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campylobacter surveillance. 19921285113
seroepidemiology of helicobacter pylori infection in vegans and meat-eaters.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been used to diagnose serologically the prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in asian life-long vegans. there was no difference in the seropositivity between these individuals and a group of age- and sex-matched asian meat-eaters, indicating the meat consumption is not a risk factor for h. pylori infection. however, both asian groups had a higher prevalence of infection than age- and sex-matched caucasian meat-eaters. additionally, the asian indivi ...19921601079
jackdaws as potential source of milk-borne campylobacter jejuni infection. 19901971891
characterization of cross-reacting serotypes of campylobacter jejuni.some strains of campylobacter jejuni react with more than one reference antiserum from the serotyping scheme based on heat-stable lipopolysaccharide antigens. to investigate the molecular basis of these cross-reactions, lipopolysaccharides from the reference strains for serotypes 4, 13, 16, 43, and 50 and isolates recovered during two different outbreaks of c. jejuni enteritis were analyzed by passive haemagglutination and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with s ...19892472859
campylobacters in man and the environment in hull and east yorkshire.campylobacter organisms isolated from water samples taken weekly from ponds and land-drains in the city of hull were compared with isolates from humans. of 314 campylobacter organisms isolated from patients, 237 (75.5%) of the strains were identified as typical campylobacter jejuni, whilst of 125 identified strains isolated from the water samples, 85 (68%) resembled c. jejuni in most respects but were hippurate hydrolysis negative by the hwang and ederer method. the ponds and land drains in the ...19883181312
an outbreak of food-borne campylobacter jejuni infection and the possible role of cross-contamination.a point-source outbreak or campylobacter infection affected 24 of 51 delegates attending a business lunch. failure to detect any specific vehicle for the infection led to observations of kitchen practice. experiments demonstrated that cross-contamination as a result of handling raw and cooked food consecutively was a possible cause of the outbreak.19883183409
the extent of surface contamination of retailed chickens with campylobacter jejuni serogroups.eighty-two chickens purchased at 11 retailers (supplied by 12 wholesalers) in the south of england were cultured for campylobacter jejuni by a method involving total immersion. the organism was isolated from 22 (48%) of 46 fresh birds, 12 of 12 uneviscerated (new york dressed) birds, but only 1 of 24 frozen birds. viable counts of up to 1.5 x 10(6)/chicken were obtained from fresh birds and 2.4 x 10(7)/chicken from uneviscerated birds. surface swabbing of breasts, thighs, wings and vents of fres ...19883338503
evidence of udder excretion of campylobacter jejuni as the cause of milk-borne campylobacter outbreak.we describe a community outbreak of campylobacter enteritis associated with the consumption of untreated milk, apparently contaminated by two cows with campylobacter mastitis. the outbreak occurred in two phases. strains of campylobacter jejuni of the penner serogroup complex 4, 13, 16, 50 and preston biotype code 6100 were isolated from patients in both episodes and from the faeces of the cattle, milk filters, bulk milk and retail milk. milk samples from two of 40 milking cows were found to con ...19853989284
severe campylobacter infection in children.children suffering from campylobacter jejuni infection and who were admitted to children's hospitals in bristol and newcastle over a period of 2 years are reviewed. gastro-intestinal disease caused by c. jejuni was as common as that due to salmonella spp. three neonates suffered particularly severe infections which resembled necrotising enterocolitis. one such case is described.19854086864
water-borne outbreak of campylobacter gastroenteritis.an outbreak of gastroenteritis affecting 234 pupils and 23 staff at a boarding school occurred over a period of 8 weeks. campylobacter spp. were isolated from pupils and staff, and from two samples of cold water taken from an open-topped storage tank which supplied predominantly unchlorinated water to the main school building. the two isolates from water were of the same serotype. this serotype was the commonest of the three serotypes of campylobacter jejuni detected in isolates from pupils and ...19836130305
a comparison of biotypes and serotypes of campylobacter sp. isolated from patients with enteritis and from animal and environmental sources.the origin of sporadic campylobacter infections has been investigated by means of a collaborative study. from a total of 1152 cases reported in north west england in 1982, campylobacter strains isolated during one month in each quarter of the year were biotyped and serotyped. for comparison, 875 strains of campylobacter isolated from environmental and animal sources were similarly examined. most strains from human beings were campylobacter jejuni; about half of them were of three serotypes. thos ...19846501895
