas. one pediatric neurolog ...19947986291
cosegregation of a novel bartonella species with borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti in peromyscus leucopus.during surveillance for various tickborne pathogens in the upper midwest during the summer and early fall of 1995, a bartonella-like agent was detected in the blood of mice that were concurrently infected with borrelia burgdorferi or babesia microti (or both). the organism was isolated in pure culture after inoculation of blood from wild-caught mice into c.b-17 scid/scid mice. phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rrna and the citrate synthase genes showed that the novel bartonella species and a bart ...19989466529
coinfection with babesia microti and borrelia burgdorferi in a western wisconsin resident.a 68-year-old woman, who had not traveled outside of western wisconsin, was hospitalized after 4 weeks of chills, fevers, myalgias, neuralgias in her right arm, and pain in the right upper quadrant of her abdomen. physical examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly, and laboratory studies showed anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased aspartate transaminase level, and microscopic hematuria. wright's stain of a blood smear revealed intraerythrocytic organisms consistent with babesia species. a polymeras ...19989559037
vegetational association of host-seeking adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae), on dairy farms in northwestern a measure of the risk for exposure to lyme disease, we estimated the distribution of host-seeking adults of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, on dairy farms in barron county in northwestern wisconsin. vegetation ecotypes that were common to 18 farms that were representative of the county were surveyed by flag sampling. tick prevalence and abundance, which were similar during fall and spring periods, were very low in farmhouse yards and forage croplands; only a single male was colle ...19989565874
lyme disease and migrating birds in the saint croix river valley.during a study of migrating land birds in 1987, we examined over 9,200 individual birds representing 99 species from the saint croix river valley, a lyme disease-endemic area of east central minnesota and northwestern wisconsin. we found that 250 deer tick (ixodes dammini) larvae and nymphs infested 58 birds from 15 migrant species; 56 ticks (22.4%) were positive for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. five ground-foraging migrant bird species favoring mesic habitats, veery (cathar ...19892782872
molecular characterization of borrelia spp. isolates from greater metropolitan chicago reveals the presence of borrelia bissettii. preliminary report.lyme disease in the us is concentrated in three endemic areas: the northeast, the upper mid-west, and the pacific coast. in the mid-west, the range of lyme disease has expanded to include large parts of wisconsin and minnesota. despite its proximity to the mid-western focus, illinois, so far, has not been considered an endemic area. however, more recent data suggest that this situation may be changing. also, the extent of borrelial diversity in the mid-west remains largely unexplored. here, we p ...200011075925
clinical and epidemiological features of early lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in compare clinical features and assess risk factors for human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) and early lyme disease, we enrolled patients in a case-control study during the 1996 and 1997 tick seasons. clinical and demographic characteristics were assessed for patients with laboratory-confirmed cases of hge or lyme disease, and risk factors were compared with those of matched control subjects. we identified 83 persons with lyme disease, 27 with hge, and 11 with apparent coinfection. unsuspected ...199910585798
spatial analysis of the distribution of lyme disease in wisconsin.surveillance measures for human cases of lyme disease in wisconsin were compared and associated with tick distribution and vegetation coverage. during 1991-1994, 1,759 confirmed human cases of lyme disease reported to the wisconsin division of health were assigned a county of residence, but only 329 (19%) could be assigned with certainty a county of exposure. distributions of cases by county of exposure and residence were often consistent from year to year. tick distribution in 46 of 72 wisconsi ...19979063347
enzootic transmission of deer tick virus in new england and wisconsin determine whether rodents that are intensely exposed to the deer tick-transmitted agents of lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis are also exposed to deer tick virus (dtv), we assayed serum samples from white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) in sites densely infested by deer ticks. to conduct serosurveys, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and western blot assay by cloning, expressing, and purifyi ...200011357992
canine surveillance system for lyme borreliosis in wisconsin and northern illinois: geographic distribution and risk factor analysis.a seroprevalence survey for borrelia burgdorferi was conducted among the healthy canine pet population in selected counties of wisconsin and northern illinois to determine the distribution of lyme disease and associated risk factors. information obtained for each dog included place of residence, lyme disease vaccination status, history of travel and tick exposure, signalment, and medical history. serum samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by an immunoblot proc ...200111716112
borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) and peromyscus leucopus in northeastern wisconsin.populations of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, are established in western and central wisconsin in the upper midwestern united states, but appear to be expanding geographically there. here, we report a previously unknown population in northeastern wisconsin. questing i. scapularis nymphs and adults were collected by flagging vegetation from a riverine site in marinette county, wisconsin, in spring of 1993 and 1994. dissection and culture of tick guts in modified barbour-stoenner-kel ...19968906923
seroprevalence of antibodies that react with anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, in different populations in westchester county, new york.we determined the frequencies of antibodies to anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), in different groups of adults and children from westchester county, new york. the groups included 159 adult blood donors and 215 children who were seronegative for borrelia burgdorferi antibodies, 118 adult patients and 57 children who were seropositive for b. burgdorferi antibodies, and 42 adult patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans. eighteen (11.3%) of the blo ...200212089287
lyme disease spirochetes in ticks collected from birds in midwestern united a tick-spirochete survey conducted from all 1989 through fall 1992 in north-western wisconsin, 4,256 birds (composed of 91 species) were examined for ticks. infestations were recorded for 400 birds (composed of 30 species). of 1,184 ticks taken from 335 birds (composed of 26 species), 60 (5%) haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard) from 8 species of birds were infected with the lyme disease spirochete. borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner. similar surveys conduct ...19968667384
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from skin biopsy specimens of patients with erythema migrans.procedures for the cultural isolation and identification of borrelia burgdorferi from skin biopsy specimens are described. b. burgdorferi was isolated from 24 of 34 skin biopsy specimens from patients with erythema migrans. eight of the culture-positive patients had single, primary lesions and 16 had multiple, secondary lesions. the 17 male and 7 female patients were 2 to 70 years old. biopsy samples were obtained from erythematous or normal-appearing skin within 1 cm of the peripheral aspect of ...19938422007
lyme disease--united states, 2003-2005.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks (ixodes spp.). early manifestations of infection include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. left untreated, late manifestations involving the joints, heart, and nervous system can occur. a healthy people 2010 objective (14-8) is to reduce the annual incidence of lyme disease to 9.7 new cases per 100,000 population in 1 ...200717568368
borrelia burgdorferi infection in dairy cows, rodents, and birds from four wisconsin dairy farms.a combination of culture and subsequent spirochete identification with the polymerase chain reaction technique was used to identify cows, rodents, and birds infected with borrelia burgdorferi. animals were trapped on four wisconsin dairy farms during the summer of 1990. farms 1 and 2 were located in counties nonendemic for lyme disease and farms 3 and 4 were located in counties endemic for lyme disease. the results of the rodent and bird samples were as follows given as the number yielding organ ...19938362496
lyme disease: additional evidence of widespread distribution. recognition of a tick-borne dermatitis-encephalitis-arthritis syndrome in an area of known ixodes tick distribution.lyme disease is a process of unknown etiology that has been linked to bites of ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. central minnesota is an area of known ixodes dammini distribution. this case represents the first recognition of lyme disease from this area. this case presented as a fluctuating meningoencephalitis with superimposed cranial neuropathy. the characteristic skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans, was recognized by history, and oligoarticular arthritis subsequently developed. physici ...19827072749
surveillance for lyme disease--united states, 1992-2006.lyme disease is a multisystem disease that occurs in north america, europe, and asia. in the united states, the etiologic agent is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a spirochete transmitted to humans by infected ixodes scapularis and i. pacificus ticks. the majority of patients with lyme disease develop a characteristic rash, erythema migrans (em), accompanied by symptoms of fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, myalgia, or arthralgia. other manifestations of infection can include arthritis, card ...200818830214
babesiosis in wisconsin. a new focus of disease transmission.a confirmed case of human babesiosis was identified in august 1983 in a 54-year-old asplenic wisconsin resident. babesia microti was identified as the causative agent by blood smear morphology and hamster inoculation techniques. the patient's wife had clinically confirmed lyme disease in 1981 and had serologic evidence (immunofluorescent antibody to a b microti titer of 1:1,024) of recent babesia infection in august 1983. mice (peromyscus species) trapped on the patients' property and elsewhere ...19853886942
borrelia burgdorferi infection in wisconsin horses and cows.blood samples from wisconsin horses and cows suspected of having clinical disease due to borrelia burgdorferi infection were submitted by veterinary practitioners. all serum, milk, colostrum, and synovial samples were tested for b. burgdorferi antibodies by immunofluorescence. whole blood, milk, colostrum, and synovial fluid samples were cultured for b. burgdorferi. records were kept on the clinical signs of antibody-positive animals, date of sample, and location of the animal by county. of the ...19883190095
