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distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in residential lawns on prudence island, rhode island.the distribution of nymphal ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin in residential lawns was assessed by flagging on prudence island, ri. the number of ticks per sample was five times greater in lawns adjacent to woods than in lawns adjacent to other lawns. relative tick abundance was negatively correlated with distance from the woods, but the decline was gradual. spirochete prevalence in ticks did not differ among lawn types or at different distances from the woods. therefore, barri ...19921460622
babesiosis: an underdiagnosed disease of children.babesiosis is a malaria-like illness caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite babesia microti and is transmitted by the same tick that transmits borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. babesiosis is well recognized in adult residents of southern new england and new york but has been described in only five children. to determine whether children are infected with b microti less often than are adults, a prospective serosurvey was carried out on block island, ri, where babesiosis ...19921594345
intrinsic competence of three ixodid ticks (acari) as vectors of the lyme disease spirochete.we compared the intrinsic vector competence of ixodes dammini spielman et al., dermacentor variabilis (say), and amblyomma americanum (l.) for the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al.) on prudence island, rhode island, a lyme disease-endemic site where all three ticks occur together. natural and experimental spirochete infection rates were determined in those ticks and their degree of contact with white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), the principal reservoir host, was ...19902388239
the geographic distribution of lyme disease in the united states.in 1982, national surveillance for lyme disease was established by the centers for disease control to monitor trends and determine endemic geographic areas. initially, the endemic areas corresponded to the known distribution of ixodes dammini, a five-state area of the northeastern seaboard (new york, new jersey, connecticut, rhode island, and massachusetts) and wisconsin and minnesota. increasing numbers of cases have been reported outside these areas, however, 86% of the provisional 5731 cases ...19883190099
clinical and serologic studies of canine borreliosis.during 1984 and 1985, blood samples were obtained from 271 dogs that were suspected of having borreliosis. the dogs lived in areas known to be infested with ticks and had been examined because of limb/joint disorders or for unknown illnesses marked by fever, anorexia, or fatigue. lameness had been the most frequently reported clinical manifestation. analyses of serum specimens, by an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) method or by an elisa, detected antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the etiol ...19873319989
serologic analyses of peromyscus leucopus, a rodent reservoir for borrelia burgdorferi, in northeastern united states.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and indirect fluorescent-antibody test were used to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, in peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse). of the 661 mice captured in connecticut, rhode island, and new york during 1980 and 1983 to 1987, 166 (25.1%) had antibodies to b. burgdorferi by elisa. comparative analyses of 210 serum specimens, collected in areas where lyme disease is endemic, revealed a threefold differenc ...19883384925
peromyscus leucopus and microtus pennsylvanicus simultaneously infected with borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti.borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, and babesia microti, the causative agent of human babesiosis, were isolated from 71 and 57%, respectively, of 14 specimens of peromyscus leucopus and microtus pennsylvanicus collected from prudence and patience islands, r.i. both pathogens were isolated from five individual rodents. the presence of these two infectious organisms in the same mammal suggests that individual larval ixodes dammini may ingest both pathogens and subsequently t ...19863517038
childhood neurologic disorders and lyme disease during pregnancy.to determine the prevalence of clinically significant nervous system disease attributable to transplacental transmission of borrelia burgdorferi, we surveyed neurologists in areas of the united states in which lyme disease is endemic (i.e., massachusetts, rhode island, connecticut, new york, new jersey, wisconsin, and minnesota). overall, 162 of the 176 (92%) pediatric neurologists contacted responded to the survey with a range of 90-100% in the different geographic areas. one pediatric neurolog ...19947986291
occurrence and distribution in rhode island of hunterellus hookeri (hymenoptera: encyrtidae), a wasp parasitoid of ixodes dammini.the wasp hunterellus hookeri howard parasitizes several species of ixodid ticks including ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, the vector of lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi, in the northeastern united states. we detected the occurrence and evaluated the distribution of this wasp parasitoid in populations of i. dammini in rhode island. there has been no intentional introduction of a tick parasitoid recorded anywhere in rhode island; yet, we found this wasp at one of ...19938433338
