cutaneous leishmaniasis of man due to leishmania (viannia) shawi lainson, de souza, póvoa, ishikawa & silveira, in pará state, brazil.leishmania (viannia) shawi lainson, braga, de souza, póvoa, ishikawa & silveira, 1989, was originally recorded from monkeys (cebus apella and chiropotes satanas), sloths (choloepus didactylus and bradypus tridactylus) and coatis (nasua nasua) and the sandfly, lutzomyia whitmani. with a panel of leishmania specific monoclonal antibodies, it was found that 30.5% of the leishmania strains from patients, who had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in pará state, were similar, but not identical to l. ...19911822654
cutaneous leishmaniasis in the amazon region: natural infection of the sandfly lutzomyia ubiquitalis (psychodidae: phlebotominae) by leishmania (viannia) lainsoni in pará state, brazil. 19911842393
characterization and classification of leishmanial parasites from humans, wild mammals, and sand flies in the amazon region of brazil.ninety-four leishmanial isolates from the brazilian amazon region (amapá, amazonas, pará, and rondônia) were identified and classified using specific monoclonal antibodies and an indirect radioimmunoassay (serodeme analysis); eighty-two were also characterized by enzyme electrophoresis (zymodeme analysis), the results of which were subjected to a numerical phenetic analysis. six isolates from humans (3), didelphis marsupialis (1), lutzomyia olmeca nociva (1), and lu, reducta (1) showed reactivit ...19911858968
leishmaniasis in brazil. xxiv. natural flagellate infections of sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) in pará state, with particular reference to the rôle of psychodopygus wellcomei as the vector of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in the serra dos carajás.between july 1983 and december 1984 natural flagellate infections were found in 114 (1%) of 11,586 female phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) of 21 species. a further 1084 females of 17 other species were not infected. identification of the organisms on a number of occasions confirms the exclusive parasite/vector relationship of leishmania mexicana amazonensis/lutzomyia flaviscutellata and le. braziliensis braziliensis/psychodopygus "wellcomei". undescribed or unidentified leishmania s ...19873686628
identification and distribution of new world leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.five hundred thirty stocks of leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of american cutaneous (acl) and visceral leishmaniases (avl) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. this study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these ...19873826486
flagellate infections of brazilian sand flies (diptera: psychodidae): isolation in vitro and biochemical identification of endotrypanum and leishmania.flagellate infections were found in 1,063 of 18,895 sand flies collected in the states of amazonas, pará, rondonia and acre, brazil. infection rates were 13.4% (species group shannoni); 7.5% (subgenus nyssomyia); 6.7% (subgenus lutzomyia series cruciata); 0.5% (genus psychodopygus) and 3.1% for other sand flies (various subgenera). leishmania braziliensis guyanensis and l. mexicana amazonensis were isolated, respectively, from the known vectors, lutzomyia umbratilis and l. flaviscutellata. singl ...19853938924
[current aspects of endemic mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil].mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has a large incidence in brazil. biochemical, immunological and biological studies have characterized three disease agents: leishmania mexicana amazonensis, leishmania brasiliensis guyanensis and leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis; these have distinct geographical distributions. the last one is the most common and is the most difficult to treat. destructive mucosal lesions can occur days, months or years after the cutaneous lesions. the montenegro intradermal test, ...19854066323
a pilot study to control lutzomyia umbratilis (diptera:psychodidae), the major vector of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, in a peri-urban rainforest of manaus, amazonas state, the second half of 1980, 112 (or ca. 16%) of the inhabitants of the new settlement of são josé, city of manaus, contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis whilst clearing their properties of terra firme rainforest. with the aid of sucam, the authors carried out a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of reducing populations of lutzomyia umbratilis, the local silvatic vector of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, by spraying insecticide on its favoured diurnal resting sites, the bases of the larg ...19854088044
[cutaneous leishmaniasis in amazonia. report of the 1st human case of mixed infection, determined by 2 different leishmania species: leishmania brasiliensis and leishmania mexicana amazonensis]. 19846533750
leishmaniasis in brazil: xx. prevalence of "enzootic rodent leishmaniasis" (leishmania mexicana amazonensis), and apparent absence of "pian bois" (le. braziliensis guyanensis), in plantations of introduced tree species and in other non-climax forests in eastern amazô amazonian brazil most human leishmaniasis is due to leishmania braziliensis s.l. and is acquired during the clearing of primary climax forest. one of the largest deforestation projects has taken place on the jari property where plantations of exotic tree species are grown for paper pulp. the ability of the regional leishmaniasis enzootics to invade plantations was investigated. cdc light-trap catches indicated the phletobomine vectors of le. b. guyanensis (causing "pian bois" in man) to be ve ...19836665830
