Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI) in the North: STARI following a tick bite in Long Island, New York.The most common clinical manifestation of Lyme disease is the characteristic rash, erythema migrans (EM). In the 1980s EM-like eruptions were reported in Missouri and other southeastern states. The EM-like eruptions, which were of unknown etiology, often followed the bite of the Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the rash is called STARI (southern tick-associated rash illness). Although the Lone Star tick is found in the Lyme disease-endemic areas of New England and Mid-Atlantic regions o ...201121940418
serologic evaluation of patients from missouri with erythema migrans-like skin lesions with the c6 lyme test.southern tick-associated rash illness (stari), also known as masters disease, affects people predominantly in the southeast and south central united states. these patients exhibit skin lesions that resemble erythema migrans (em), the characteristic skin lesion in early lyme disease. the etiology of stari remains unknown, and no serologic test is available to aid in its diagnosis. the c6 lyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate coded serum specimens from patients with stari at ...200617028220
erythema chronica migrans, ticks and lyme disease in missouri. 199910528494
erythema chronica migrans, ticks and lyme disease in missouri. 199910528493
erythema chronica migrans (ecm). ticks and lyme disease in missouri. 199910333681
bacteriocidal activity of lizard and mouse serum for borrelia lonestari, putative agent of a lyme-like illness (aka stari or masters disease) in determine responses of borrelia lonestari and borrelia burgdorferi to eastern fence lizard (sceloporus undulatus) and swiss-webster mouse (mus musculus) sera.200516259394
multivariate morphometric discrimination of nymphal and adult forms of the blacklegged tick (acari: ixodidae), a principal vector of the agent of lyme disease in eastern north america.a morphological study of postlarval stages of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, was conducted to examine congruence between northern (formerly i. dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin) and southern morphotypes. the character set totaled 17 for females, 25 for males, and 28 for nymphs. populations from 6 geographic areas, f1 progeny from reciprocal crosses between i. scapularis from massachusetts and georgia, and i. pacificus cooley & kohls from california were measured. charact ...19958551506
microbiologic evaluation of patients from missouri with erythema migrans.borrelia lonestari infects amblyomma americanum, the tick species that is the most common cause of tick bites in southeast and south-central united states, and this spirochete has been detected in an erythema migrans (em)-like skin rash in 1 patient. therefore, b. lonestari is considered to be a leading candidate for the etiologic agent of em in this region.200515668867
identification of an uncultivable borrelia species in the hard tick amblyomma americanum: possible agent of a lyme disease-like illness.bites from the hard tick amblyomma americanum are associated with a lyme disease-like illness in the southern united states. to identify possible etiologic agents for this disorder, a. americanum ticks were collected in missouri, texas, new jersey, and new york and examined microscopically. uncultivable spirochetes were present in approximately 2% of the ticks. borrelia genus-specific oligonucleotides for the flagellin and 16s rrna genes were used for amplification of dna. products were obtained ...19968568302
research on ticks and tick-borne pathogens in missouri--an interim research report. 19921491661
tick research efforts. 19921406559
tick research efforts. 19921406558
evidence supporting the presence of borrelia burgdorferi in missouri.although lyme disease is commonly seen in the southcentral united states, the epidemiology of the disease is poorly defined there. the purpose of this study was to document the presence of borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected in southeastern missouri and around the city of st. louis. spirochetes were detected and identified as b. burgdorferi by immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) tests using the monoclonal antibody h5332 in 1.9% of amblyomma americanum and 2.0% of dermacentor variabilis ticks co ...19947943575
prospective clinical evaluation of patients from missouri and new york with erythema migrans-like skin lesions.the most common and most recognizable feature of borrelia burgdorferi infection (lyme disease) is the skin lesion erythema migrans (em). an illness associated with an em-like skin lesion, but which is not caused by b. burgdorferi, occurs in many southern states in the united states (southern tick-associated rash illness [stari], also known as masters disease).200516142659
the enigma of lyme disease in missouri. 19921491662
lyme carditis. severe conduction disorder.lyme disease in most cases occurs in the states of connecticut, wisconsin, oregon, california, missouri and parts of the northeastern coast. showing the exception to the rule, the authors discuss a case in which a patient acquired the disease on the eastern shore of virginia.19902304446
lyme disease in missouri. 19883265759
epidemiologic and diagnostic studies of patients with suspected early lyme disease missouri, 1990-1993. 19968648239
