occurrence of multiple infections with different borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in danish ixodes ricinus nymphs.the pathogen borrelia burgdorferi causes lyme borreliosis in human and animals world-wide. in europe the pathogen is transmitted to the host by the vector ixodes ricinus. the nymph is the primary instar for transmission to humans. we here study the infection rate of five borrelia genospecies: b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, b. afzelii, b. garinii, b. valaisiana, b. lusitaniae in nymphs, by ifa and pcr. 600 nymphs were collected in north zealand of denmark. each nymph was first analysed by ifa. if ...200817804280
transmission differentials for multiple pathogens as inferred from their prevalence in larva, nymph and adult of ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae).ixodes ricinus serves as vector for a range of microorganisms capable of causing clinical illness in humans. the microorganisms occur in the same vector populations and are generally affected by the same tick-host interactions. still, the instars have different host preferences which should manifest in different transmission patterns for various microorganisms in the tick populations, i.e., most microorganisms increase in prevalence rate from larvae to nymphs because their reservoirs are among s ...201728255923
phylogeographic relationships of ixodes uriae (acari: ixodidae) and their significance to transequatorial dispersal of borrelia garinii.the seabird tick ixodes uriae (acari: ixodidae) has a bi- and circumpolar distribution and is commonly infected with lyme disease borrelia. identical borrelia flagellin gene sequences have been detected in i. uriae from both the northern and southern hemispheres, suggesting a transequatorial transport of borrelia. parsimony analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) and a part of 16s rdna of i. uriae from the northern and southern hemispheres indicated that northern and southern i. uri ...200111833281
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