hosts of sandfly vectors of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the central amazon of brazil.the blood meals of 2,569 phlebotomine sandflies from areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central amazon of brazil were tested by the microcapillary precipitin method to determine their vertebrate hosts. the two-toed sloth, choloepus didactylus, was the predominant host of two incriminated vectors of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the region, lutzomyia umbratilis and lu. anduzei (64.0% and 63.6%, respectively). the lu. "shannoni" group, a complex of several species in which fe ...19827072886
the opossum, didelphis marsupialis (marsupialia: didelphidae), as a reservoir host of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the amazon basin of brazil.a total of 52 opossums (six species) were examined for evidence of infection with leishmania in three different areas of forest near manaus, amazonas state, brazil. no infections were detected in 27 opossums from a region of relatively undisturbed forest, including specimens of didelphis marsupialis (18); metachirus nudicaudatus (four); monodelphis brevicaudata (one); marmosa cinerea (two); m. murina (one) and m. parvidens (one). of 15 d. marsupialis captured from a biological reserve, much dist ...19817324129
[disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania viannia braziliensis in the state of maranhão, brazil].the authors describe a case of a patient from barreirinhas, ma with disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, who presented 58 lesions spread all over his body, with many different aspects, but ulcerative lesions were predominant. they discuss the difficulty of laboratory diagnosis in the beginning of the investigation and its therapeutics implications. the parasite isolated was identified as leishmania viannia braziliensis using monoclonal antibodies in the fluorescent antibody test. this form of t ...19938128071
psychodopygus complexus, a new vector of leishmania braziliensis to humans in pará state, brazil.this paper reports the finding of 4 specimens of psychodopygus complexus, captured in the paragominas region of pará state, brazil, naturally infected with trypanosomatids that were positively identified as leishmania (viannia) braziliensis. attention is drawn to the importance of this species as a vector since it is highly anthropophilic and has a very extensive geographical distribution in the lower amazon region of pará state south of the amazon river, including the island of marajó.19968761563
comparison of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and l. (v.) guyanensis in brazil: clinical findings and diagnostic approach.we compared the clinical findings and diagnostic methods for 66 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of bahia, brazil, who were infected by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis (group a), with those for 68 patients in the state of amazonas, brazil, who were mainly infected by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis (group b). differences were observed with regard to number, size, and location of skin lesions and to the pattern of lymphatic involvement. patients in group b had smaller and more ...200111303265
sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) guyanensis.the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in 35 consecutive outpatients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis was evaluated using, as gold standard, the in vitro isolation of the parasite through culture of aspirates of the cutaneous ulcers. all isolates were identified using electrophoretic enzyme analysis. patients were mainly young males with recent onset disease without prior specific treatment. pcr was performed using dna extracted from fresh fr ...200111412806
identification of antigenically distinct populations of leishmania (viannia) guyanensis from manaus, brazil, using monoclonal antibodies.eighty leishmania isolates from patients who contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in the manaus region, amazonas state, brazil, were identified as leishmania (viannia) guyanensis by the electrophoretic profiles of six enzymes. none reacted with the species-specific monoclonal antibody b19. two l. (v.) guyanensis subpopulations were detected with the monoclonals b2 and b12. the lack of b19 expression by the l. (v.) guyanensis strains in the present study contrasts with that of the vast majority of ...200211904100
an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in belém, pará state, brazil, caused by leishmania (viannia) lindenbergi n. sp. a new leishmanial parasite of man in the amazon region.eight cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are recorded among soldiers of the brazilian forest infantry stationed in belém, state of pará, north of brazil. the infections, all acquired during manoeuvres in nearby degraded primary forest, are attributed to a new member of the subgenus viannia, leishmania (v.) lindenbergi n. sp. a further infection by this parasite was encountered in a woman, who lived very close to the same piece of forest. the new parasite has been characterised and differentiated f ...200211938695
[vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna (diptera, psychodidae) in a primary non-flooded forest of the central amazon, amazonas state, brazil].studies on the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna were conducted in a non-flooded primary forest at a tropical forest experimental station of the national institute of amazonian research from october 1998 to march 1999. cdc light traps were placed at one, 10, and 20 meters above ground. a total of 2,859 sandflies were captured, belonging to the lutzomyia (99.93%) and brumtomyia (0.07%) genera, represented by 38 species. in the lutzomyia gender, the most frequent sub-gender was ...200212048608