milk-borne campylobacter enteritis in a rural area.during november and december 1981 more than 50 residents in a village in derbyshire had an acute gastrointestinal illness. one month later a second outbreak occurred affecting another 22 people. campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 12 patients; no other gastrointestinal pathogens were identified. a case-control study showed an association with the consumption of unpasteurized milk from one particular farm. no new cases were identified for 6 months following the application of a pasteurization ...19836644009
investigation of a waterborne outbreak of campylobacter jejuni enteritis with a serotyping scheme based on thermostable antigens.serotyping of 11 human and 2 water isolates of campylobacter jejuni associated with a waterborne outbreak revealed two serotypes among the human isolates. one of these (serotype 58) was a new serotype and was added to the serotyping scheme. serotypes were defined by using extracted thermostable antigens and passive hemagglutination titrations of both unabsorbed and cross-absorbed antisera. two water isolates of the same serotype as six human isolates provided evidence to link a contaminated wate ...19836655043
milk-borne campylobacter infection.the common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. c jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. in england and wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk shou ...19816786504
campylobacter enteritis associated with the consumption of free school milk.a large outbreak of campylobacter enteritis associated with the consumption of free school milk is described. the outbreak had an abrupt onset, and lasted for about 3 weeks; it involved mainly school children in the 2-4 and 5-7 year old age groups. during this period it was established from epidemiological and microbiological data that some 2500 children were infected. the source of the epidemic was almost certainly contaminated milk, although bacteriological proof could not be obtained. biotypi ...19816895230
serological studies in two outbreaks of campylobacter jejuni infection.two outbreaks of campylobacter enteritis in residential student populations are described. in the first outbreak, 34 of 240 students in one hall of residence became ill over the course of 4 or 5 days. a single serotype of c. jejuni was isolated from sample of faeces. sera collected demonstrated that the students had little pre-existing antibody and antibody responses were demonstrated in those who were infected. about 30% of students with serological evidence for infection with c. jejuni did not ...19816895231
campylobacter jejuni/coli in abattoirs and butchers shops. 19827185998
serological response to campylobacter jejuni/coli infection.the antibody response to campylobacter jejuni/coli infection was investigated in 59 patients involved in two outbreaks of milk-borne infection and in sporadic infections in the community. agglutinins and complement-fixing (cf) antibodies were detected in nearly all these patients. agglutinins were present in 25% of normal sera at low titres (not greater than 1/160) but cf antibody titres of 1/4 or 1/8 were present in only 2.0%. the agglutination reactions in convalescent sera were best developed ...19807430389
a point source outbreak of campylobacter infection related to bird-pecked milk.a point source outbreak of campylobacter jejuni affected 11 children in a day nursery. milk consumed by the children was known to have been pecked by magpies on occasions. illness was significantly associated with consumption of milk on a single morning. examination of milk from a bottle pecked after the outbreak yielded campylobacters. the level of contamination was approximately six cells of c. jejuni per 500 ml of milk.19938472769
colonization of broiler chickens by waterborne campylobacter jejuni.chickens on a broiler farm in southern england were found to be colonized with campylobacter jejuni of a single serotype, lior 1 penner 4. the farm was the sole supplier of a local slaughterhouse associated with a campylobacter outbreak in 1984 caused by this serotype. the serotype persisted on the farm for at least 18 months after the outbreak; its prevalence in the human population served by the farm remained high until it disappeared from the farm in 1986. the possible sources and routes of t ...19938476300
campylobacter bacteraemia in england and wales, 1981-91.routine surveillance of infection in england and wales detected 394 cases of campylobacter bacteraemia in 11 years. this represented an average incidence of 1.5 per 1000 intestinal campylobacter infections, with a range of 0.3/1000 in children aged 1-4 years to 5.9/1000 in patients aged 65 years or more. definitive identification of 257 isolates showed that 89% were campylobacter jejuni or c. coli; other species were c. fetus (8.6%), c. lari (0.8%), c. upsaliensis (0.8%), helicobacter (campyloba ...19938519321
