distribution of the lyme disease vector, ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin was confirmed at long point, lake erie, ontario, on small mammals and white-tailed deer and by dragging for ticks. mean intensities of up to 16.2 larvae and 2.1 nymphs were found on peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), with an overall prevalence of infestation up to 92%. adult i. dammini (101.6 +/- 77.63) (mean +/- sd) were found on 8 white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman). the seasonal pattern of recovery of ticks from hosts and th ...19921460617
deer tick (ixodes dammini) identified in northwestern ontario. 19911843656
apparent incompetence of dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae) and fleas (insecta: siphonaptera) as vectors of borrelia burgdorferi in an ixodes dammini endemic area of ontario, canada.from april to october 1990, white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), were examined for ectoparasites on long point, ontario, the only endemic area for ixodes dammini clifford, spielman, piesman & corwin and borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner known in canada. larval and nymphal i. dammini and dermacentor variabilis (packard), and adult fleas orchopeas leucopus (baker), epitedia wenmanni (rothschild), and ctenophthalamus pseudagrytes baker were common on ...19911941949
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi on mainland ontario. 19957620454
duration of borrelia burgdorferi infectivity in white-footed mice for the tick vector ixodes scapularis under laboratory and field conditions in ontario.the duration of borrelia burgdorferi infectivity in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) experimentally inoculated or infested with infected ixodes scapularis nymphs was evaluated. infectivity was assessed by infesting these mice with unfed i. scapularis larvae at 7, 21, 35 and 49 days post-inoculation (dpi) or post-infestation (pi). at 7 dpi, b. burgdorferi was transmitted from 18 of 24 syringe-inoculated mice and all three tick-infected mice to i. scapularis larvae which fed upon them. howe ...19979391960
serologic survey for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer in ontario.serum samples collected from 623 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in southern ontario (canada) from 1985 to 1989 were tested for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi using an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) staining method. samples from 150 of the deer were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). at ifa titers of 1:64 and 1:128 deer with antibodies to b. burgdorferi appeared to be widespread throughout southern ontario, with an apparent prevalence ranging from ...19989577798
first isolation of lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi from blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, collected at rondeau provincial park, ontario. 200010763556
presence of spirochete causing lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, in the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, in southern ontario. 200010862230
lyme borreliosis in ontario: determining the risks. 200010862232
lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi endemic at epicenter in rondeau provincial park, ontario.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner was discovered in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say at rondeau provincial park, ontario, canada during this 2-yr study, spirochetes were found in b. burgdorferi-positive i. scapularis larvae attached to b. burgdorferi-infected white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus rafinesque. isolates of b. burgdorferi were cultured from blacklegged tick adults, and confirmed positive with polymerase chain ...200312597659
lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, endemic in epicenter at turkey point, ontario.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, was discovered in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say at turkey point, ontario, canada. we report the first isolation of b. burgdorferi from a vertebrate animal collected on mainland ontario. during this 2-yr study, spirochetes were isolated from the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus rafinesque, and attached i. scapularis larvae. similarly, isolates of b. burgdorferi were cultured from ...200415061282
investigation of ground level and remote-sensed data for habitat classification and prediction of survival of ixodes scapularis in habitats of southeastern southeastern canada, most populations of ixodes scapularis say, the lyme disease vector, occur in carolinian forests. climate change projections suggest a northward range expansion of i. scapularis this century, but it is unclear whether more northerly habitats are suitable for i. scapularis survival. in this study, we assessed the suitability of woodlands of the lower great lakes/st. lawrence plain region for i. scapularis by comparing tick egg survival in four different woodlands. woodlands ...200616619627
distribution and characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolates from ixodes scapularis and presence in mammalian hosts in ontario, canada.the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae), has a wide geographical distribution in ontario, canada, with a detected range extending at least as far north as the 50th parallel. our data of 591 adult i. scapularis submissions collected from domestic animals (canines, felines, and equines) and humans during a 10-yr period (1993-2002) discloses a monthly questing activity in ontario that peaks in may and october. the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, ...200616892637
migratory songbirds disperse ticks across canada, and first isolation of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, from the avian tick, ixodes auritulus.during a 3-yr comprehensive study, 196 ixodid ticks (9 species) were collected from 89 passerine birds (32 species) from 25 localities across canada to determine the distribution of avian-associated tick species and endogenous lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner. we report the following first records of tick parasitism on avian hosts: the rabbit-associated tick, ixodes dentatus marx, from manitoba and ontario; the mouse tick, ixodes muri ...200517089744
the low seroprevalence of tick-transmitted agents of disease in dogs from southern ontario and quebec.infectious diseases caused by pathogens transmitted by ticks and other insect vectors are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both dogs and humans throughout north america. the purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of selected vector-transmitted pathogens in southern ontario and quebec. samples submitted to the vector borne disease diagnostic laboratory (vbddl) at the north carolina state university college of veterinary medicine were evaluated for antibodies to ...200617217089