genetic variation in populations of leishmania species in brazil.the population structure of strains of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis sensu lato from pará state and paraná state in brazil, of l. (v.) shawi and l. (leishmania) amazonensis from pará state, and the relationships of type strains of the subgenera l. (viannia) and l. (leishmania) were examined by the random-amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (rapd) technique. four different primers (m13-40, qg1, l15996 and delta gt11r) were used. the bands were analysed using the neighbor-joining (nj) ...200212055823
the rarity of infection with leishmania (viannia) braziliensis among patients from the manaus region of amazonas state, brazil, who have cutaneous leishmaniasis.the frequency of leishmania ( viannia) braziliensis infection was assessed in 79 of the 138 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who attended a reference outpatient unit in manaus, amazonas state, between the august and december of 1997. the disease was characterized by one or more cutaneous ulcers, the skin lesions being frequently associated with satellite lymph-node enlargement. all parasite isolates were identified using monoclonal antibodies and enzyme electrophoresis. only two (2.8%) of t ...200212080973
evaluation of antigens from various leishmania species in a western blot for diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis.a western blot method that uses antigens from culture promastigote forms of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, l. (leishmania) amazonensis, l. (leishmania) tropica, and a trypanosomatid (strain 268t) isolated from naturally infected tomatoes was evaluated for laboratory diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl). serum samples were obtained from 108 patients with atl (group i), 23 chagasic patients (group ii), 32 patients with other diseases (group iii), and 78 healthy individuals (gr ...200212135276
genetic polymorphism and molecular epidemiology of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis from different hosts and geographic areas in brazil.numerical zymotaxonomy and variability of the internal transcribed spacers (its) between the small and large subunits of the rrna genes were used to examine strain variation and relationships in natural populations of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis. a total of 101 strains from distinct hosts and brazilian geographic regions were assigned to 15 zymodemes clustered in two major genetic groups. the great number of isolates (48.5%) placed in zymodeme ioc/z-27 were collected on the atlantic coast. ...200312843052
antibody subclass profile against leishmania braziliensis and leishmania amazonensis in the diagnosis and follow-up of mucosal leishmaniasis.sensitivities and specificities of igg subclasses-elisa and igg-indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) against leishmania braziliensis (lb) and l. amazonensis (la) antigens were determined in 17 patients with mucosal (ml) and 19 with muco-cutaneous (mcl) leishmaniasis. using ifat-igg both antigens gave high sensitivities and were statistically similar, being 89.5% with la and 100% with lb. using elisa, the highest sensitivity was achieved with total igg for ml (94.7% with both antigens) and m ...200314596966
multiclonal leishmania braziliensis population structure and its clinical implication in a region of endemicity for american tegumentary corte de pedra (cp), northeastern brazil, leishmania braziliensis causes three distinct forms of american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl). to test the hypothesis that strain polymorphism may be involved in this disease spectrum and accurately characterize the parasite population structure in cp, we compared one l. major, two non-cp l. braziliensis, one cp l. amazonensis, and 45 cp l. braziliensis isolates, obtained over a 10-year period from localized cutaneous, mucosal, and disseminated leis ...200414688132
antibody response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis infected by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis or leishmania (viannia) guyanensis in brazil.the antibody response against leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis crude antigen was measured through the indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa) and the immunoenzymatic assay (elisa) in 114 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in brazil. fifty-four patients were infected by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, and 60 patients had l. (v.) guyanensis infection. patients were comparable by age, sex, disease duration and the montenegro skin test diameter. l. (v.) braziliensis-infected patients sh ...200515589797
montenegro's skin reactions and antibodies against different leishmania species in dogs from a visceral leishmaniosis endemic this study, humoral (circulating anti-leishmania antibodies) and cellular (montenegro's skin test) immune responses of dogs from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniosis were tested using leishmania chagasi, leishmania amazonensis and leishmania braziliensis antigens. the antibody response was tested in three animal groups, selected according to their anti-l. chagasi antibody activity, as measured by elisa in the serum: 19 negative (o.d. below 0.30), seven with undefined (o.d. between 0.40 a ...200616567046