lyme disease surveillance in the united states, 1983-1986.during 1983-1986, 5,016 cases of lyme disease were reported to the centers for disease control. cases were acquired in 31 states; however, 86% of the cases were acquired in seven states: massachusetts, rhode island, connecticut, new york, new jersey, wisconsin, and minnesota. for 63% of patients the disease began in summer; 52% recalled a tick bite. erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) occurred in 91% of the patients; arthritis, in 57%; neurologic complications, in 18%; and cardiac manifestations, i ...20092682955
the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi seropositivity in an area endemic for lyme disease.we conducted a seroprevalence survey of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in west central wisconsin, an area endemic for lyme disease. one hundred and thirty-seven of 153 patients having blood drawn at the eau claire family medicine clinic and the associated rural augusta practice participated in the study and were tested for the presence of antibodies to b burgdorferi and questioned about lyme disease risk factors. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that 15 (10.9%) of the 137 persons ...19902293487
different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk.animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. we studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of lyme disease in the eastern united states. lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. this led us to hypothes ...201525996603
frequency and clinical significance of lyme seropositivity in patients with isolated optic neuritis.we evaluated antibody reactivity against borrelia burgdorferi in 20 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed isolated optic neuritis who resided in a region endemic for lyme disease. four (20%) patients had positive serology. all three patients who had follow-up serologies showed rising convalescent levels of borrelia-specific igm. one patient refused lumbar puncture, one had normal csf constituents except for an elevated lyme antibody index, and two had csf lymphocytic pleocytosis that remaine ...19912027487
survey for ixodes spp. and borrelia burgdorferi in southeastern wisconsin and northeastern illinois.forested areas adjacent to milwaukee, wis., and chicago, ill., were investigated for rodents and ticks infected with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus or peromyscus maniculatus), meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), and eastern chipmunks (tamias striatus) were captured; and specimens from these animals were cultured for b. burgdorferi to define whether the midwestern lyme disease area currently encompasses these large metropolita ...19912007650
prevalence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi by indirect fluorescent antibody assay, elisa, and western immunoblot in healthy adults in wisconsin and arizona.the prevalence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in healthy adults from wisconsin and arizona was determined by indirect fluorescent antibody assay (ifa), elisa, and western immunoblotting. a total of 301 sera from adult volunteer blood donors were collected from three areas of wisconsin and compared with 49 consecutive anonymous adult volunteer donor sera from tucson, arizona, an area without reported lyme borreliosis. regional differences in seropositivity were found for western immunoblotti ...19921583334
cases of lyme disease in the united states: locations correlated with distribution of ixodes dammini.lyme disease, defined by erythema chronicum migrans and sometimes followed by neurologic, cardiac, or joint involvement, is known to have affected 512 patients in the united states. the disease seems to occur in three distinct foci: along the northeastern coast, in wisconsin, and in california and oregon, a distribution that correlates closely with that of ixodes dammini in the first two areas and with ixodes pacificus in the last. the implicated tick, saved by six patients in the northeast, was ...1979496106
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in adult female ticks (ixodes scapularis), wisconsin 2010-2013. 201526047203
three sudden cardiac deaths associated with lyme carditis - united states, november 2012-july 2013.lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete transmitted by certain species of ixodes ticks. approximately 30,000 confirmed and probable cases of lyme disease were reported in the united states in 2012, primarily from high-incidence states in the northeast (connecticut, delaware, maine, maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, pennsylvania, rhode island, and vermont) and upper midwest (minnesota and wisconsin). common manifestations incl ...201324336130
tickborne infections as a cause of nonspecific febrile illness in wisconsin.lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), and babesiosis are tickborne infections that are indigenous to wisconsin. to assess their importance as a cause of nonspecific fever, we recruited patients with febrile illness at 10 clinics in northwestern wisconsin from may through august of both 1997 and 1998. eligible patients had a temperature >38.0 degrees c but no rash or other localizing source. acute and convalescent serological tests were performed for borrelia burgdorferi, babesia m ...200111317244
predicting the risk of lyme disease: habitat suitability for ixodes scapularis in the north central united states.the distribution and abundance of ixodes scapularis were studied in wisconsin, northern illinois, and portions of the upper peninsula of michigan by inspecting small mammals for ticks and by collecting questing ticks at 138 locations in state parks and natural areas. environmental data were gathered at a local level (i.e., micro and meso levels), and a geographic information system (gis) was used with several digitized coverages of environmental data to create a habitat profile for each site and ...200211927027
