plague, a reemerging disease in madagascar.human cases of plague, which had virtually disappeared in madagascar after the 1930s, reappeared in 1990 with more than 200 confirmed or presumptive cases reported each year since. in the port of mahajanga, plague has been reintroduced, and epidemics occur every year. in antananarivo, the capital, the number of new cases has increased, and many rodents are infected with yersinia pestis. despite surveillance for the sensitivity of y. pestis and fleas to drugs and insecticides and control measures ...19989452403
phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of yersinia pestis in madagascar.plague was introduced to madagascar in 1898 and continues to be a significant human health problem. it exists mainly in the central highlands, but in the 1990s was reintroduced to the port city of mahajanga, where it caused extensive human outbreaks. despite its prevalence, the phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of y. pestis in madagascar has been difficult to study due to the great genetic similarity among isolates. we examine island-wide geographic-genetic patterns based upon whole-geno ...201121931876
[plague in the port of mahajanga: 6 inhabitants out of 1000 carry the anti-f1 antibody in 1999].the authors report the results of a randomized epidemiological survey aiming to assess the sero-prevalence of plague in the general population > or = 2-year-old in mahajanga. in 656 sera tested (by elisa), the prevalence of anti-f1 antibodies was found to be 6.1%@1000 inhabitants, close to the expected prevalence in the area, where plague reappeared in 1991 after 62 years of absence. the study also demonstrated that the shrew, suncus murinus, is an important reservoir in the plague transmission ...200012463025
epidemiologic features of four successive annual outbreaks of bubonic plague in mahajanga, madagascar.from 1995 to 1998, outbreaks of bubonic plague occurred annually in the coastal city of mahajanga, madagascar. a total of 1,702 clinically suspected cases of bubonic plague were reported, including 515 laboratory confirmed by yersinia pestis isolation (297), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or both. incidence was higher in males and young persons. most buboes were inguinal, but children had a higher frequency of cervical or axillary buboes. among laboratory-confirmed hospitalized patients, the ...200211927030
current epidemiology of human plague in madagascar.from 1996 to 1998, 5,965 patients with suspected plague were identified in 38 districts of madagascar (40% of the total population are exposed). using standard bacteriology, 917 of them were confirmed or presumptive (c + p) cases. however, more than 2,000 plague cases could be estimated using f1 antigen assay. two out of the 711 yersinia pestis isolates tested were resistant to chloramphenicol and to ampicillin (both isolates found in the harbour of mahajanga). urban plague (mahajanga harbour an ...200010717537
[update on plague in madagascar].after a thirty year period of successful control, bubonic plague showed the first signs of return in madagascar where a fatal outbreak occurred in antananarivo in 1978. a second outbreak was observed in mahajanga in 1991 after more than a half century. in 1997, 459 confirmed or presumptive cases were reported, as compared to 150 to 250 cases during the last years. however the actual extent of this recrudescence must be placed in the perspective of a more efficient control program that has led to ...19989812306
[seroepidemiologic study of human plague in madagascar].an igg anti-f1 enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been developed for plague diagnosis in the malagasy republic. the sensitivity of the test was 91.4% and the specificity 98.5%. this technique is cheap and the cross reaction with other infections diseases prevalent in madagascar is very limited. during the urban plague outbreak (mahajanga city, 1995), the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 95.2% and 97% respectively. during this outbreak, the usefulness of ...19979309233
[the plague in madagascar: epidemiologic data from 1989 to 1995 and the national control program].after briefly reviewing the history and epidemiological cycle of the plague in madagascar, we report a detailed analysis of 5,927 suspected cases of plague observed from 1989 to 1995 (average of 846 cases per year). of those, 1,337 individuals (average of 191 cases per year) were confirmed (by isolation of yersinia pestis) or indicated to be probable for plague (by positive smears). since 1994, we observed an increasing number of confirmed and probable cases (252 cases in 1995). most of the case ...19979172878
plague in majunga, madagascar. 19957475693
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