genetic diversity in the protective antigen gene of bacillus anthracis.bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. the anthrax toxin contains three components, including the protective antigen (pa), which binds to eucaryotic cell surface receptors and mediates the transport of toxins into the cell. in this study, the entire 2,294-nucleotide protective antigen gene (pag) was sequenced from 26 of the most diverse b. anthracis strains to identify potential variation in the toxin and to further our understanding of b. ...199910197996
single nucleotide polymorphism typing of bacillus anthracis from sverdlovsk tissue.a small number of conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (cansnp) that define major phylogenetic branches for bacillus anthracis were used to place a sverdlovsk patient's b. anthracis genotype into 1 of 12 subgroups. reconstruction of the paga gene also showed a unique snp that defines a new lineage for b. anthracis.200818394287
quantitative pathology of inhalational anthrax i: quantitative microscopic findings.forty-one cases of documented inhalational anthrax from the sverdlovsk epidemic of 1979 traced to release of aerosols of bacillus anthracis at a secret biologic-agent production facility were evaluated by semiquantitative histopathologic analysis of tissue concentrations of organisms, inflammation, hemorrhage, and other lesions in the mediastinum, mediastinal lymph nodes, bronchi, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, intestines, kidneys, adrenal glands, and central nervous system. these data were correl ...200111353060
a bayesian approach for estimating bioterror attacks from patient data.terrorist attacks using an aerosolized pathogen have gained credibility as a national security concern after the anthrax attacks of 2001. inferring some important details of the attack quickly, for example, the number of people infected, the time of infection, and a representative dose received can be crucial to planning a medical response. we use a bayesian approach, based on a short time series of diagnosed patients, to estimate a joint probability density for these parameters. we first test t ...201020963771
pcr analysis of tissue samples from the 1979 sverdlovsk anthrax victims: the presence of multiple bacillus anthracis strains in different outbreak of human anthrax occurred in sverdlovsk, union of soviet socialists republic (now ekaterinburg, russia) in april 1979. officials attributed this to consumption of contaminated meat, but western governments believed it resulted from inhalation of spores accidentally released from a nearby military research facility. tissue samples from 11 victims were obtained and methods of efficiently extracting high-quality total dna from these samples were developed. extracted dna was analyzed by ...19989448313
pathology of inhalational anthrax in 42 cases from the sverdlovsk outbreak of 1979.a large epidemic of anthrax that occurred in sverdlovsk (now ekaterinburg), russia, in 1979 resulted in the deaths of many persons. a series of 42 necropsies, representing a majority of the fatalities from this outbreak, consistently revealed pathologic lesions diagnostic of inhalational anthrax, namely hemorrhagic necrosis of the thoracic lymph nodes in the lymphatic drainage of the lungs and hemorrhagic mediastinitis. bacillus anthracis was recovered in bacterial cultures of 20 cases, and orga ...19938460135
[pathology of anthrax sepsis according to materials of the infectious outbreak in 1979 in sverdlovsk (macroscopic changes)].obligatory findings in 42 postmortem observation of anthrax were hemorrhagic alterations of the intrathoracic lymph nodes and mediastinum. hemorrhagic alterations in the respiratory organs, digestive tract, brain and meninges were also found macroscopically.19937980032
death at sverdlovsk: what have we learned? 19948203454
[pathology of anthrax sepsis according to materials of the infectious outbreak in 1979 in sverdlovsk (various aspects of morpho-, patho- and thanatogenesis)].hemorrhagic lymphadenitis of the intrathoracic lymph nodes and mediastinitis are shown to be the primary septical focus, this indicating an inhalation route of the contamination with development of pulmonary anthrax. the alterations in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system are considered to be secondary resulting from lymphohematogenic generalization of the anthraxic sepsis. the attention is drawn to the morphological signs of the immunodepression and the inhibition of granulocyt ...19937980034
[pathology of anthrax sepsis according to materials of the infectious outbreak in 1979 in sverdlovsk (microscopic changes)].histologic studies of 42 cases of anthrax revealed that serous-hemorrhagic, hemorrhagic and hemorrhagic-necrotic inflammation was a substrate of macroscopic changes. morphological characteristics of alterations in the respiratory organs, lymph nodes and mediastinum, digestive tract and liver, spleen, kidneys, brain and meninges are presented.19937980033
[epidemiologic analysis of anthrax in sverdlovsk]. 19807415678
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