interlaboratory comparison of test results for detection of lyme disease by 516 participants in the wisconsin state laboratory of hygiene/college of american pathologists proficiency testing 1991, we reported that 55% of laboratories participating in the wisconsin proficiency testing program could not accurately identify serum samples from lyme disease patients containing antibody against borrelia burgdorferi. the purpose of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of lyme disease test results reported by approximately 500 participants in the wisconsin state laboratory of hygiene/college of american pathologists lyme disease survey had improved. from 1992 through 1994, 50 ...19979041384
environmental factors affecting survival of immature ixodes scapularis and implications for geographical distribution of lyme disease: the climate/behavior hypothesis.recent reports suggest that host-seeking nymphs in southern populations of ixodes scapularis remain below the leaf litter surface, while northern nymphs seek hosts on leaves and twigs above the litter surface. this behavioral difference potentially results in decreased tick contact with humans in the south, and fewer cases of lyme disease. we studied whether north-south differences in tick survival patterns might contribute to this phenomenon. four month old larvae resulting from a cross between ...201728076359
presence of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) in southern kettle moraine state forest, wisconsin, and characterization of strain w97f51.lyme disease, caused by borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner; babesiosis, caused by babesia microti franca; and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum bakken & dumler have been reported in wisconsin, mainly in the endemic areas of the northwestern part of the state. people exposed to blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, from this region can potentially contract one or all of these diseases concurrently. within the past several year ...200515962800
anaplasma phagocytophilum in central and western wisconsin: a molecular survey.anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted to humans through the bite of ixodes spp. ticks, and causes a febrile disease known as human granulocytic anaplasmosis. the presence of a. phagocytophilum in wisconsin white-tailed deer blood and in deer ticks was assessed using pcr and dna sequencing. sampling sites in the western part of the state (buffalo county) and central region (waushara, waupaca, and green lake counties) were used. in buffalo county, 5.6 ...200616738890
epidemiologic features of human babesiosis in wisconsin, characterize epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory features of babesiosis occurring in wisconsin residents.200717844708
national surveillance of lyme disease, 1987 and 1988, 6876 lyme disease cases from 43 states were reported to the centers for disease control. the 4507 cases reported in 1988 was nearly double the case number reported in 1987, and ninefold the number reported in 1982, when a systematic system of national surveillance was established. the average annual incidence of reported lyme disease in the united states in 1987-1988 was 1.4/100,000. new york led the nation in reported cases in 1988 with 57% of the cases reported nationally. ei ...19892758820
lyme disease: its neurologic manifestations and its presentation in wisconsin. 19863751101
primary and secondary erythema migrans in central wisconsin.we report a series of 28 consecutive patients with erythema migrans (em) who underwent skin biopsies for culture of borrelia burgdorferi. culture results, lyme serologic findings, and clinical features in patients with only primary em are compared with those in patients with secondary em.19938389536
infection and co-infection rates of anaplasma phagocytophilum variants, babesia spp., borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial endosymbiont in ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) from sites in indiana, maine, pennsylvania, and total, 394 questing adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae), collected at four sites were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for five microbial species: anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia microti, babesia odocoilei, borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial i. scapularis endosymbiont. identities of genetic variants of a. phagocytophilum were determined by sequencing a portion of the 16s dna. in 55% of infected ticks (193/351), a single agent was detected. in ...200818402145
seroepidemiologic survey of borrelia burgdorferi exposure of dairy cattle in elisa, using purified flagellin of borrelia burgdorferi as the solid-phase antigen, was used to measure antibody concentrations to b burgdorferi in dairy cattle in wisconsin. serum obtained from 5,060 cows in 160 randomly selected herds in the state were tested. serum from an additional 2,600 cattle in barron county, wis, a county with a high annual incidence of b burgdorferi infections in human beings, was also tested. only 7% of the cows that were tested, but 66% of the herds that were test ...19947802388
ixodes dammini as a potential vector of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.little is known about the epidemiology and mode of transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge). analyses of an engorged female ixodes dammini tick removed from an hge patient and 101 field-collected i. dammini and dermacentor variabilis from three wisconsin counties for borrelia burgdorferi and ehrlichia phagocytophila/ehrlichia equi dna revealed that the patient tick and 7 of 68 i. dammini ticks from washburn county collected in 1982 and 1991 were positive for ehrlichial ...19957561173