concurrent lyme disease and babesiosis. evidence for increased severity and duration of illness.to determine whether patients coinfected with lyme disease and babesiosis in sites where both diseases are zoonotic experience a greater number of symptoms for a longer period of time than those with either infection alone.19968637139
entomologic index for human risk of lyme disease.an entomologic index based on density estimates of lyme disease spirochete-infected nymphal deer ticks (lxodes scapularis) was developed to assess human risk of lyme disease. the authors used a standardized protocol to determine tick density and infection in numerous forested sites in six rhode island towns. an entomologic risk index calculated for each town was compared with the number of human lyme disease cases reported to the rhode island state health department for the same year. a strong p ...19968942438
reservoir competence of the meadow vole (rodentia: cricetidae) for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi.the reservoir competence of the meadow vole, microtus pennsylvanicus ord, for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner was established on patience island, ri. meadow voles were collected from 5 locations throughout rhode island. at 4 of the field sites, m. pennsylvanicus represented only 4.0% (n = 141) of the animals captured. however, on patience island, m. pennsylvanicus was the sole small mammal collected (n = 48). of the larval ixodes scap ...19989775612
assessing the association between the geographic distribution of deer ticks and seropositivity rates to various tick-transmitted disease organisms in dogs.to determine whether the geographic distribution of deer ticks (ixodes scapularis) was associated with the distribution of dogs seropositive for various tick-transmitted disease organisms (ie, borrelia burgdorferi, rickettsia rickettsii, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [hge] agent, ehrlichia canis, and bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii).200111318358
enzootic transmission of deer tick virus in new england and wisconsin sites.to determine whether rodents that are intensely exposed to the deer tick-transmitted agents of lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis are also exposed to deer tick virus (dtv), we assayed serum samples from white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) in sites densely infested by deer ticks. to conduct serosurveys, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and western blot assay by cloning, expressing, and purifyi ...200011357992
prospective study of coinfection in patients with erythema migrans.the frequency of coinfection with borrelia burgdorferi and either anaplasma phagocytophila or babesia microti among patients with erythema migrans, the initial skin lesion of lyme disease, was assessed in 2 mainland locations in rhode island and connecticut in a 4-year prospective study. of the 93 patients with culture-proven erythema migrans, 2 (2%) patients had coinfection with a. phagocytophila and 2 (2%) had coinfection with b. microti. we concluded that the frequency of coinfection with the ...200312684924
increasing health burden of human babesiosis in endemic sites.human infection due to babesia microti has been regarded as infrequent and a condition primarily affecting the elderly or immunocompromised. to determine whether risk in endemic sites may be increasing relative to that of borrelia burgdorferi and to define its age-related clinical spectrum, we carried out a 10-year community-based serosurvey and case finding study on block island, rhode island. less intensive observations were conducted in nearby sites. incidence of babesial infection on block i ...200312875292
lack of spatial autocorrelation in fine-scale distributions of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae).spatial patterns of ixodes scapularis say, the vector of the lyme disease agent, have been examined at various geographic scales, demonstrating that distributions of these ticks are spatially autocorrelated at both national and state scales. we tested the hypothesis that distributions of nymphal i scapularis ticks at the fine scale of an endemic community also are spatially autocorrelated. nymphal tick densities were determined by collecting ticks from 51 and 47 wooded residential properties in ...200415535613
preview: lyme disease vaccines.lyme disease is a tick-borne spirochetal disease that is common in rhode island. the osp a based vaccine against lyme disease that has been shown effective in animal models has now been tested by two manufacturers in thousands of people. the vaccines appear to be safe and effective. when the vaccines become available to physicians, there should be strong demand in rhode island, especially in the southern part of the state where there is a high degree of public awareness and experience with lyme ...199815580796
hypersensitivity to ticks and lyme disease risk.although residents of lyme disease-endemic regions describe frequent exposure to ticks, lyme disease develops in relatively few. to determine whether people who experience cutaneous hypersensitivity against tick bite have fewer episodes of lyme disease than those who do not, we examined several factors that might restrict the incidence of lyme disease among residents of block island, rhode island. of 1,498 study participants, 27% (95% confidence interval [ci] 23%-31%) reported > or = 1 tick bite ...200515705320