a mixed outbreak of cryptosporidium and campylobacter infection associated with a private water supply.in an outbreak of gastroenteritis affecting 43 people, cryptosporidium and campylobacter were isolated from stool specimens and in two cases dual infection was found. all the cases had drunk unboiled water from a private untreated water supply. investigations revealed the carcasses of three lambs in a collection chamber connected with the water supply, and these, or run-off of slurry from surrounding fields, were the presumed source of contamination. issues relating to the maintenance and monito ...19968666074
an outbreak of campylobacter jejuni enteritis associated with failed milk pasteurisation.this paper describes an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness affecting at least 110 people, of whom 41 had microbiological confirmation of campylobacter jejuni infection. the outbreak of infection was found to have been associated with consumption of inadequately pasteurised milk from a local dairy. the problem of enforcement of food and safety regulations when milk from dairies fails the phosphatase test is discussed. the prevalence of seroconversion to campylobacter in the community is estimat ...19958666844
ciprofloxacin resistant campylobacter spp. in humans: an epidemiological and laboratory study.from the end of april 1991 until the end of 1991, 2209 isolates of campylobacter spp. have been collected in plymouth phl of which 91 (4.1%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. none of the 91 patients involved had taken a quinolone, but 30/91 (33%) had travelled abroad (16 to the iberian peninsula) in the three months preceding isolation of the ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacter spp. in the case-control study 12/15 (80%) of the cases had recently consumed poultry as had 20/24 (83%) of controls w ...19968722540
outbreak of campylobacter enteritis in a residential school associated with bird pecked bottle tops.an outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by campylobacter infection was identified in may 1995 in a residential school in gloucestershire for children with special needs. eight primary and four secondary cases were identified, mostly confined to one house in the school; faecal specimens from three cases grew campylobacter jejuni. a retrospective cohort study showed that drinking pasteurised milk from bottles with damaged tops was associated with illness in primary cases (p = 0.01). bird pecking of ...19979080727
genotype analysis of human blood isolates of campylobacter jejuni in england and wales.genomic profiles were obtained for 76 strains of campylobacter jejuni isolated from bacteraemic patients in england and wales over the period 1981-94. genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis using a random cloned dna probe, and by ribotyping with a pcr-generated c. jejuni 16s ribosomal dna probe. phenotypic characterization was achieved by heat-stable (hs) and heat-labile (hl) serogrouping, and preston phagetyping and biotyping. the blood isolates wer ...19979129583
subtypes of campylobacter jejuni from sporadic cases of diarrhoeal disease at different locations in england are highly diverse.serotyping (heat stable antigens) was performed on 398 strains of campylobacter jejuni from faeces of human enteritis cases in england. strains isolated over 12 months at three locations were heterogeneous with 33 hs serotypes represented. hs1 and hs4 complex were the predominant types (34% of all strains). the monthly strain frequency distributions were similar at the three locations. the late spring peak appeared to be associated with a rise in miscellaneous serotypes rather than with the emer ...19979384275
epidemiological study of guillain-barré syndrome in south east england.to determine the incidence, treatment, and outcome of guillain-barré syndrome in south east england.19989436731
serotyping scheme for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli based on direct agglutination of heat-stable antigens.campylobacter is now the most frequently reported cause of gastrointestinal disease in england and wales, yet few isolates are characterized beyond the genus level. the majority of isolates are campylobacter jejuni (90%), with most of the remainder being campylobacter coli. we describe an adaptation of the penner serotyping scheme in which passive hemagglutination has been replaced by detection of heat-stable antigens by direct bacterial agglutination; absorbed antisera are used where appropriat ...19989466737
isolation of campylobacter jejuni from groundwater.a pollution event which occurred at a spring in the arnside area of cumbria provided an opportunity to investigate whether campylobacter jejuni could be detected in groundwater. hydrological evidence suggested that the source of contamination was a dairy farm situated within the hydrological catchment of the polluted spring. the microbiological quality of the polluted spring was monitored during intervals over the following 12 months and compared with others in the area. campylobacter jejuni was ...19989721669