antibiotic treatment duration and long-term outcomes of patients with early lyme disease from a lyme disease-hyperendemic area.the length of antibiotic therapy and long-term outcomes in patients with early lyme disease are incompletely described. we report the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with early localized and early disseminated lyme disease based on the duration of antibiotic therapy prescribed.201020070237
lyme disease in wisconsin: epidemiologic, clinical, serologic, and entomologic 1980-82, 80 individuals (71 wisconsin residents) had confirmed lyme disease (ld-c) reported; 39 additional patients had probable or possible ld. all cases of ld-c occurred during may-november; 73 percent occurred during june-july; 54 (68 percent) occurred in males. the mean age was 38.7 years (range, 7-77 years). among ld-c patients, likely exposure to the presumed vector ixodes dammini (id) occurred in 22 different wisconsin counties. antibodies to the id spirochete that causes ld occurred i ...19846334942
Expansion of the Midwestern focus for human granulocytic anaplasmosis into the region surrounding La Crosse, Wisconsin.Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), shares the same enzootic life cycle as Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although La Crosse, WI, is a well-recognized Lyme disease focus with an abundance of Ixodes scapularis vector ticks and the first documentation of HGA occurred in patients from northwestern Wisconsin, local transmission of A. phagocytophilum has not to date been documented. In this study, we evaluated DNA extrac ...201121918026
the global distribution of lyme disease.erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), the skin lesion characteristic of lyme disease, was first described in sweden in 1909; subsequently, cases of ecm have been reported from at least 19 countries on three continents. in europe cases have occurred within the range of ixodes ricinus ticks, the recognized vector of ecm in europe, although one case outside this range has been ascribed to mosquito bites. in 1970 the first case of ecm acquired in the united states was reported, and in 1977, the full sym ...19853885366
lyme disease ecology in wisconsin: distribution and host preferences of ixodes dammini, and prevalence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals.lyme disease recently has been recognized in wisconsin. trapping studies were conducted at four geographically separate and ecologically distinct regions in wisconsin to elucidate the distribution and host preferences of ixodes dammini on small and medium sized mammals, and the occurrence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in these wild mammals. peak i. dammini larval activity occurred from june-september. nymphs were most active from may-august. white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and ch ...19873605501
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice and ixodes dammini at fort mccoy, wis.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was isolated from 15 of 17 white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and 54 of 82 subadult ixodes dammini from fort mccoy, wis. of the 47 isolates tested, all reacted in indirect fluorescent-antibody tests with monoclonal antibodies directed against a surface protein of b. burgdorferi (approximate molecular weight, 31,000) and flagellins that are common to all borrelia species. indirect fluorescent-antibody reactions were variable when an ...19873305566
ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae): abundance and rate of infection with borrelia burgdorferi in four state parks in wisconsin.four state parks located in lyme disease endemic regions of wisconsin were surveyed for the presence of ixodes scapularis say during may and june of 1998 by drag sampling along hiking trails. nymphal abundance varied between parks, with the average number of nymphs encountered in 1 h ranging from 6.2 +/- 3.8-47.1 +/- 36.3 (mean +/- sd). questing nymphs were tested for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi by culture in bsk medium and 7-12% was found to be infected. the average risk of encounterin ...200111268688
status of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in illinois.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin was found for the first time in illinois in november 1987, when two adult females were collected from two deer in jo daviess county in the northwestern corner of the state. in 1988, in a study of six state parks in northern illinois, questing adults and nymphs were encountered in one park in ogle county. during the firearm deer hunt in november 1988, adult female and male ticks were found in several counties, with a high rate of infestation (gr ...19902388231
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) nymphs collected in managed red pine forests in wisconsin.changes in the structure of managed red pine forests in wisconsin caused by interacting root- and stem-colonizing insects are associated with increased abundance of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, in comparison with nonimpacted stands. however, the frequency and variability of the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens in this coniferous forest type across wisconsin is unknown. red pine forests were surveyed from 2009 to 2013 to determine the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi and anapl ...201424897864
lyme disease: emergency department considerations.lyme disease (ld) is the most common vector-borne illness in north america. reported cases of ld have increased from approximately 10,000 cases annually in 1991 to >25,000 cases in 2014. greater recognition, enhanced surveillance, and public education have contributed to the increased prevalence, as have geographic expansion and the number of infected ticks. cases are reported primarily in the northeastern united states, wisconsin, and minnesota, with children having the highest incidence of ld ...201728291638
