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bubonic plague from direct exposure to a naturally infected wild coyote.an 11-year-old boy developed axillary bubonic plague and plague meningitis 3 days after skinning a dead coyote near albuquerque, new mexico. the coyoto carcass was recovered 10 days later, and yersinia pestis was isolated from spleen and marrow of the animal. this is the first report of human plague from exposure to a coyote. a review of experimental and epidemiologic studies suggests that severe plague infection in members of the family canidae is unusual, and that the risk of acquiring plague ...1976961983
bubonic plague in the southwestern united states. a review of recent experience. 19704924535
vi. plague. epidemiology. 19725069999
the role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of plague. ii. antibody to yersinia pestis in sera of dogs and cats. 19715115674
human plague -- texas, new mexico. 19816789063
an overview of plague in the united states and a report of investigations of two human cases in kern county, california, 1995.plague was confirmed in the united states from nine western states during 1995. evidence of yersinia pestis infection was identified in 28 species of wild or domestic mammals. thirteen of the plague positive species were wild rodents; 15 were predators/carnivores. yersinia pestis was isolated from eight species of fleas. seven confirmed cases of human plague were reported in 1995 (new mexico 3; california 2; arizona and oregon 1 each). five of the seven cases were bubonic; one was septicemic and ...19979221742
clarification about plague and its diagnosis. 19979301733
a cryptic 19-kilobase plasmid associated with u.s. isolates of yersinia pestis: a dimer of the 9.5-kilobase plasmid.yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, carries three prototypic plasmids with sizes of 110 kb (pfra, ptox), 70 kb (plcr, pvw, pcad), and 9.5 kb (ppla, ppst). studies suggest that geographic isolates of y. pestis may be differentiated by plasmid profiles. yersinia pestis isolated from the western united states harbor an additional plasmid, estimated to be approximately 19 kb in size. this cryptic plasmid was characterized by restriction endonuclease digestion, amplification and sequencin ...19989840581
serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in swift and kit foxes from the western united states.a serologic survey of swift fox (vulpes velox) and kit fox (v. macrotis) from the western usa was conducted for 12 infectious diseases. samples from swift fox were collected between 1987 and 1992 from colorado (n = 44), kansas (n = 10), and wyoming (n = 9). samples from kit fox were collected in california (n = 86), new mexico (n = 18), utah (n = 9), and arizona (n = 6). overall antibody prevalence rates were 33 of 110 (30%) for canine parvovirus (cpv), 9 of 72 (13%) for canine distemper virus ( ...200011085448
imported plague--new york city, 2002.on november 1, 2002, a married couple traveled from santa fe county, new mexico, to new york city (nyc), where they both became ill with fever and unilateral inguinal adenopathy; bubonic plague (yersinia pestis) was diagnosed subsequently. this report summarizes the clinical and public health investigation of these cases and underscores the importance of rapid diagnosis and communication among health-care providers, public health agencies, and the public when patients seek medical attention for ...200312904738
human plague--four states, 2006.plague is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis. in 2006, a total of 13 human plague cases have been reported among residents of four states: new mexico (seven cases), colorado (three cases), california (two cases), and texas (one case). this is the largest number of cases reported in a single year in the united states since 1994. dates of illness onset ranged from february 16 to august 14; two (15%) cases were fatal. the median age of patients was 43 years (range: 13-79 yea ...200616943764
multiple antimicrobial resistance in plague: an emerging public health risk.antimicrobial resistance in yersinia pestis is rare, yet constitutes a significant international public health and biodefense threat. in 1995, the first multidrug resistant (mdr) isolate of y. pestis (strain ip275) was identified, and was shown to contain a self-transmissible plasmid (pip1202) that conferred resistance to many of the antimicrobials recommended for plague treatment and prophylaxis. comparative analysis of the dna sequence of y. pestis plasmid pip1202 revealed a near identical inc ...200717375195
residence-linked human plague in new mexico: a habitat-suitability model.yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has been detected in fleas and mammals throughout the western united states. this highly virulent infection is rare in humans, surveillance of the disease is expensive, and it often was assumed that risk of exposure to y. pestis is high in most of the western united states. for these reasons, some local health departments in these plague-affected regions have hesitated to undertake surveillance and other prevention activities. to aid in targeting l ...200717620642