screening dogs in ontario for borrelia burgdorferi and ehrlichia canis should be selective rather than routine. 200717824154
role of migratory birds in introduction and range expansion of ixodes scapularis ticks and of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum in canada.during the spring in 2005 and 2006, 39,095 northward-migrating land birds were captured at 12 bird observatories in eastern canada to investigate the role of migratory birds in northward range expansion of lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and their tick vector, ixodes scapularis. the prevalence of birds carrying i. scapularis ticks (mostly nymphs) was 0.35% (95% confidence interval [ci] = 0.30 to 0.42), but a nested study by experienced observers suggested a more realistic infe ...200818245258
rapid introduction of lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, in ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) established at turkey point provincial park, ontario, canada.borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) was isolated from questing adult ixodes scapularis say ticks collected from turkey point provincial park (tppp), ontario, canada during 2005-2006. dna from ten (67%) of 15 pools of ticks was confirmed positive for b. burgdorferi s.s. using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) by targeting the rrf (5s)-rrl (23s) intergenic spacer region and ospa genes. this significant infection rate indicates an accelerated development of b. burgdorferi s.s. in tppp, because ...200818697308
Widespread dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks collected from songbirds across Canada.Abstract Millions of Lyme disease vector ticks are dispersed annually by songbirds across Canada, but often overlooked as the source of infection. For clarity on vector distribution, we sampled 481 ticks (12 species and 3 undetermined ticks) from 211 songbirds (42 species/subspecies) nationwide. Using PCR, 52 (29.5%) of 176 Ixodes ticks tested were positive for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Immature blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected from infested songbird ...201121864130
population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis and the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.we identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in ontario, canada, and tested blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum. among the 18 species of ticks identified, i. scapularis, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes cookei and amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in ontario's eastern region; d. variabilis in central west and easte ...201425171252
geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of lyme disease emergence in the thousand islands archipelago of ontario, the thousand islands region of eastern ontario, canada, lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. the factors that influence lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern north america. despite study sites in the thousand islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of b. burgdorferi infecti ...201424416435
complex population structure of borrelia burgdorferi in southeastern and south central canada as revealed by phylogeographic analysis.lyme disease, caused by the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is an emerging zoonotic disease in canada and is vectored by the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis. here we used bayesian analyses of sequence types (sts), determined by multilocus sequence typing (mlst), to investigate the phylogeography of b. burgdorferi populations in southern canada and the united states by analyzing mlst data from 564 b. burgdorferi-positive samples collected during surveillance. a total of 107 cana ...201525501480
established population of blacklegged ticks with high infection prevalence for the lyme disease bacterium, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, on corkscrew island, kenora district, ontario.we document an established population of blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, on corkscrew island, kenora district, ontario, canada. primers of the outer surface protein a (ospa) gene, the flagellin (fla) gene, and the flagellin b (flab) gene were used in the pcr assays to detect borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the lyme disease bacterium. in all, 60 (73%) of 82 adult i. scapularis, were infected with b. burgdorferi s.l. as well, 6 (43%) of 14 unfed i. scapularis nymphs were positive for ...201627877080
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis at hamilton-wentworth, ontario.lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in canada, where the etiological agent, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. this study explores the presence of b. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, collected at dundas, ontario (a locality within the region of hamilton-wentworth). using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and c ...201627226771
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi--thunder bay district, ontario. 19968840587
the groundhog tick ixodes cookei (acari: ixodidae): a poor potential vector of lyme borreliosis.evidence for infection with the spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, was sought in ixodes cookei and in groundhogs (marmota monax) in southern ontario, canada, and ticks fed on experimentally inoculated hosts were examined for the spirochete. borrelia burgdorferi was not detected by immunofluorescent examination of 110 larval, nymphal or adult i. cookei collected from the environment, or taken from humans and other animals. three groundhogs inoculated with b. burgdorferi developed titers of 1:20 to ...19938355343
canine lyme borreliosis in ontario--a case report. 19957585439
seroconversion to borrelia burgdorferi in a patient with juvenile arthritis in ontario, canada.a seroconversion to borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, was documented in a 5 year old girl from central ontario. our patient developed juvenile arthritis in january, 1984 when she was 14 months old. it was relatively well controlled with aspirin. her arthritis flared in april, 1986 at which time seroconversion to b. burgdorferi was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence and by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. she was treated with phenoxymethyl penicillin and has ...19883204603
distribution of the lyme disease agent in wildlife reservoirs in ontario. 19892752451
northward range expansion of ixodes scapularis evident over a short timescale in ontario, canada.the invasion of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis into ontario, canada poses a significant risk to public health because it is a vector for numerous pathogens, including borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of lyme disease. baseline field sampling in 2014 and 2015 detected i. scapularis and b. burgdorferi at sites across southern, eastern and central ontario, including a hot spot in eastern ontario. a "speed of spread" model for i. scapularis developed by leighton and co ...201729281675