exposure to mixed asymptomatic infections with trypanosoma cruzi, leishmania braziliensis and leishmania chagasi in the human population of the greater amazon.lack of conservation of the amazon tropical rainforest has imposed severe threats to its human population living in newly settled villages, resulting in outbreaks of some infectious diseases. we conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 1100 inhabitants of 15 villages of paço do lumiar county, brazil. thirty-five (3%) individuals had been exposed to trypanosoma cruzi (tc), 41 (4%) to leishmania braziliensis (lb) and 50 (4.5%) to leishmania chagasi (lc) infections. also, 35 cases had antibodies t ...200717445130
reviewing the role of the dendritic langerhans cells in the immunopathogenesis of american cutaneous leishmaniasis.the role of dendritic langerhans cells (lcs) in the immunopathogenesis of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) was reviewed in the light of more recent clinical and immunological features of acl, caused by the principal human pathogenic leishmanial parasites found in brazil: leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and l. (l.) amazonensis. the report shows a species-specific correlation between the lc density and the cd4+ and cd8+ t-cell profiles in the cellular infiltrate of skin lesions of acl pati ...200818602127
molecular diagnosis of leishmaniosis in the paraná state of southern brazil.the objective of the present study was to establish a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique for the diagnosis of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniosis from autochthonous cases in the state of paraná in southern brazil as well as imported cases. we sought to determine its utility and accuracy compared with smears and present culture methods. to standardize pcr samples, skin and mucosal punch biopsies from human lesions were performed on patients living in different regions of the paraná s ...200818637136
dna sequencing confirms the involvement of leishmania (l.) amazonensis in american tegumentary leishmaniasis in the state of são paulo, brazil.american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl) represents one of the most important public health issues in the world. an increased number of autochthonous cases of atl in the northeastern region of são paulo state has been documented in the last few years, leading to a desire to determine the leishmania species implicated.200818719754
[sandfly fauna (diptera: psychodidae) in a focus of american cutaneous leishmaniasis on the urban periphery of manaus, state of amazonas].from august 2001 to july 2002, sand flies were collected from the bases of trees and, using cdc and disney traps, from areas surrounding homes and forested areas in the são joão community, on the urban periphery of manaus, state of amazonas. 4,104 specimens belonging to four subtribes, 13 genera and 49 species of the phlebotominae subfamily were collected. the subtribe psychodopygina predominated, with 3,403 (83%) specimens, especially of nyssomyia umbratilis, nyssomyia anduzei, trichophoromyia ...200819009191
leishmania (viannia) guyanensis induces low immunologic responsiveness in leishmaniasis patients from an endemic area of the brazilian amazon highland.cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis (cl-lguy) is endemic in the brazilian amazon, differing from l. braziliensis infection in clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects. t-cell reactivity to leishmanial antigens possibly involved in the pathogenesis of cl-lguy was studied herein. variable lymphoproliferative responses (lprs) to leishmania antigens were found among the 23 studied patients, and 50% of them showed low or no response to these antigens. active disease ...200919270278
drought, smallpox, and emergence of leishmania braziliensis in northeastern brazil.cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (vianna) braziliensis is a major health problem in the state of ceará in northeastern brazil. we propose that the disease emerged as a consequence of the displacement of persons from ceará to the amazon region following the great drought and smallpox epidemic of 1877-1879. as the economic and social situation in ceará deteriorated, approximately 55,000 residents migrated to the amazon region to find work, many on rubber plantations. those that returne ...200919523291
characterization in vivo and in vitro of a strain of leishmania (viannia) shawi from the amazon region.the present study analyses complement resistance, cell surface carbohydrates expression, lipidic composition and morphology in vivo and in vitro, of leishmania (viannia) shawi, a parasite identified in the amazon region, pará state, in 1989. we demonstrated that promastigotes in the stationary (stat) growth phase are more resistant to complement lysis than in the logarithmic (log) growth phase. ultrastructural analyses and imidazol technique showed accumulation of lipids in stat growth phase pro ...200919567230
proven and putative vectors of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil: aspects of their biology and vectorial competence.the aim of the present review is to give relevant information on aspects of the biology and ecology, including the vectorial competence of lutzomyia sand fly species suggested as vectors of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil. the disease, due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, has been registered in most municipalities in all the brazilian states and its transmission is associated with more than one sand fly species in each geographical region. a variety of leishmania species can be f ...200920027458
characterization of leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in manaus, amazonas, the state of amazonas, american tegumentary leishmaniasis is endemic and presents a wide spectrum of clinical variability due to the large diversity of circulating species in the region. isolates from patients in manaus and its metropolitan region were characterized using monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymes belonging to four species of the parasite: leishmania (viannia) guyanensis, 73% (153/209); leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, 14% (30/209); leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis, 8% (17/209 ...201021072540
