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neutralization-sensitive epitopes are conserved among geographically diverse isolates of cryptosporidium parvum.isolates of cryptosporidium parvum from new york, florida, brazil, mexico, and peru were examined for the presence of two sporozoite surface epitopes originally identified in an iowa isolate by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) 18.44 and 17.41. immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of both epitopes on all isolates. incubation of deae-cellulose-purified sporozoites of the new york, florida, brazil, and mexico isolates with mab 18.44 or 17.41 significan ...19921372299
outbreaks of escherichia coli o157:h7 infection and cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking unpasteurized apple cider--connecticut and new york, october 1996.in october 1996, unpasteurized apple cider or juice was associated with three outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness. in the western united states, an outbreak of escherichia coli o157:h7 infections associated with unpasteurized commercial apple juice caused illness in 66 persons and one death. in addition, one outbreak of apple cider-related e. coli o157:h7 infections and another of cider-related cryptosporidium parvum infections occurred in the northeast. apple cider is a traditional beverage p ...19979011776
from the centers for disease control and prevention. outbreaks of escherichia coli o157:h7 infection and cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking unpasteurized apple cider--connecticut and new york, october 1996. 19979052693
outbreaks of escherichia coli o157:h7 infection and cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking unpasteurized apple cider--connecticut and new york, october 1996. 19979094791
cryptosporidium in tap water: comparison of predicted risks with observed levels of disease.waterborne transmission of cryptosporidium parvum is well-established as a source in outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis; however, the role of tap water in endemic disease is unclear. the authors applied a risk assessment approach incorporating uncertainty analysis to examine the potential role of tap water in the transmission of endemic c. parvum infection. the model had two components: exposure-infection, to relate low-dose exposure to infection; and infection-outcome, to include the probabilities ...19989482504
use of a sentinel system for field measurements of cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation in soil and animal waste.a small-volume sentinel chamber was developed to assess the effects of environmental stresses on survival of sucrose-percoll-purified cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil and animal wastes. chambers were tested for their ability to equilibrate with external chemical and moisture conditions. sentinel oocysts were then exposed to stresses of the external environment that affected their viability (potential infectivity), as indicated by results of a dye permeability assay. preliminary laboratory ...199910223991
risk factors associated with cryptosporidium parvum infection in dairy cattle in southeastern new york state.an observational analytical epidemiologic study was carried out to identify factors associated with the risk of infection with cryptosporidium parvum in dairy herds in southeastern new york state. a random sample of 2943 cattle on 109 farms was selected from the target population. fecal samples were collected from animals in three different age groups and examined for the presence of c. parvum using a quantitative centrifugation concentration flotation method. data on intrinsic, preweaning, post ...199910392763
prevalence of giardia sp. cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium andersoni (syn. c. muris) [correction of cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium muris (c. andersoni)] in 109 dairy herds in five counties of southeastern new york.a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of giardia sp. (g. duodenalis group), cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium andersoni (c. muris) [corrected] in dairy cattle in three different age groups, and to evaluate the association of age and season with prevalence. one hundred and nine dairy farms, from a total of 212 farms, in five counties of southeastern new york volunteered to participate. on these farms, 2943 fecal samples were collected from three defined age g ...200011027856
active, multisite, laboratory-based surveillance for cryptosporidium parvum.cryptosporidium parvum leaped to the attention of the united states following the 1993 outbreak in milwaukee, wisconsin, which sickened 400,000 people. other outbreaks in the united states have been associated with drinking and recreational water, consumption of contaminated foods, contact with animals, and childcare attendance. despite its public health importance, the number of people who become infected each year is not known. in 1997, active surveillance for c. parvum was added to the foodbo ...200011037779
cryptosporidium parvum infection involving novel genotypes in wildlife from lower new york state.cryptosporidium, an enteric parasite of humans and a wide range of other mammals, presents numerous challenges to the supply of safe drinking water. we performed a wildlife survey, focusing on white-tailed deer and small mammals, to assess whether they may serve as environmental sources of cryptosporidium. a pcr-based approach that permitted genetic characterization via sequence analysis was applied to wildlife fecal samples (n = 111) collected from september 1996 to july 1998 from three areas i ...200111229905