genetic heterogeneity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the southern united states based on restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis.fifty-six strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, isolated from ticks and vertebrate animals in missouri, south carolina, georgia, florida, and texas, were identified and characterized by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of rrf (5s)-rrl (23s) intergenic spacer amplicons. a total of 241 to 258 bp of intergenic spacers between tandemly duplicated rrf (5s) and rrl (23s) was amplified by pcr. msei and drai restriction fragment polymorphisms were used to analyze these ...200111427560
lyme and/or lyme-like disease in missouri.missouri patients who fulfill the strict cdc surveillance definition for lyme disease have been reported in significant numbers since 1987, although there are no viable missouri human cultures of borrelia burgdorferi. the missouri erythema migrans rashes are indistinguishable from those in other areas, and the clinical syndrome appears similar to lyme disease nationally. the authors suspect atypical b. burgdorferi, and/or other borrelia spirochetes of causing this clinical borreliosis syndrome.19957651314
detection of babesia and anaplasma species in rabbits from texas and georgia, usa.rabbits have been shown to harbor a suite of zoonotic organisms, including a babesia species, borrelia burgdorferi, and anaplasma phagocytophilum. in this study, we conducted a molecular survey for various tick-borne pathogens in three species of rabbits from texas and georgia. of 18 black-tailed jackrabbits (lepus californicus) tested from texas, six (28%) were polymerase chain reaction (pcr) positive for babesia, and nucleotide sequencing revealed two distinct species or strains. two jackrabbi ...200616584322
lyme disease surveillance--united states, 1989-1990.surveillance for lyme disease (ld) was initiated by cdc in 1982 (1), and in january 1991, ld became nationally reportable (2). forty-six states reported cases in 1989 and 1990 (figure 1), but the occurrence in nature of the causative bacterium, borrelia burgdorferi, has not been documented in all of these states. from 1982 through 1989, the annual reported number of cases of ld increased 18-fold (from 497 to 8803, respectively) and from 1986 through 1989, nearly doubled each year (figure 2). the ...19912046649
lyme borreliosis in the southern united states: a review.lyme borreliosis (lyme disease) is the most often reported arthropod transmitted disease in humans in the u.s.a. although it has been reported from 43 states, cases are especially abundant in the mid-atlantic and northeastern regions. borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent, is transmitted primarily by the western blacklegged tick (ixodes pacificus) in far western north america, and by the blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis) in eastern north america. although lyme disease cases have been repo ...19968973401
epidemiologic and diagnostic studies of patients with suspected early lyme disease, missouri, 1990-1993.a retrospective case-control study investigated 45 missouri outpatients with annular rashes meeting a surveillance case definition for erythema migrans and with onset in 1990-1991. risk factors included being male, living near a body of water, and hunting. twenty patients (44%) associated their rash with the bite of a tick; of these, 5 described an adult amblyomma americanum. a typical rash was described as expanding over time and measuring 8 cm in diameter at 4 days after onset. mild constituti ...19957622891
research on ticks and tickborne pathogens in missouri--an interim research report. 19921620086
evaluation of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs of missouri, including serologic status to ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia equi and borrelia burgdorferi.canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis was diagnosed in 37 dogs by finding ehrlichial morulae in 0.1 to 26.2% of their blood neutrophils and eosinophils. all 37 dogs had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. titer to ehrlichia canis was determined in sera from 31 of the 37 dogs; 25 dogs had titer ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. in the other 6 dogs, titer to e canis was less than 1:10. the most common hematologic abnormality in these dogs, other than rickettsiemia, was thrombocytopenia. gran ...19921539918
physician-diagnosed erythema migrans and erythema migrans-like rashes following lone star tick differentiate cases of physician-diagnosed erythema migrans and erythema migrans-like rashes associated with lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) bites.19989722725
seasonal activity and host associations of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in southeastern missouri.based on tick collections recovered from wild vertebrates and by dragging, the seasonal occurrence of adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, extended from october through may in southeastern missouri. adult activity was bimodal with the higher peak occurring in november followed by a lower peak in february. the activity of immature i. scapularis had the general pattern of that found in the northeast where lyme disease is hyperendemic, with larval activity (july) peaking after that of ny ...199910593072
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