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[current aspects of endemic mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil].mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has a large incidence in brazil. biochemical, immunological and biological studies have characterized three disease agents: leishmania mexicana amazonensis, leishmania brasiliensis guyanensis and leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis; these have distinct geographical distributions. the last one is the most common and is the most difficult to treat. destructive mucosal lesions can occur days, months or years after the cutaneous lesions. the montenegro intradermal test, ...19854066323
comparison of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and l. (v.) guyanensis in brazil: clinical findings and diagnostic approach.we compared the clinical findings and diagnostic methods for 66 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of bahia, brazil, who were infected by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis (group a), with those for 68 patients in the state of amazonas, brazil, who were mainly infected by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis (group b). differences were observed with regard to number, size, and location of skin lesions and to the pattern of lymphatic involvement. patients in group b had smaller and more ...200111303265
sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) guyanensis.the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in 35 consecutive outpatients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis was evaluated using, as gold standard, the in vitro isolation of the parasite through culture of aspirates of the cutaneous ulcers. all isolates were identified using electrophoretic enzyme analysis. patients were mainly young males with recent onset disease without prior specific treatment. pcr was performed using dna extracted from fresh fr ...200111412806
the rarity of infection with leishmania (viannia) braziliensis among patients from the manaus region of amazonas state, brazil, who have cutaneous leishmaniasis.the frequency of leishmania ( viannia) braziliensis infection was assessed in 79 of the 138 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who attended a reference outpatient unit in manaus, amazonas state, between the august and december of 1997. the disease was characterized by one or more cutaneous ulcers, the skin lesions being frequently associated with satellite lymph-node enlargement. all parasite isolates were identified using monoclonal antibodies and enzyme electrophoresis. only two (2.8%) of t ...200212080973
antibody response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis infected by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis or leishmania (viannia) guyanensis in brazil.the antibody response against leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis crude antigen was measured through the indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa) and the immunoenzymatic assay (elisa) in 114 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in brazil. fifty-four patients were infected by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, and 60 patients had l. (v.) guyanensis infection. patients were comparable by age, sex, disease duration and the montenegro skin test diameter. l. (v.) braziliensis-infected patients sh ...200515589797
[isoenzymatic characterization of human isolates of leishmania sp (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) from the municipalities of rio preto da eva and manaus, state of amazonas].twenty-three isolates of leishmania sp from patients in the municipalities of rio preto da eva and manaus were characterized and identified by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis and the degree of similarity between the organisms was analyzed. the results indicated that leishmania guyanensis and leishmania naiffi were present in these two environments and that the leishmania naiffi samples were heterogenous.200819009197
characterization of leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in manaus, amazonas, brazil.in the state of amazonas, american tegumentary leishmaniasis is endemic and presents a wide spectrum of clinical variability due to the large diversity of circulating species in the region. isolates from patients in manaus and its metropolitan region were characterized using monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymes belonging to four species of the parasite: leishmania (viannia) guyanensis, 73% (153/209); leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, 14% (30/209); leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis, 8% (17/209 ...201021072540
mucosal leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and leishmania (viannia) guyanensis in the brazilian amazon.leishmania (viannia) braziliensis is a parasite recognized as the most important etiologic agent of mucosal leishmaniasis (ml) in the new world. in amazonia, seven different species of leishmania, etiologic agents of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, have been described. isolated cases of ml have been described for several different species of leishmania: l. (v.) panamensis, l. (v.) guyanensis and l. (l.) amazonensis.201121408116
combining diagnostic procedures for the management of leishmaniasis in areas with high prevalence of leishmania guyanensis.the amazon region corresponds to approximately 40% of the cases of leishmaniasis in brazil. we report a prospective study with 180 patients conducted in a health care unit that diagnoses 10% of the cases of leishmaniasis in the brazilian amazon. the study addresses how a combination of procedures improves diagnosis in areas with high prevalence of leishmania guyanensis.201122281902
