local borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and borrelia afzelii strains in a single mixed antigen improves western blot sensitivity.this study evaluates the use of local borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and borrelia afzelii strains in a single mixed antigen for in-house igg western blots in the routine diagnostic setting by comparing it with the current in-house protocol.200919240047
identification of different borrelia burgdorferi genomic groups from scottish characterise 12 borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates cultured from ticks collected in the highlands of scotland.200010889909
the relevance of elevated borrelia burgdorferi titres in localized scleroderma.a 46-year-old man with a 2-year history of localized scleroderma of his right upper arm and elevated borrelia burgdorferi titres is described. the association of borrelia burgdorferi infection and localized scleroderma is discussed.19892605808
is tayside becoming a scottish hotspot for lyme borreliosis?the epidemiology of lyme borreliosis (lb) in tayside was studied and compared with highland (an area of high endemicity) and the rest of scotland. from april 2001 to march 2008 the incidence of lb in tayside rose from an estimated 2.57 to 5.84 per 100,000 population. in 2008/09 the incidence of lb in tayside increased further to an estimated 13.85 per 100,000 population. this rise was significant and, although numerically less than that in highland (37.24 to 49.69 per 100,000 population), it was ...201121365058
modelling the seasonality of lyme disease risk and the potential impacts of a warming climate within the heterogeneous landscapes of scotland.lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the temperate northern hemisphere. the abundance of infected nymphal ticks is commonly used as a lyme disease risk indicator. temperature can influence the dynamics of disease by shaping the activity and development of ticks and, hence, altering the contact pattern and pathogen transmission between ticks and their host animals. a mechanistic, agent-based model was developed to study the temperature-driven seasonality of ixodes ricinus ti ...201627030039
distribution and presentation of lyme borreliosis in scotland - analysis of data from a national testing laboratory.this study examines the distribution of laboratory-confirmed cases of lyme borreliosis in scotland and the clinical spectrum of presentations within nhs highland. methods general demographic data (age/sex/referring health board) from all cases of lyme borreliosis serologically confirmed by the national lyme borreliosis testing laboratory from 1 january 2008 to 31 december 2013 were analysed. clinical features of confirmed cases were ascertained from questionnaires sent to referring clinicians wi ...201526517097
environmental determinants of ixodes ricinus ticks and the incidence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of lyme borreliosis, in scotland.lyme borreliosis (lb) is the most common arthropod-borne disease of humans in the northern hemisphere. in europe, the causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, is principally vectored by ixodes ricinus ticks. the aim of this study was to identify environmental factors influencing questing i. ricinus nymph abundance and b. burgdorferi s.l. infection in questing nymphs using a large-scale survey across scotland. ticks, host dung and vegetation were surveyed at 25 woodland sites, an ...201323036286
heterogeneity in the abundance and distribution of ixodes ricinus and borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) in scotland: implications for risk prediction.cases of lyme borreliosis, a vector-borne zoonosis caused by bacteria in the borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) species group, have increased in recent years in europe. knowledge of environmental factors associated with abundance of the tick vector ixodes ricinus and the pathogen b. burgdorferi (s.l.) is of interest to understand responses to environmental changes, predict variation in risk and to inform management interventions.201627876087
more specific bands in the igg western blot in sera from scottish patients with suspected lyme identify further western blot bands that may be specific in the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis.201020595179
altitudinal patterns of tick and host abundance: a potential role for climate change in regulating tick-borne diseases?the impact of climate change on vector-borne infectious diseases is currently controversial. in europe the primary arthropod vectors of zoonotic diseases are ticks, which transmit borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the agent of lyme disease), tick-borne encephalitis virus and louping ill virus between humans, livestock and wildlife. ixodes ricinus ticks and reported tick-borne disease cases are currently increasing in the uk. theories for this include climate change and increasing host abundance. ...201019685082
prevalence of antibody indicating lyme disease in farmers in wigtownshire. 19892513072