leishmania spp. in didelphis albiventris and micoureus paraguayanus (didelphimorphia: didelphidae) of brazil.leishmaniasis is kept in nature by the participation of several animal species. this study evaluated the presence of leishmania spp. in skin samples of free-ranging marsupials micoureus paraguayanus (n=95) and didelphis albiventris (n=191), captured in morro do diabo state park and in sections of its surrounding forest, in the region of pontal do paranapanema, são paulo state, brazil. the samples were tested for the presence of kdna of leishmania spp. by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and by re ...201021144664
randomized controlled clinical trial to access efficacy and safety of miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis in manaus, brazil.miltefosine has been used in the treatment of several new world cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) species with variable efficacy. our study is the first evidence on its clinical efficacy in leishmania (viannia) guyanensis. in this phase ii/iii randomized clinical trial, 90 cl patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to oral miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day/28 days) (n = 60) or parenteral antimony (15-20 mg/sb/kg/day/20 days) (n = 30) according to age groups: 2-12 y/o and 13-65 y/o. patients were human immuno ...201121292895
mucosal leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and leishmania (viannia) guyanensis in the brazilian amazon.leishmania (viannia) braziliensis is a parasite recognized as the most important etiologic agent of mucosal leishmaniasis (ml) in the new world. in amazonia, seven different species of leishmania, etiologic agents of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, have been described. isolated cases of ml have been described for several different species of leishmania: l. (v.) panamensis, l. (v.) guyanensis and l. (l.) amazonensis.201121408116
american tegumentary leishmaniasis and hiv-aids association in a tertiary care center in the brazilian amazon.american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) are both common infectious diseases in the brazilian amazon with overlapping expansion areas, which leads to the occurrence of leishmania/hiv coinfection. most atl/hiv-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) association cases have been reported from areas where leishmania (viannia) braziliensis is the main pathogen; this finding is in contrast with the amazon region, where l. (v.) guyanensis is the most implicated ...201121896816
combining diagnostic procedures for the management of leishmaniasis in areas with high prevalence of leishmania guyanensis.the amazon region corresponds to approximately 40% of the cases of leishmaniasis in brazil. we report a prospective study with 180 patients conducted in a health care unit that diagnoses 10% of the cases of leishmaniasis in the brazilian amazon. the study addresses how a combination of procedures improves diagnosis in areas with high prevalence of leishmania guyanensis.201122281902
ecological aspects and molecular detection of leishmania dna ross (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) in phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) in terra firme and várzea environments in the middle solimões region, amazonas state, brazil.phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to the role that some species play in the transmission of leishmaniasis. this work aimed to study some ecological aspects among sand flies fauna inhabiting two different environments: the várzea (lowland amazonian forest) and terra firme (upland amazonian forest), both located in tefé municipality, amazonas state, braziland to detect leishmania infection in those phlebotomine populations.201525889808
lipophosphoglycans from leishmania amazonensis strains display immunomodulatory properties via tlr4 and do not affect sand fly infection.the immunomodulatory properties of lipophosphoglycans (lpg) from new world species of leishmania have been assessed in leishmania infantum and leishmania braziliensis, the causative agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. this glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variation in sugars that branch off the conserved gal(β1,4)man(α1)-po4 backbone of repeat units. here, the immunomodulatory activity of lpgs from leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of di ...201627508930
natural leishmania (viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) from the brazilian amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of american cutaneous amazonian brazil the etiological agents of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) belong to at least seven leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. in 2002-2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the "floresta nacional do tapajós", belterra municipality, in the lower amazon region, western pará state, brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, l. (v.) guyanensis × l. (v.) ...201627235194
phenotypic characterization of leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower amazon region, western pará state, brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, leishmania (viannia) guyanensis × leishmania (viannia) shawi shawi.we phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 mcabs). identifications revealed 11 (25.6%) strains of leishmania (v.) braziliensis, 4 (9.3%) of l. (v.) shawi shawi, 7 (16.3%) of l. (v.) shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9%) of l. (v.) guyanensis and l. (v.) lainsoni, 2 (4.7%) of l. (l.) amazonensis, and 7 (16.3%) of a putative hybrid parasite, l. (v.) guyanensis/l. (v.) shawi shawi. m ...201425083790