phage typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli and its use as an adjunct to serotyping.campylobacter is the most commonly reported cause of gastro-intestinal infection in england and wales, with over 50,000 reported cases in 1997. the majority of human campylobacter isolates in england and wales are c. jejuni (c. 90%) with most of the remainder being c. coli. we describe the use of phage typing as an extension to serotyping for more detailed characterization within these two species. the scheme was piloted during a study of 2407 c. jejuni and 182 c. coli strains isolated in wales ...199910487641
drug resistance in campylobacter jejuni, c coli, and c lari isolated from humans in north west england and wales, 1997.to test the sensitivity of strains of campylobacter species isolated from humans in england and wales against a range of antimicrobial agents for the purpose of monitoring therapeutic efficacy and as an epidemiological marker.199910690169
continuous source outbreak of campylobacteriosis traced to chicken.poultry is a source of human campylobacteriosis, but a large continuous source outbreak, heretofore, has not been attributed to both a single source of poultry and single serotype of campylobacter. here we report an outbreak of c. jejuni affecting 6 catering college trainees and 13 patrons of a restaurant in southern england. an epidemiological investigation successfully tracked the outbreak source to the farm of origin. frequency of occurrence of campylobacters and outbreak serotype distributio ...200010716557
activity of antibiotics used in human medicine for campylobacter jejuni isolated from farm animals and their environment in lancashire, uk.a retrospective study of 96 campylobacter jejuni isolated from farm animals and the environment showed that most were less susceptible than the nctc type strain to nalidixic acid (mics 4-32 mg/l), ciprofloxacin (mics 1-2 mg/l) and erythromycin (mics 16-64 mg/l), but had similar susceptibility to tetracycline (mics 4-8 mg/l) and kanamycin (mics 4-8 mg/l). none had the high mics of ciprofloxacin (>32 mg/l) or erythromycin (1024 mg/l) typically associated with clinical resistance in this species. s ...200010933658
campylobacter contamination of raw meat and poultry at retail sale: identification of multiple types and comparison with isolates from human infection.campylobacter species are the major cause of acute bacterial enteritis reported in the united kingdom, nonetheless many aspects of campylobacteriosis epidemiology remain poorly understood. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in fresh bovine, ovine, and porcine liver and chicken portions from retail outlets and compare strain subtype distributions with those associated with cases of human campylobacteriosis occurring within the same ...200011131886
the study of infectious intestinal disease in england: risk factors for cases of infectious intestinal disease with campylobacter jejuni infection.this is a case-control study aimed at identifying risk factors for intestinal infection with campylobacter jejuni. cases were defined as subjects with diarrhoea occurring in community cohorts or presenting to general practitioners (gps) with campylobacter jejuni in stools. controls were selected from gp lists or cohorts, matched by age, sex, and gp practice. travel abroad and consumption of chicken in a restaurant were statistically significantly associated with being a case. there was no statis ...200111693495
public health implications of campylobacter outbreaks in england and wales, 1995-9: epidemiological and microbiological investigations.although campylobacter has been the most commonly recognized bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in england and wales since 1981, there are few reported campylobacter outbreaks. of the 2374 general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease reported to cdsc between 1995 and 1999, for which an aetiological agent was identified, campylobacter accounted for only 50 (2%). foodborne transmission was identified in 35 outbreaks and the majority took place in commercial catering establishments ...200212002527
prevalence and numbers of salmonella and campylobacter spp. on raw, whole chickens in relation to sampling methods.salmonella and campylobacter continue to be major foodborne pathogens and raw poultry is considered to be an important source of these bacteria. in this study, the prevalence and numbers of salmonella and campylobacter spp. in relation to isolation/sampling methods were determined in 241 whole raw chickens purchased from retail outlets in england during the winters of 1998/1999 (101 chickens) and 1999/2000 (140 chickens). the packaging of the 140 chickens was also examined for the presence of th ...200212038572