evaluating satellite sensor-derived indices for lyme disease risk prediction.the wetness and greenness indices created using landsat thematic mapper (tm) data from june 1995 and 1997 and july 2002 were tested for their ability to predict the location of sites with different levels of nymphal blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, abundance in rhode island. in 1995, there were statistically significant differences in the mean of greenness and wetness indices between sites classified as low and moderate tick abundance areas (p = 0.005 and p = 0.041, respectively). in 199 ...200616619620
lyme disease--united states, 2003-2005.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks (ixodes spp.). early manifestations of infection include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. left untreated, late manifestations involving the joints, heart, and nervous system can occur. a healthy people 2010 objective (14-8) is to reduce the annual incidence of lyme disease to 9.7 new cases per 100,000 population in 1 ...200717568368
comparison of the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi s. l. isolated from the tick ixodes scapularis in southeastern and northeastern united states.thirty-five strains of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (b. burgdorferi s. l.) were isolated from the blacklegged tick vector ixodes scapularis in south carolina, georgia, florida, and rhode island. they were characterized by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of rrf (5s)-rrl (23s) intergenic spacer amplicons. pcr-rflp analysis indicated that the strains represented at least 3 genospecies (including a possible novel genospecies) and 4 differen ...200818576863
surveillance for lyme disease--united states, 1992-2006.lyme disease is a multisystem disease that occurs in north america, europe, and asia. in the united states, the etiologic agent is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a spirochete transmitted to humans by infected ixodes scapularis and i. pacificus ticks. the majority of patients with lyme disease develop a characteristic rash, erythema migrans (em), accompanied by symptoms of fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, myalgia, or arthralgia. other manifestations of infection can include arthritis, card ...200818830214
topical treatment of white-tailed deer with an acaricide for the control of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in a connecticut lyme borreliosis hyperendemic community.the 4-poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann), against ticks using the acaricide amitraz, was evaluated in a lyme borreliosis endemic community in connecticut. as part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21-24 of the 4-posters were distributed at residential sites in old lyme, ct, in a core treatment area of approximately 5.2 km(2) in fall 1997. the 4-posters were active october to mid-december and march into may, corresponding to the ...200919650731
seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi-specific c6 antibody in dogs before and after implementation of a nonadjuvanted recombinant outer surface protein a vaccine in a rhode island small animal clinic.a borrelia burgdorferi antibody screening and vaccination program was established at a 2.5-doctor small animal hospital where no prior program had existed. a commercially available nonadjuvanted recombinant outer surface protein a vaccine was given at day 0, 3 weeks, and 6 months and then yearly based on recommendations by topfer and straubinger. analysis of lyme-specific serologic results in the hospital's canine patient population over a 33-month period showed that >99% of c6 lyme antibody-pos ...201020960414
long-term lyme disease antibiotic therapy beliefs among new england residents.most physicians prescribe lyme disease antibiotic therapy regimens that are recommended by the centers for disease control and prevention, the infectious disease society of america, and the national institutes of health. an alternative approach by some physicians consists of prolonged antibiotic treatment for >2 months because they believe that lyme disease often results in persistent borrelia burgdorferi infection. understanding how patients perceive the disease is important for effective docto ...201121417921
the ability of a topical novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene to protect dogs from borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum infections transmitted by ixodes scapularis.healthy, purpose-bred laboratory beagle dogs that had not been exposed to ticks and were seronegative for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum were randomly assigned to four groups of eight dogs each. control group 1 was not treated. groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with a single topical application of a new formulation of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene (certifectâ„¢, merial limited, ga, usa) at 28, 21 or 14 days prior to tick infestation, respectively. each dog was infested with ...201121777736
identification of borrelia burgdorferi ospc genotypes in canine tissue following tick infestation: implications for lyme disease vaccine and diagnostic assay design.in endemic regions, lyme disease is a potential health threat to dogs. canine lyme disease manifests with arthritis-induced lameness, anorexia, fever, lethargy, lymphadenopathy and, in some cases, fatal glomerulonephritis. a recent study revealed that the regional mean for the percentage of seropositive dogs in the north-east of the usa is 11.6%. the outer surface protein c (ospc) of lyme disease spirochetes is an important virulence factor required for the establishment of infection in mammals. ...201323962611