activists decry physician disinterest in lyme disease during vancouver conference.although it was well advertised, few canadian physicians attended a recent conference on lyme disease in vancouver. the apparent lack of interest upsets the president of the lyme borreliosis society, who says many patients have been misdiagnosed, mistreated or untreated and "are now chronically disabled." interestingly, the disease seems to be much more common in the us than canada. in new york state, for instance, more than 26,000 cases have been diagnosed, but in nearby ontario the total is on ...19957664235
bell palsy in lyme disease-endemic regions of canada: a cautionary case of occult bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy due to lyme disease.lyme disease caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi is a multisystem disorder characterized by three clinical stages: dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic. the number of known lyme disease-endemic areas in canada is increasing as the range of the vector ixodes scapularis expands into the eastern and central provinces. southern ontario, nova scotia, southern manitoba, new brunswick, and southern quebec are now considered lyme disease-endemic regions in canada. the use of field surve ...201222967702
concurrent babesiosis and lyme disease diagnosed in ontario. 19989659788
prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum and babesia microti in ixodes scapularis from a newly established lyme disease endemic area, the thousand islands region of ontario, canada.blacklegged ticks (ixodes scapularis) are vectors for several important human diseases, including lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga), and human babesiosis, caused by borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesia microti, respectively. the continued northward range expansion of blacklegged ticks and associated pathogens is an increasing public health concern in canada. the thousand islands region of eastern ontario has recently been identified as a new endemic area ...201526393476
distribution of ticks and the risk of lyme disease and other tick-borne pathogens of public health significance in ontario, canada.over the past two decades, the northward spread of ixodes scapularis across ontario, canada, has accelerated and the risk of lyme disease has increased. active surveillance is a recognized and effective method for detecting reproducing populations of i. scapularis. in this study, we conducted field sampling consistent with an active surveillance approach from may to october 2014 at 104 sites in central, eastern, and southern ontario to determine the current distribution of i. scapularis and othe ...201626870937
two tick-borne diseases in one: a case report of concurrent babesiosis and lyme disease in ontario. 199910405671
management of tick bites and lyme disease during pregnancy.lyme disease results from the bite of a black-legged tick, populations of which have now become established in parts of nova scotia, southeastern quebec, southern ontario from the thousand islands through the geographic regions on the north shore of lake ontario and lake erie, southeastern manitoba, and british columbia's lower mainland, fraser valley, and vancouver island. it takes more than 24 hours of attachment to transfer the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi to the bitten animal or human. th ...201223231847
detection of lyme disease bacterium, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in blacklegged ticks collected in the grand river valley, ontario, canada.we document the presence of blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, in the grand river valley, centre wellington, ontario. overall, 15 (36%) of 42 i. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the lyme disease bacterium, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). using real-time pcr testing and dna sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that borrelia amplicons extracted from i. scapularis adults belonged to b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s ...201728260991
the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the invasion of ixodes scapularis in ontario, northeastern north america, the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, is the vector of numerous tick-borne pathogens, including the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. since 1990, there has been a rapid spread of i. scapularis northward into the province of ontario, canada. climate change has been implicated as one of the driving factors for the spread of this vector. other ecological factors also influence survival of i. scapularis populations and may facilitate invasio ...201728359751
exposure and preventive behaviours toward ticks and lyme disease in canada: results from a first national survey.lyme disease (ld) risk is increasing in canada. in 2014, the government of canada launched a national communication campaign to raise awareness and promote the adoption of individual preventive behaviours toward ticks and ld. the objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the adoption of ld preventive behaviours and the exposure to tick bites of canadians in the five main targeted regions (british columbia, prairie provinces, ontario, quebec and the atlantic provinces). a national sur ...201727771334
descriptive epidemiology of lyme disease in ontario: 1999-2004. 200617086677
investigation of the population structure of the tick vector of lyme disease ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in canada using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene sequences.genotyping of ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae) ticks could enhance understanding of the occurrence and genotypes of i. scapularis-borne pathogens. we investigated the utility of mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene (cox1) sequences as a tool for understanding the population structure of i. scapularis collected in canada, where we also investigated the geographic occurrence of different cox1 haplotypes. sequences obtained from 414 ticks were one of 55 unique haplotypes, m ...201323802450
how far north are migrant birds transporting the tick ixodes scapularis in canada? insights from stable hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers.lyme disease is emerging in canada because of northward range expansion of the tick vector ixodes scapularis. it is hypothesised that i. scapularis feeding on passerine birds migrating north in spring are important in founding new i. scapularis populations leading to northward range expansion. however, there are no studies on how far north i. scapularis may be carried, only inferences from passive tick surveillance. we used stable hydrogen isotope (δ(2)h) analysis of rectrices collected from nor ...201526100493
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