a case-case comparison of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni infection: a tool for generating hypotheses.preventing campylobacteriosis depends on a thorough understanding of its epidemiology. we used case-case analysis to compare cases of campylobacter coli infection with cases of c. jejuni infection, to generate hypotheses for infection from standardized, population-based sentinel surveillance information in england and wales. persons with c. coli infection were more likely to have drunk bottled water than were those with c. jejuni infection and, in general, were more likely to have eaten pâté. im ...200212194770
enhanced surveillance of campylobacter infection in the north west of england 1997-1999.to identify sources and routes of infection for sporadic cases of campylobacter infection in the north west of england.200312504607
health problems following campylobacter jejuni enteritis in a lancashire population.campylobacter jejuni enteritis can lead to musculoskeletal, neuropathic or other health sequelae. we investigated the coexistence, seasonal occurrence, strain-type associations and impact on work capacity of different health problems following c. jejuni enteritis in a lancashire population during 1999 and 2001.200312730525
point source outbreaks of campylobacter jejuni infection--are they more common than we think and what might cause them?despite being the commonest bacterial cause of infectious intestinal disease (iid) in england and wales, outbreaks of campylobacter infection are rarely reported. however, data from the campylobacter sentinel surveillance scheme suggested that outbreaks might be more common than was previously suspected, since a high proportion of cases reported other illness in the home or in the community at the same time as their illness. to identify factors that might lead to these apparent outbreaks, the ex ...200312825720
guillain-barré syndrome associated with campylobacter jejuni infection in england, 2000-2001.guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) is a rare but serious complication of infectious intestinal disease due to campylobacter jejuni. to date, estimates of the burden of c. jejuni-associated gbs have been based on limited data regarding the proportion of gbs attributable to this pathogen. in this paper, we combine data obtained from sweden and a large study of infectious intestinal disease with routine and surveillance data from england to estimate the number and proportion of gbs cases attributable to ...200312856224
conditions in lairages at abattoirs for ruminants in southwest england and in vitro survival of escherichia coli o157, salmonella kedougou, and campylobacter jejuni on lairage-related substrates.information on lairages (regarding design, construction materials, and use of bedding and cleaning regimes) was collected for 21 commercial cattle and/or sheep abattoirs in southwest england. overall, roughened or grooved concrete was the most common lairage flooring material. straw bedding was used in the majority of lairages and was changed between animal batches, daily, weekly, and monthly in roughly 5, 60, 15, and 10%, respectively, of the surveyed lairages. lairages were commonly washed wit ...200314503707
genotypic and antibiotic susceptibility characteristics of a campylobacter coli population isolated from dairy farmland in the united kingdom.campylobacter infections are the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans, and nearly 8% of such infections are caused by campylobacter coli. most studies have concentrated on campylobacter jejuni, frequently isolated from intensively farmed poultry and livestock production units, and few studies have examined the spread and relatedness of campylobacter across a range of geographical and host boundaries. systematic sampling of a 100-km2 area of mixed farmland in northwest england yield ...200414766560
is campylobacter jejuni enteritis a weekend disease? 200515780425
prevalence and genetic diversity of campylobacter spp. in environmental water samples from a 100-square-kilometer predominantly dairy farming area.water samples were taken systematically from a 100-km2 area of mainly dairy farmland in northwestern england and examined for campylobacter spp. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pfge-rflp) and flaa strain typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates were done. data on the water source and the adjacent environment were recorded and examined as explanatory variables. campylobacter spp. were isolated from 40.5% (n = 119) of the water sampl ...200515812015
recovery of thermophilic campylobacters from pond water and sediment and the problem of interference by background bacteria in enrichment culture.the aim of this study was to address problems in the determination of thermophilic campylobacters in turbid pond water and sediment. thirty sets of three samples of pond water (volumes 10, 100, 1000 ml) or sediment (0.1, 1.0, 5.0 ml) were examined for the presence of thermophilic campylobacters. the different volumes of pond water were processed by membrane filtration followed by selective enrichment. the samples of sediment were subjected directly to selective enrichment. presumptive isolates w ...200515979120