different populations of blacklegged tick nymphs exhibit differences in questing behavior that have implications for human lyme disease risk.animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. we studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of lyme disease in the eastern united states. lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. this led us to hypothes ...201525996603
three sudden cardiac deaths associated with lyme carditis - united states, november 2012-july 2013.lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete transmitted by certain species of ixodes ticks. approximately 30,000 confirmed and probable cases of lyme disease were reported in the united states in 2012, primarily from high-incidence states in the northeast (connecticut, delaware, maine, maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, pennsylvania, rhode island, and vermont) and upper midwest (minnesota and wisconsin). common manifestations incl ...201324336130
environmental factors affecting survival of immature ixodes scapularis and implications for geographical distribution of lyme disease: the climate/behavior hypothesis.recent reports suggest that host-seeking nymphs in southern populations of ixodes scapularis remain below the leaf litter surface, while northern nymphs seek hosts on leaves and twigs above the litter surface. this behavioral difference potentially results in decreased tick contact with humans in the south, and fewer cases of lyme disease. we studied whether north-south differences in tick survival patterns might contribute to this phenomenon. four month old larvae resulting from a cross between ...201728076359
tick-borne illness in rhode island - how big a problem is it?rhode island is a state with a high incidence of tick-borne diseases, specifically lyme disease. the ioxedes tick which serves as vector for the three most common tick infections is endemic in both the new england and mid-atlantic regions. however, differences in the density of infections exist within rhode island (ri), with the highest densities in the southern counties. tick-borne diseases can have varying presentations, as well as varied response to appropriate treatment leading to many quest ...201425562059
national surveillance of lyme disease, 1987-1988.in 1987 and 1988, 6876 lyme disease cases from 43 states were reported to the centers for disease control. the 4507 cases reported in 1988 was nearly double the case number reported in 1987, and ninefold the number reported in 1982, when a systematic system of national surveillance was established. the average annual incidence of reported lyme disease in the united states in 1987-1988 was 1.4/100,000. new york led the nation in reported cases in 1988 with 57% of the cases reported nationally. ei ...19892758820
lyme disease in rhode island. 19892587914
the united states department of agriculture northeast area-wide tick control project: history and protocol.the northeast area-wide tick control project (neatcp) was funded by the united states department of agriculture (usda) as a large-scale cooperative demonstration project of the usda-agricultural research service (ars)-patented 4-poster tick control technology (pound et al. 1994) involving the usda-ars and a consortium of universities, state agencies, and a consulting firm at research locations in the five states of connecticut (ct), maryland (md), new jersey (nj), new york (ny), and rhode island ...200919650730
lyme disease surveillance in the united states, 1983-1986.during 1983-1986, 5,016 cases of lyme disease were reported to the centers for disease control. cases were acquired in 31 states; however, 86% of the cases were acquired in seven states: massachusetts, rhode island, connecticut, new york, new jersey, wisconsin, and minnesota. for 63% of patients the disease began in summer; 52% recalled a tick bite. erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) occurred in 91% of the patients; arthritis, in 57%; neurologic complications, in 18%; and cardiac manifestations, i ...20092682955
lyme disease in rhode island: three years of surveillance. 19968870467
lyme disease in rhode island, 1990-1998. 199910582431
lyme disease reporting for navy and marine corps (1997-2000).reported cases of lyme disease for navy and marine corps personnel during 1997-2000 are presented from data collected in the naval disease reporting system and the defense medical epidemiological database. naval disease reporting system identified 210 case subjects; 60% were men, 49% were family members, and 37% were active duty, and most originated in the second quarter of the calendar year. states reporting the greatest number of reports were connecticut (44%), north carolina (16%), rhode isla ...200314719627
estimating the incidence of new onset lyme disease in rhode island. 200818705226
integrated assessment of behavioral and environmental risk factors for lyme disease infection on block island, rhode island.peridomestic exposure to borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes scapularis nymphs is considered the dominant means of infection with black-legged tick-borne pathogens in the eastern united states. population level studies have detected a positive association between the density of infected nymphs and lyme disease incidence. at a finer spatial scale within endemic communities, studies have focused on individual level risk behaviors, without accounting for differences in peridomestic nymphal density ...201424416278
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