molecular taxonomy of the two leishmania vectors lutzomyia umbratilis and lutzomyia anduzei (diptera: psychodidae) from the brazilian amazon.lutzomyia umbratilis (a probable species complex) is the main vector of leishmania guyanensis in the northern region of brazil. lutzomyia anduzei has been implicated as a secondary vector of this parasite. these species are closely related and exhibit high morphological similarity in the adult stage; therefore, they have been wrongly identified, both in the past and in the present. this shows the need for employing integrated taxonomy.201324021095
lutzomyia umbratilis, the main vector of leishmania guyanensis, represents a novel species complex?lutzomyia umbratilis is an important leishmania guyanensis vector in south america. previous studies have suggested differences in the vector competence between l. umbratilis populations situated on opposite banks of the amazonas and negro rivers in the central amazonian brazil region, likely indicating a species complex. however, few studies have been performed on these populations and the taxonomic status of l. umbratilis remains unclear.201222662146
phenotypic and genotypic variations among three allopatric populations of lutzomyia umbratilis, main vector of leishmania guyanensis.in south america, lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of leishmania guyanensis, one of the species involved in the transmission of american tegumentary leishmaniasis. in brazil, l. umbratilis has been recorded in the amazon region, and in the state of pernambuco, northeastern region, where an isolated population has been identified. this study assessed the phylogeographic structure and size and shape differences of the wing of three brazilian populations.201526338469
phenotypic characterization of leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower amazon region, western pará state, brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, leishmania (viannia) guyanensis × leishmania (viannia) shawi shawi.we phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 mcabs). identifications revealed 11 (25.6%) strains of leishmania (v.) braziliensis, 4 (9.3%) of l. (v.) shawi shawi, 7 (16.3%) of l. (v.) shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9%) of l. (v.) guyanensis and l. (v.) lainsoni, 2 (4.7%) of l. (l.) amazonensis, and 7 (16.3%) of a putative hybrid parasite, l. (v.) guyanensis/l. (v.) shawi shawi. m ...201425083790
analysis of the genetic structure of allopatric populations of lutzomyia umbratilis using the period clock gene.in south america, lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of leishmania guyanensis, one of the species involved in the transmission of american tegumentary leishmaniasis. in brazil, l. umbratilis has been recorded in the amazon region, and an isolated population has been identified in the state of pernambuco, northeastern region. this study assessed the phylogeographic structure of three allopatric brazilian populations of l. umbratilis. samples of l. umbratilis were collected from rio preto da ...201626655040
functional variations in mbl2 gene are associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the amazonas state of brazil.functional variations in the mannose-binding lectin (mbl2) gene causing low levels of serum mbl are associated with susceptibility to numerous infectious diseases. we investigated whether there is genetic association of mbl2 variant alleles with cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) caused by leishmania guyanensis. we used pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism to genotype six mbl2 variants, three in the promoter region and three in the exon 1. an association was noted between the single nucleotide ...201525764115
genetic diversity and population structure in the leishmania guyanensis vector lutzomyia anduzei (diptera, psychodidae) from the brazilian amazon.lutzomyia (nyssomyia) anduzei has been recognized as a secondary vector of leishmania guyanensis in the brazilian amazon region. since l. anduzei is anthropophilic, co-exists in areas of high leishmaniasis transmission and has been found infected with l. guyanensis, the understanding of the vector population structure and of the process responsible for it is paramount to the vector management and control efforts. in this study we analyzed 74 and 67 sequences of the coi and cytb loci, respectivel ...201525701124
the role of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines in patients infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis in amazonas state, brazil.the authors discuss in this paper the role of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines in patients infected with different species of leishmania in amazonas state, brazil. a comparative analysis was made of serum concentrations of these cytokines in the peripheral blood of 33 patients infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis. the isolates were identified as leishmania guyanensis, l. naiffi, and l. amazonensis. most (64%) of the patients were male ranging in age from 18 to 58 years. ...201425295285
natural leishmania (viannia) infections of phlebotomines (diptera: psychodidae) indicate classical and alternative transmission cycles of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in the guiana shield, brazil.from 1996 to 1999 multi-trapping methods (center of diseases control, cdc) light traps, light-baited shannon traps, and aspiration on tree bases) were used to study the phlebotomine fauna of the "serra do navio" region of the brazilian state of amapá, which is part of the guiana shield. fifty-three species were identified among 8,685 captured individuals. the following species, associated with the transmission of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in amazonian brazil, were captured: nyssomyia umbr ...201728508745