investigating vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea in campylobacter jejuni infection.campylobacter jejuni infection frequently presents as acute enteritis with diarrhoea, malaise, fever and abdominal pain. vomiting and bloody diarrhoea are reported less frequently. to investigate potential host, micro-organism or environmental factors that might explain the different clinical presentations, the features of laboratory-confirmed campylobacter jejuni cases presenting with vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea were compared with cases who did not report either clinical manifestation. sin ...200616687593
demonstration of the shorter flagellin (flaa) gene of urease-positive thermophilic campylobacter isolated from the natural environment in northern ireland.the pcr amplicons (about 1450 bp in length) of flaa gene fragments of 11 isolates of urease-positive thermophilic campylobacter (uptc) isolated from the natural environment not including wild birds in northern ireland were demonstrated to be shorter than those of c. jejuni 81116 and six isolates of c. jejuni and c. coli (about 1700 bp) isolated in northern ireland and japan. when the nucleotide lengths of the possible open reading frame (orf) of the flaa genes were determined, those from the 11 ...200617004648
campylobacter jejuni multilocus sequence types in humans, northwest england, 2003-2004.detailed understanding of the epidemiology of campylobacter is increasingly facilitated through use of universal and reproducible techniques for accurate strain differentiation and subtyping. multilocus sequence typing (mlst) enables discriminatory subtyping and grouping of isolate types into genetically related clonal complexes; it also has the advantage of ease of application and repeatability. recent studies suggest that a measure of host association may be distinguishable with this system. w ...200617176563
detection by pcr of eight groups of enteric pathogens in 4,627 faecal samples: re-examination of the english case-control infectious intestinal disease study (1993-1996).the english case-control infectious intestinal disease study (1993-1996) failed to detect an enteric pathogen or toxin in 49% of cases of gastroenteritis. in the present study, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays were applied to dna and cdna generated from 4,627 faecal samples from cases and controls archived during the original study for the detection of norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, campylobacter spp., salmonella spp., enteroaggregative escherichia coli, cryptosporidium spp., and giardia ...200717447091
take traveller's diarrhoea to heart.diarrhoea is a common health problem among travellers worldwide. we focus attention on the recognition of the postinfectious complications of traveller's diarrhoea. an english traveller, aged 43, attended a hospital in benidorm (spain) complaining of chest pain. a week previously, fever and severe diarrhoea were present. the electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes were not normal. the coproculture yielded campylobacter jejunii. acute myocarditis can be an exceptional complication of gastroenteriti ...200717448951
microbiological differences between cull cattle slaughtered at an abattoir and cull cattle slaughtered on farms.tissue samples from 27 casualty adult dairy cattle slaughtered on farms and 32 'normal' cull dairy cattle were analysed microbiologically for total viable counts (tvc), enterobacteriaceae, escherichia coli o157, salmonella enterica and campylobacter species. overall the counts of enterobacteriaceae and tvc were higher in the animals slaughtered on farms, particularly in the spleen. one 'normal' animal yielded e coli o157, and one yielded campylobacter jejuni, and eight of the cattle slaughtered ...200718037694
comparison of campylobacter populations in wild geese with those in starlings and free-range poultry on the same farm.wild geese are a potential source of campylobacter infection for humans and farm animals and have been implicated in at least two large waterborne disease outbreaks. there have been few investigations into the population biology of campylobacter in geese, carriage rates are reported to vary (0 to 100%), and no genetic characterization of isolates has been performed. fecal samples collected from wild geese in oxfordshire, united kingdom, were culture positive for c. jejuni (50.2%) and c. coli (0. ...200818390684
campylobacter infection of broiler chickens in a free-range environment.campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with contaminated chicken meat considered to represent a major source of human infection. biosecurity measures can reduce c. jejuni shedding rates of housed chickens, but the increasing popularity of free-range and organic meat raises the question of whether the welfare benefits of extensive production are compatible with food safety. the widespread assumption that the free-range environment contaminates extens ...200818412548