the use of local isolates in western blots improves serological diagnosis of lyme disease in scotland.nine scottish borrelia burgdorferi isolates were investigated in igg western blot tests. sera previously found to be positive and negative when tested by routine western blots prepared from reference strain b. burgdorferi sensu stricto antigen had different outcomes with these isolates. two isolates, e5 (borrelia afzelii) and g4 (b. burgdorferi sensu stricto) performed well, reproducing western blot-positive results in 90 and 95% of tests, respectively. when antigens from both isolates were inco ...200717172516
morphoea and borrelia burgdorferi: results from the scottish highlands in the context of the world literature.previous studies investigating the link between infection with borrelia burgdorferi and morphoea have produced conflicting results. often, these studies have been undertaken in patients from different regions or countries, and using methods of varying sensitivity for detecting borrelia burgdorferi infection. this study aimed to establish whether a relation could be demonstrated in the highlands of scotland, an area with endemic lyme disease, with the use of a sensitive method for detecting the o ...200212456775
audit of the laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease in audit was performed on the laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease in scotland. the problem of a significant number of patients with clinical symptoms of lyme disease being reported as seronegative or equivocal by the confirmatory western blot test was identified. comparisons of current practice were made with american and european standards, and the western blot scoring system revised. when applied retrospectively (april 2003 to march 2004), 39 (33 %) of 116 serum samples previously negative or ...200516278426
distribution of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. spirochaete dna in british ticks (argasidae and ixodidae) since the 19th century, assessed by pcr.the distribution of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the lyme borreliosis agent, was surveyed in british ticks in the collection of the natural history museum, london. alcohol-preserved specimens of eight species of ticks known to attack humans were studied: ixodes ricinus, i. hexagonus, i. uriae, i. trianguliceps, dermacentor reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, rhipicephalus sanguineus and argas vespertilionis. the sample comprised all life stages and originated from a wide range of host speci ...19989513944
lyme disease in scotland. 19948778964
lyme disease: gold for scotland and bronze for usa. 200312669494
prevalence of antibody indicating lyme disease in farmers in wigtownshire. 19892510849
increased incidence of lyme borreliosis following mild winters and during warm, humid summers. 200717203287
urban and rural risks of lyme disease in the scottish highlands.this paper investigates the pattern of lyme disease testing and infection within the highland region of scotland.200919530498
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from ticks in the highlands of scotland.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was first isolated in 1982 and since then has been regularly isolated from ticks and clinical material in both continental europe and the usa. however, only three isolations have been reported in britain. during the summer of 1997, 128 ticks were collected from two sites in the highlands of scotland and examined by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and culture. eleven fresh isolates were obtained from culture and passed up to 22 times. ...19999920126
lyme disease in scotland: results of a serological study in sheep. 19938212486
lyme disease. 19902392409
lyme disease--what is the cost for scotland?this paper analyses likely lyme disease costs incurred by patients tested in the authors' laboratory over an 18 month period, based on patient histories and test results relating to 2110 samples submitted from laboratories serving 59% of the scottish population. cost analysis takes account of the direct costs of consultation, laboratory tests, antibiotic treatment and management of any sequelae, as well as indirect costs of the loss of healthy time through illness. standard costs for each elemen ...200312966749
lyme disease in the highlands.serological results for borrelia burgdorferi were examined for one year. the results suggest a 'pocket' of infection in one highland general practice. in this practice, most of the patients had exposure to tick bites and rashes were frequent. there were difficulties in relating serological results to clinical features and management of some patients.19902077648
primary cutaneous b-cell lymphoma and borrelia burgdorferi infection in patients from the highlands of scotland.although a link between primary cutaneous b-cell lymphoma (pcbcl) and borrelia burgdorferi infection has long been suspected, previous studies have not demonstrated a significant association. the authors looked for evidence of b. burgdorferi in 20 cases of pcbcl from the scottish highlands, an area with endemic lyme disease, and compared their findings with those in 40 control patients (20 undergoing wide reexcision at sites of malignant melanoma and 20 biopsies of inflammatory dermatoses). all ...200010976703
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