borrelia mayonii sp. nov., a member of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, detected in patients and ticks in the upper midwestern united states.lyme borreliosis (lb) is a multisystem disease caused by spirochetes in the borrelia burgdorferisensu lato (bbsl) genospecies complex. we previously described a novel bbsl genospecies (type strain mn14-1420t) that causes lb among patients with exposures to ticks in the upper midwestern usa. patients infected with the novel bbsl genospecies demonstrated higher levels of spirochetemia and somewhat differing clinical symptoms as compared with those infected with other bbsl genospecies. the organism ...201627558626
rates of borrelia burgdorferi infection in ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in southwestern wisconsin.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin collected from a study site in southwestern wisconsin were examined for borrelia burgdorferi infection. adult spirochete infection rates varied seasonally (38.1%, spring 1990; 60.3%, fall 1990; 41.2%, spring 1991) and were similar to or higher than rates reported in various studies from the northeastern united states. statistical comparison of seasonal infection rates indicated a significant difference between the fall 1990 adult population and ...19921495049
isolation of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia mayonii from naturally infected rodents in minnesota.borrelia mayonii is a newly described member of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that is vectored by the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis say) and a cause of lyme disease in minnesota and wisconsin. vertebrate reservoir hosts involved in the enzootic maintenance of b. mayonii have not yet been identified. here, we describe the first isolation of b. mayonii from naturally infected white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus rafinesque) and an american red squirrel (tamiasciurus hudsonic ...201728444198
babesiosis surveillance - wisconsin, 2001-2015.babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by babesia microti, an intraerythocytic protozoan. babesia microti, like the causal agents for lyme disease and anaplasmosis, is endemic to the northeastern and upper midwestern united states where it is usually transmitted by the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis. although babesiosis is usually a mild to moderate illness, older or immunocompromised persons can develop a serious malaria-like illness that can be fatal without prompt tr ...201728683059
lyme disease incidence in wisconsin: a comparison of state-reported rates and rates from a population-based cohort.few studies have assessed the accuracy and completeness of lyme disease surveillance systems. lyme disease cases were identified through review of medical records for residents of the marshfield epidemiologic study area (mesa), a population-based cohort of nearly 80,000 in north-central wisconsin for which comprehensive medical care data are available through the marshfield clinic. these cases were compared with cases reported to the wisconsin division of public health to estimate the completene ...200212048226
nuclear markers reveal predominantly north to south gene flow in ixodes scapularis, the tick vector of the lyme disease spirochete.ixodes scapularis, the tick vector of the lyme disease spirochete, is distributed over most of the eastern united states, but >80% of all lyme disease cases occur in the northeast. the role that genetic differences between northern and southern tick populations play in explaining this disparate distribution of lyme disease cases is unclear. the present study was conducted with 1,155 snp markers in eight nuclear genes; the 16s mitochondrial gene was examined for comparison with earlier studies. w ...201526536360
powassan/deer tick virus and borrelia burgdorferi infection in wisconsin tick populations.powassan/deer tick virus (powv/dtv) is an emerging cause of arboviral neuroinvasive disease in the upper midwest. these studies describe the prevalence and geographic distribution of wisconsin ticks carrying powv/dtv as well as the high frequency of ixodes scapularis ticks coinfected with both powv/dtv and borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. these findings suggest that concurrent transmission of powv/dtv and b. burgdorferi from coinfected ticks is likely to occur in humans ...201728488932
hunter-killed deer surveillance to assess changes in the prevalence and distribution of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in a result of the increasing incidence of lyme disease and other tick-borne pathogens in wisconsin, we assessed the distribution of adult blacklegged ticks through collections from hunter-killed deer in 2008 and 2009 and compared results with prior surveys beginning in 1981. volunteers staffed 21 wisconsin department of natural resources registration stations in 21 counties in the eastern half of wisconsin in 2008 and 10 stations in seven counties in northwestern wisconsin in 2009. in total, 78 ...201323802460
lyme carditis. severe conduction disorder.lyme disease in most cases occurs in the states of connecticut, wisconsin, oregon, california, missouri and parts of the northeastern coast. showing the exception to the rule, the authors discuss a case in which a patient acquired the disease on the eastern shore of virginia.19902304446
gray wolf exposure to emerging vector-borne diseases in wisconsin with comparison to domestic dogs and concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. in the united sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. of these diseases, lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. gray wolves (canis lupus) recolonized wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of ...201627898670
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