longitudinal study of the molecular epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni in cattle on dairy farms.multilocus sequence typing (mlst), an accurate and phylogenetically robust characterization method for population studies of campylobacter, was applied to campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 297) from the fecal samples of cattle from five dairy farms in cheshire, united kingdom, collected throughout 2003. the population dynamics of the c. jejuni strains, as identified by the occurrence of sequence types and clonal complexes, demonstrated variations within and between cattle populations over time. ...200818424539
molecular epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni populations in dairy cattle, wildlife, and the environment in a farmland area.we describe a cross-sectional study of the molecular epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni in a dairy farmland environment, with the aim of elucidating the dynamics of horizontal transmission of c. jejuni genotypes among sources in the area. a collection of 327 c. jejuni isolates from cattle, wildlife, and environmental sources in a 100-km(2) area of farmland in northwest england was characterized by multilocus sequence typing. a total of 91 sequence types and 18 clonal complexes were identified. ...200818586964
tracing the source of campylobacteriosis.campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in the developed world. it is thought to infect 2-3 million people a year in the us alone, at a cost to the economy in excess of us $4 billion. c. jejuni is a widespread zoonotic pathogen that is carried by animals farmed for meat and poultry. a connection with contaminated food is recognized, but c. jejuni is also commonly found in wild animals and water sources. phylogenetic studies have suggested that genotypes pathogenic ...200818818764
extended sequence typing of campylobacter spp., united kingdom.supplementing campylobacter spp. multilocus sequence typing with nucleotide sequence typing of 3 antigen genes increased the discriminatory index achieved from 0.975 to 0.992 among 620 clinical isolates from oxfordshire, united kingdom. this enhanced typing scheme enabled identification of clusters and retained data required for long-range epidemiologic comparisons of isolates.200818826829
risk factors for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in young cattle on english and welsh farms.campylobacter jejuni and c. coli are the most prevalent causes of bacterial diarrhoea in most of the western world. in great britain, the source remains unknown for the majority of cases, though poultry is considered the main source of infection. molecular typing methods identify cattle as a potential source of a proportion of the non-source-attributed cases, mainly through direct contact, environmental contamination or milk, but little is known about the epidemiology of campylobacter in cattle. ...200918835052
identification of potential environmentally adapted campylobacter jejuni strain, united kingdom.in a study of campylobacter infection in northwestern england, 2003-2006, c. jejuni multilocus sequence type (st)-45 was associated with early summer onset and was the most prevalent c. jejuni type in surface waters. st-45 is likely more adapted to survival outside a host, making it a key driver of transmission between livestock, environmental, and human settings.200818976567
rapid evolution and the importance of recombination to the gastroenteric pathogen campylobacter jejuni.responsible for the majority of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, campylobacter jejuni is a pervasive pathogen of humans and animals, but its evolution is obscure. in this paper, we exploit contemporary genetic diversity and empirical evidence to piece together the evolutionary history of c. jejuni and quantify its evolutionary potential. our combined population genetics-phylogenetics approach reveals a surprising picture. campylobacter jejuni is a rapidly evolving species, subje ...200919008526
molecular epidemiology and characterization of campylobacter spp. isolated from wild bird populations in northern england.campylobacter infections have been reported at prevalences ranging from 2 to 50% in a range of wild bird species, although there have been few studies that have investigated the molecular epidemiology of campylobacter spp. consequently, whether wild birds are a source of infection in humans or domestic livestock or are mainly recipients of domestic animal strains and whether separate cycles of infection occur remain unknown. to address these questions, serial cross-sectional surveys of wild bird ...200919286781
temporal patterns and risk factors for escherichia coli o157 and campylobacter spp, in young cattle.escherichia coli o157 and campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens originating from farm animals. cattle are the main reservoir for e. coli o157 and also contribute to human cases of campylobacteriosis through contaminated milk, direct contact, and environmental contamination. thirty groups of young cattle on 30 farms were observed for 7 months and sampled on 4 to 6 separate occasions for e. coli o157 and c. jejuni/coli to characterize shedding patterns and identify ris ...200919343935