swabbing prairie dog burrows for fleas that transmit yersinia pestis: influences on efficiency.scientists and health-care professionals sometimes use a swabbing technique to collect fleas from rodent burrows, and later test the fleas for yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. detection of y. pestis is enhanced when large pools of fleas are available. the following study investigated factors that might affect the rate at which fleas are collected from burrows in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus). data were collected from 13 colonies in new mexico during ...201728486652
small-scale die-offs in woodrats support long-term maintenance of plague in the u.s. southwest.our longitudinal study of plague dynamics was conducted in north-central new mexico to identify which species in the community were infected with plague, to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of the dynamics of plague epizootics, and to describe the dynamics of yersinia pestis infection within individual hosts. a total of 3156 fleas collected from 535 small mammals of 8 species were tested for y. pestis dna. nine fleas collected from six southern plains woodrats (neotoma micropus) and f ...201728792853
yersinia pestis infection in dogs: 62 cases (2003-2011).to describe the epidemiology, clinical signs, and treatment practices in dogs with yersinia pestis infection in new mexico.201424786165
prevalence of the generalist flea pulex simulans on black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) in new mexico, usa: the importance of considering imperfect detection.if a parasite is not detected during a survey, one of two explanations is possible: the parasite was truly absent or it was present but not detected. we fit occupancy models to account for imperfect detection when combing fleas (siphonaptera) from black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) during june-august 2012 in the vermejo park ranch, new mexico, usa. with the use of detection histories from combing events during monthly trapping sessions, we fit occupancy models for two flea species: ...201525588009
flea abundance, diversity, and plague in gunnison's prairie dogs (cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in northern new mexico.plague, a flea-transmitted infectious disease caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, is a primary threat to the persistence of prairie dog populations (cynomys spp.). we conducted a 3-yr survey (2004-2006) of fleas from gunnison's prairie dogs (cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in valles caldera national preserve in new mexico. our objectives were to describe flea communities and identify flea and rodent species important to the maintenance of plague. we live-trapped p ...201020688629
fine-scale identification of the most likely source of a human plague infection.we describe an analytic approach to provide fine-scale discrimination among multiple infection source hypotheses. this approach uses mutation-rate data for rapidly evolving multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat loci in probabilistic models to identify the most likely source. we illustrate the utility of this approach using data from a north american human plague investigation.200919861057
human plague in the southwestern united states, 1957-2004: spatial models of elevated risk of human exposure to yersinia pestis.plague is a rare but highly virulent flea-borne zoonotic disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium yersinia pestis yersin. identifying areas at high risk of human exposure to the etiological agent of plague could provide a useful tool for targeting limited public health resources and reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis by raising awareness of the disease. we created logistic regression models to identify landscape features associated with areas where humans have acquired plague from 1957 t ...200717547242
incidence of plague associated with increased winter-spring precipitation in new mexico.plague occurs episodically in many parts of the world, and some outbreaks appear to be related to increased abundance of rodents and other mammals that serve as hosts for vector fleas. climate dynamics may influence the abundance of both fleas and mammals, thereby having an indirect effect on human plague incidence. an understanding of the relationship between climate and plague could be useful in predicting periods of increased risk of plague transmission. in this study, we used correlation ana ...199910586917
dynamics of plague in a gunnison's prairie dog colony complex from new mexico.a plague (yersinia pestis) epizootic spread through gunnison's prairie dogs (cynomys gunnisoni), and possibly other rodent species, in the moreno valley in north-central new mexico between winter 1984-1985 and autumn 1987. we observed the progress of the epizootic and subsequent population recovery at four prairie dog towns within the valley during this period. at two towns (midlake and val verde) the prairie dogs were marked prior to the epizootic. at two additional towns (vega and south entran ...19979391954