detection of leishmania amazonensis and leishmania braziliensis in culicoides (diptera, ceratopogonidae) in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the brazilian amazonia.biting midges in the genus culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in latin america, the caribbean, and parts of africa. although culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of culicoides infection by these pathogens. we used pcr to test captured culicoides species for natural infection wi ...201627860021
comparative analysis of carbohydrate residues in the midgut of phlebotomines (diptera: psychodidae) from colony and field populations from amazon, brazil.leishmaniasis are worldwide diseases that occur in 98 countries including brazil, transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomines during blood feeding. in brazil it is known that some species of sand flies as lutzomyia longipalpis sensun latum (vector of leishmania infantum chagasi), lutzomyia flaviscutellata (vector of leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis) and lutzomyia antunesi [suspected vector of leishmania (viannia) lindenbergi] are incriminated of transmitting the parasite leishmania for th ...201627264642
antileishmanial activity of a calophyllum brasiliense leaf extract.calophyllum brasiliense (clusiaceae) is a tree that grows mainly in the atlantic forest in brazil. its leaves possess antibacterial activity, cytotoxic activity against certain tumor cell lines, and antimicrobial activity in balb/c mice infected with leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis.aiming to identify ultrastructural changes and dna fragmentation in leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, promastigotes were treated with a concentration of the dichloromethane extract and coumarin (-) mammea a/bb fr ...201727224267
molecular detection of leishmania in sand flies (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae) collected in the caititu indigenous reserve of the municipality of lábrea, state of amazonas, brazil.phlebotominae sand flies are of medical importance because they are vectors of human pathogens, such as protozoa of the genus leishmania ross, etiological agent of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl). in lábrea, a municipality in the state of amazonas, brazil, acl is primarily associated with subsistence activities, such as collection and extraction of forest products, undertaken by both indigenous and nonindigenous people. data on acl in indigenous populations are scarce, such that there is ...201426309318
evaluation of different diagnostic methods of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in the brazilian amazon.epidemiological studies have been conducted to better understand the dynamics of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in the amazon region where distinct species of leishmania circulate. in endemic areas, the optimal diagnosis must be made in the earlier clinical presentation to avoid the complications of chronic disease. the scarcity of financial support, laboratory infrastructure and trained persons are the major obstacles in this reality. this paper describes the result of performing differ ...201627119738
leishmania (viannia) naiffi: rare enough to be neglected?in the brazilian amazon, american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl) is endemic and presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations due, in part, to the circulation of at least seven leishmania species. few reports of leishmania (viannia) naiffi infection suggest that its occurrence is uncommon and the reported cases present a benign clinical course and a good response to treatment. this study aimed to strengthen the clinical and epidemiological importance of l. (v.) naiffi in the amazon region ...201526517660
sustained presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in urban manaus, the largest human settlement in the amazon.the amazon is responsible for approximately 40% of the american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl) in brazil. herein the sustained presence of atl in manaus, the largest settlement in the amazon, was investigated. records of notification of historic cases, and data from cases prospectively enrolled in the tropical medicine foundation of the amazonas state were used. geographic coordinates of prospective patients' living sites were used to detect inner-city clusters of atl. infecting leishmania spec ...201526483119
ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern brazil.cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis is endemic in brazil, where lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was ...201525792416
natural leishmania (viannia) infections of phlebotomines (diptera: psychodidae) indicate classical and alternative transmission cycles of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in the guiana shield, brazil.from 1996 to 1999 multi-trapping methods (center of diseases control, cdc) light traps, light-baited shannon traps, and aspiration on tree bases) were used to study the phlebotomine fauna of the "serra do navio" region of the brazilian state of amapá, which is part of the guiana shield. fifty-three species were identified among 8,685 captured individuals. the following species, associated with the transmission of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in amazonian brazil, were captured: nyssomyia umbr ...201728508745
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