prevalence of campylobacter spp. in raw retail poultry on sale in northern ireland.a year-long survey of fresh, retail poultry products on sale in northern ireland was undertaken to define the prevalence of campylobacter spp. by using protocols based on iso (standard) 10272-1:2006. incubation at 37 and 42 degrees c was undertaken to increase the diversity of isolates obtained. overall, 652 isolates were identified as campylobacter spp. by using pcr and amplified fragment length polymorphic typing. phenotyping wrongly identified 21% of isolates. prevalences of campylobacter fou ...200919777882
temporal and farm-management-associated variation in the faecal-pat prevalence of campylobacter jejuni in ruminants.in a 2-year longitudinal study of adult animals on 15 dairy farms and four sheep farms in lancashire, uk. c. jejuni was isolated from all farms, although not on every occasion. faecal samples were collected and cultured using standard techniques for isolation of campylobacter. assignment to species was via pcr assays. peak prevalence of c. jejuni in both cattle and sheep was observed during the summer and in cattle this apparent seasonality was associated with grazing pasture [odds ratio (or) 2. ...201019845998
risk factors for the carriage of campylobacter upsaliensis by dogs in a community in cheshire.samples of faeces were taken from 183 healthy pet dogs in a census-based, cross-sectional study in cheshire; culture methods were used to detect any campylobacter species and a direct pcr was used to detect campylobacter upsaliensis. forty-six of the dogs were positive for c upsaliensis by either culture or direct pcr, giving a prevalence of 25.1 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval [ci] 19.0 to 32.1 per cent). one sample was positive by culture for campylobacter jejuni (95 per cent ci 0.0 ...200919880860
spatio-temporal epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni enteritis, in an area of northwest england, 2000-2002.a total of 969 isolates of campylobacter jejuni originating in the preston, lancashire postcode district over a 3-year period were characterized using multi-locus sequence typing. recently developed statistical methods and a genetic model were used to investigate temporal, spatial, spatio-temporal and genetic variation in human c. jejuni infections. the analysis of the data showed statistically significant seasonal variation, spatial clustering, small-scale spatio-temporal clustering and spatio- ...201020202286
molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni in ruminants.summarymulti-locus sequence typing was performed on 1003 campylobacter jejuni isolates collected in a 2-year longitudinal study of 15 dairy farms and four sheep farms in lancashire, uk. there was considerable farm-level variation in occurrence and prevalence of clonal complexes (cc). clonal complexes st61, st21, st403 and st45 were most prevalent in cattle while in sheep cc st42, st21, st48 and st52 were most prevalent. cc st45, a complex previously shown to be more common in summer months in hu ...201021134320
campylobacteriosis outbreak associated with consumption of undercooked chicken liver pâté in the east of england, september 2011: identification of a dose-response risk.a foodborne outbreak with 49 cases (22 culture positive for campylobacter sp.) following a wedding party in the east of england was investigated. a retrospective cohort study identified an association between consumption of chicken liver pâté and infection with campylobacter jejuni/coli. there was a statistically significant association between dose (amount of chicken liver pâté eaten) and the risk of disease ['tasted': odds ratio (or) 1·5, 95% confidence interval (ci) 0·04-∞; 'partly eaten': or ...201323711104
knowledge gaps in host-parasite interaction preclude accurate assessment of meat-borne exposure to toxoplasma gondii.toxoplasma gondii is recognized as a widely prevalent zoonotic parasite worldwide. although several studies clearly identified meat products as an important source of t. gondii infections in humans, quantitative understanding of the risk posed to humans through the food chain is surprisingly scant. while probabilistic risk assessments for pathogens such as campylobacter jejuni, listeria monocytogenes or escherichia coli have been well established, attempts to quantify the probability of human ex ...201628139250
novel sampling method for assessing human-pathogen interactions in the natural environment using boot socks and citizen scientists, with application to campylobacter seasonality.this paper introduces a novel method for sampling pathogens in natural environments. it uses fabric boot socks worn over walkers' shoes to allow the collection of composite samples over large areas. wide-area sampling is better suited to studies focusing on human exposure to pathogens (e.g., recreational walking). this sampling method is implemented using a citizen science approach: groups of three walkers wearing boot socks undertook one of six routes, 40 times over 16 months in the north west ...201728500040
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