feline plague in new mexico: report of five cases.naturally acquired plague was diagnosed in 5 domestic cats. the cats apparently contracted the disease through contact with sylvatic rodents or their fleas in plague-enzootic areas. the diagnosis was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence and isolation of yersinia pestis on culture of abscess material. abscess formation, lymphadenitis, lethargy, and fever were consistent clinical findings.19817341569
peripatetic plague.cases of plague continue to occur in various parts of the world, including the western united states, where plague is endemic among the wild rodent population. in 1980, a case of plague acquired in new mexico and hospitalized in nebraska illustrated the problem of plague occurring in persons traveling from the state in which they become infected to another state. nine cases of plague in travelers were identified among the 166 cases of plague reported in the united states from 1950 to 1980. physi ...19827053441
experimental plague in rock squirrels, spermophilus variegatus (erxleben).experimental infections with yersinia pestis were followed in groups of rock squirrels. development of coagulopathy and pneumonia were observed in 2-4% and 11-12% of the test animals, respectively. susceptibility to experimental infection was heterogeneous with some animals surviving inoculation with large numbers of organisms and others succumbing after inoculation with small numbers. production and longevity of serum antibody titers, as measured by passive hemagglutination tests, were variable ...19854032620
clinical, clinicopathologic, and pathologic features of plague in cats: 119 cases (1977-1988).the clinical, clinicopathologic, and pathologic features of 119 cases of plague in cats from 1977 to 1988 in new mexico were reviewed. fifty-three percent were bubonic, 10% were pneumonic, 8% were septicemic, and 29% with neither buboes nor pneumonia were unclassified (but presumed septicemic). three quarters of the lymphadenopathy was submandibular, and almost half of this was bilateral. one third of all cats had the triad of lethargy, anorexia, and fever in addition to buboes; one quarter had ...19911752774
epidemiologic and clinical features of an outbreak of bubonic plague in new mexico.an outbreak of seven cases of bubonic plague in new mexico was investigated. clinical features were studied and correlated with field studies in an attmept to determine the source of infection in patients with indefinite histories of exposure. most patients presented with fever, malaise, and an acute painful lymphadenitis (bubo). one death occurred in a patient with bubonic-septicemic plague complicated by meningitis due to yersinia pestis. all patients lived in rural or semirural areas, and mos ...1977908848
endemic human plague in new mexico: risk factors associated with infection.a retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors, other than contact with infected animal tissues, for infection caused by yersinia pestis in non-indian residents of areas with endemic sylvatic plague in new mexico. the study group consisted of 16 persons who had bacteriologically confirmed cases of plague in the period 1975-1976 and 45 controls who were matched by age, sex, and location of residence. participants were questioned about outdoor activities, environmental c ...1979574152
human plague in new mexico: report of three autopsied cases.plague is a deadly disease of obvious concern to individuals, communities, and public health officials. the rapid recognition of plague victims is of paramount importance in saving the lives of the victims and in the protection of contacts. three autopsied plague cases have been presented and the pathological features have been discussed.1979512611
comparative genomics of 2009 seasonal plague (yersinia pestis) in new mexico.plague disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium yersinia pestis routinely affects animals and occasionally humans, in the western united states. the strains native to the north american continent are thought to be derived from a single introduction in the late 19(th) century. the degree to which these isolates have diverged genetically since their introduction is not clear, and new genomic markers to assay the diversity of north american plague are highly desired. to assay genetic diversity ...201222359605
misidentification of yersinia pestis by automated systems, resulting in delayed diagnoses of human plague infections--oregon and new mexico, 2010-2011.one human plague case was reported in oregon in september 2010 and another in new mexico in may 2011. misidentification of yersinia pestis by automated identification systems contributed to delayed diagnoses for both cases.201222715170
pcr detection of yersinia pestis in fleas: comparison with mouse inoculation.the "gold standard" for identifying yersinia pestis-infected fleas has been inoculation of mice with pooled flea material. inoculated mice are monitored for 21 days, and those that die are further analyzed for y. pestis infection by fluorescent-antibody assay and/or culture. pcr may provide a more rapid and sensitive alternative for identifying y. pestis in fleas. to compare these assays, samples were prepared from 381 field-collected fleas. each flea was analyzed individually by both pcr and mo ...199910325359
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