comparative biology of two populations of lutzomyia umbratilis (diptera: psychodidae) of central amazonia, brazil, under laboratory conditions.lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania guyanensis in northern south america. it has been found naturally infected with this species of leishmania only east of the rio negro and north of the rio amazonas. however, populations of this sand fly species are also present in areas south of the amazon river system, which may act as a geographical barrier to the leishmania guyanensis cycle. with the aim of looking for possible biological differences between ...200415462295
polymorphisms in the tollip gene influence susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania guyanensis in the amazonas state of brazil.the clinical outcome to leishmania-infection is determined by the individual adaptive immune t helper cell responses and their interactions with parasitized host cells. an early development of a proinflammatory immune response (th1 response) is necessary for leishmania-infection resolution. the toll-interacting protein (tollip) regulates human toll-like receptors signaling pathways by down regulating the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (il-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-α) and i ...201526107286
sustained presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in urban manaus, the largest human settlement in the amazon.the amazon is responsible for approximately 40% of the american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl) in brazil. herein the sustained presence of atl in manaus, the largest settlement in the amazon, was investigated. records of notification of historic cases, and data from cases prospectively enrolled in the tropical medicine foundation of the amazonas state were used. geographic coordinates of prospective patients' living sites were used to detect inner-city clusters of atl. infecting leishmania spec ...201526483119
evaluation of different diagnostic methods of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in the brazilian amazon.epidemiological studies have been conducted to better understand the dynamics of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in the amazon region where distinct species of leishmania circulate. in endemic areas, the optimal diagnosis must be made in the earlier clinical presentation to avoid the complications of chronic disease. the scarcity of financial support, laboratory infrastructure and trained persons are the major obstacles in this reality. this paper describes the result of performing differ ...201627119738
leishmania (viannia) guyanensis induces low immunologic responsiveness in leishmaniasis patients from an endemic area of the brazilian amazon highland.cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis (cl-lguy) is endemic in the brazilian amazon, differing from l. braziliensis infection in clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects. t-cell reactivity to leishmanial antigens possibly involved in the pathogenesis of cl-lguy was studied herein. variable lymphoproliferative responses (lprs) to leishmania antigens were found among the 23 studied patients, and 50% of them showed low or no response to these antigens. active disease ...200919270278
[sandfly fauna (diptera: psychodidae) in a focus of american cutaneous leishmaniasis on the urban periphery of manaus, state of amazonas].from august 2001 to july 2002, sand flies were collected from the bases of trees and, using cdc and disney traps, from areas surrounding homes and forested areas in the são joão community, on the urban periphery of manaus, state of amazonas. 4,104 specimens belonging to four subtribes, 13 genera and 49 species of the phlebotominae subfamily were collected. the subtribe psychodopygina predominated, with 3,403 (83%) specimens, especially of nyssomyia umbratilis, nyssomyia anduzei, trichophoromyia ...200819009191
[vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna (diptera, psychodidae) in a primary non-flooded forest of the central amazon, amazonas state, brazil].studies on the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna were conducted in a non-flooded primary forest at a tropical forest experimental station of the national institute of amazonian research from october 1998 to march 1999. cdc light traps were placed at one, 10, and 20 meters above ground. a total of 2,859 sandflies were captured, belonging to the lutzomyia (99.93%) and brumtomyia (0.07%) genera, represented by 38 species. in the lutzomyia gender, the most frequent sub-gender was ...200212048608
identification of antigenically distinct populations of leishmania (viannia) guyanensis from manaus, brazil, using monoclonal antibodies.eighty leishmania isolates from patients who contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in the manaus region, amazonas state, brazil, were identified as leishmania (viannia) guyanensis by the electrophoretic profiles of six enzymes. none reacted with the species-specific monoclonal antibody b19. two l. (v.) guyanensis subpopulations were detected with the monoclonals b2 and b12. the lack of b19 expression by the l. (v.) guyanensis strains in the present study contrasts with that of the vast majority of ...200211904100
randomized controlled clinical trial to access efficacy and safety of miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis in manaus, brazil.miltefosine has been used in the treatment of several new world cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) species with variable efficacy. our study is the first evidence on its clinical efficacy in leishmania (viannia) guyanensis. in this phase ii/iii randomized clinical trial, 90 cl patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to oral miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day/28 days) (n = 60) or parenteral antimony (15-20 mg/sb/kg/day/20 days) (n = 30) according to age groups: 2-12 y/o and 13-65 y/o. patients were human immuno ...201121292895
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