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re-assessment of tick control after immunization against east coast fever in the eastern province of zambia.east coast fever, caused by the protozoon theileria parva and transmitted by the ixodid tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus is one of the most important cattle diseases in east and central africa, responsible for considerable direct losses and necessitating expensive control measures. traditionally, the disease was controlled by means of intensive tick control. the belgian animal disease control project was requested to study the disease epizootiology and vector ecology in order to formulate and i ...19911793284
theileriosis in zambia: etiology, epidemiology and control measures.in zambia, theileriosis manifests itself in the form of corridor disease (cd), caused by theileria parva lawrencei, and east coast fever (ecf), caused by t. parva parva. of the approximately 3 million cattle in zambia, 1.4 million are at risk to theileriosis. ecf is found in the northern and eastern provinces of the country, while cd appears in southern, central, lusaka and copperbelt provinces. theileriosis is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in zambia, with losse ...19947933764
the current epidemiological status of bovine theileriosis in eastern zambia.results of a longitudinal study conducted in the eastern province of zambia from 1994 to 1997 indicate that it is doubtful whether a state of endemic stability of east coast fever (ecf) can be reached in the near future. even in endemic areas, the mortality of theileria parva infections is still estimated above 50%. the main factors limiting progress towards endemic stability are high innate susceptibility of the zebu cattle, the virulence of the parasite and the climate. the unimodal rainfall p ...199910540309
theileria parva epidemics: a case study in eastern zambia.this paper presents the results of the follow-up of three sentinel herds between 1994 and 2000 during an east coast fever (ecf) epidemic in eastern zambia. the animals of the sentinel herds were closely monitored clinically and serologically together with detailed rhipicephalus appendiculatus counts. peaks of disease incidence occurred in the rainy season (december-february) and the dry months of may-july with nymph-to-adult tick transmission dominating the infection dynamics. a second wave of a ...200212072213
immunisation against theileria parva in eastern zambia: influence of maternal antibodies and demonstration of the carrier status.immunisation of calves by the infection and treatment method (i & t) has been extensively used in the eastern province of zambia to control east coast fever (ecf), a protozoan tick-borne disease. this paper presents the results of a field longitudinal study, which included a total of 148 angoni calves. after immunisation against ecf, they were monitored for a full rainy season, coinciding with the main peak of activity of the vector of theileria parva, the tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus. dysi ...200212446089
distribution and phenology of ixodid ticks in southern zambia.distribution data for epidemiologically important ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the southern province of zambia, one of the main cattle areas of the country, are presented. boophilus microplus (canestrini) was not recorded in southern zambia, whereas boophilus decoloratus (koch) is present throughout the area. new distribution patterns for less economically important ixodid ticks are also discussed. southern zambia is a transition zone because it is the most northern area in africa where mixed rhip ...200212510896
variation in body size in the tick complex rhipicephalus appendiculatus/rhipicephalus zambeziensis.we examined the relationship between body size and the phenology of the tick complex rhipicephalus appendiculatus/rhipicephalus zambeziensis. these ticks transmit theileria parva in cattle. in africa, the body size of r. appendiculatus increases with latitude while the body size of the morphologically similar rhipicephalus zambeziensis is constant at two different latitudes. a larger body size is necessary once survival becomes a constraint. the most plausible explanation for the smaller r. appe ...200415707294
evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test as a diagnostic tool for east coast fever in eastern zambia.serological surveys using the schizont indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) are routinely carried out to monitor the theileria parva infection prevalence. the present study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of the ifat in eastern zambia, where the transmission of t. parva is highly seasonal. the data set resulted from a sentinel herd (n = 105 animals) study carried out between 1995 and 2000 and was split into an epidemic period, during which the majority of the cattle became infected, and ...200415710519
east coast fever and multiple el niño southern oscillation ranks.east coast fever (ecf), a tick-borne disease of cattle, is a major constraint to livestock development in africa in general and southern zambia in particular. understanding the transmission patterns of this disease complex is very difficult as shown by previous studies in southern and eastern zambia due to the interplay of risk factors. in this long-term study, we investigated whether global weather changes had any influence on disease transmission in traditionally kept cattle in southern zambia ...200616213095
epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in zambia.tick-borne diseases are a constraint to livestock production in many developing countries as they cause high morbidity and mortality, which results in decreased production of meat, milk and other livestock by-products. the most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-saharan africa are east coast fever (caused by theileria parva), babesiosis (caused by babesia bigemina and b. bovis), anaplasmosis (caused by anaplasma marginale) and heartwater (caused by ehrlichia ruminantium). despite ...201021106294
trends of selected cattle diseases in eastern zambia between 1988 and 2008.livestock diseases have long been a challenge to livestock production and public health in sub-saharan africa and zambia in particular. the eastern province of zambia is one area in zambia that is not spared by this challenge. among various livestock diseases affecting cattle in this region, the most prominent are east coast fever (ecf) and african animal trypanasomiasis (aat). since little has been published on the epidemiological trends of these diseases in eastern zambia, a retrospective epid ...201121723631
population genetic analysis and sub-structuring of theileria parva in the northern and eastern parts of zambia.theileriosis, caused by theileria parva, is an economically important disease in africa. it is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern africa. in zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually.201223146577
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