incoming ntz blocked by us customs. people with aids health group.u.s. customs in chula vista, california, seized an incoming shipment of nitrazoxanide (ntz), the first drug that shows promise against cryptosporidium parvum infection in people living with hiv/aids. cryptosporidiosis is a source of diarrhea that has resulted in the death of thousands of people with aids. ntz, approved in mexico with a broad anti-parasitic indication, is the first therapy to show effectiveness in more than half the patients treated for cryptosporidiosis. the pwa health group, an ...199611363831
cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation in field soil and its relation to soil characteristics: analyses using the geographic information systems.the need exists to understand the environmental parameters that affect inactivation of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil under field conditions. the inactivation of c. parvum oocysts placed in the natural environment was studied at a dairy farm in western new york state, usa. seventy sampling points were arranged in a grid with points 150 m apart using the geographic information system. the sampling points were distributed among three distinct areas: woodland, corn field and pasture. purifi ...200415050384
risk of infection with cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium hominis in dairy cattle in the new york city watershed.to determine the risk posed by cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium hominis from dairy cattle in the new york city watershed (nycw).200515822584
incidence of cryptosporidium parvum in the dairy cattle population in a new york city watershed.a longitudinal study of 2-year duration was conducted to determine the risk, as measured by incidence rate, of cryptosporidium parvum infection among dairy cattle in the catskill/delaware watershed of new york city (nyc), and the factors that predispose animals to the likelihood of infection. a proportional sampling scheme with follow up at quarterly farm visits was employed for heifers and cows. additionally, all calves born on the 39 study farms were sampled once during the first four weeks of ...200515955631
quantitative risk assessment of cryptosporidium species infection in dairy calves.cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan that infects many different mammals including cattle and humans. cryptosporidiosis has become a concern for dairy producers because of the direct losses due to calves not performing well and the potential for environmental contamination with c. parvum. identifying modifiable control points in the dynamics of infection in dairy herds will help identify management strategies that mitigate its risk. the quantitative risk assessment approach provides es ...200516230699
survival of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in calf housing facilities in the new york city watersheds.pathogen contamination of the public drinking water supply in the new york city watersheds is a serious concern. new york city's watershed agriculture program is working with dairy farms in the watersheds to implement management practices that will reduce the risk of pathogens contaminating the water supply. solar calf housing (sch) was suggested as a best management practice (bmp) to control cryptosporidium parvum, a common protozoan parasite that causes disease in humans. this bmp targets youn ...200616510713
risk factors associated with cryptosporidium infection on dairy farms in a new york state watershed.a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium parvum-like oocyst shedding on dairy farms in a watershed in new york state and to identify the factors that put animals at risk. a proportional sample of dairy herds in the targeted area was obtained, and animals were selected using a stratified sampling design to ensure representation of the population at risk. fecal samples were collected per rectum and analyzed for the presence of c. parvum-like oocysts us ...200617033009
factors associated with shedding of cryptosporidium parvum versus cryptosporidium bovis among dairy cattle in new york state.to isolate and speciate cryptosporidium dna from fecal samples obtained from dairy cattle in new york state and identify factors associated with whether cattle were shedding cryptosporidium parvum versus cryptosporidium bovis.200617107320
cryptosporidiosis: a recreational water threat that hasn't gone away. 200717583299
cryptosporidium spp. from small mammals in the new york city watershed.the objective of this study was to assess the potential role that wildlife plays in environmental degradation of watersheds through the contamination of the water supply with zoonotic genotypes of cryptosporidium. cryptosporidium isolates recovered from wildlife in the new york city (nyc) watershed were examined to determine genotype using a polymerase chain reaction protocol targeting the 18-small subunit (ssu) rrna locus. seventy-seven dna samples recovered from 12 wildlife host species captur ...200717984253
temporal and spatial dynamics of cryptosporidium parvum infection on dairy farms in the new york city watershed: a cluster analysis based on crude and bayesian risk estimates.cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important biological contaminants in drinking water that produces life threatening infection in people with compromised immune systems. dairy calves are thought to be the primary source of c. parvum contamination in watersheds. understanding the spatial and temporal variation in the risk of c. parvum infection in dairy cattle is essential for designing cost-effective watershed management strategies to protect drinking water sources. crude and bayesian se ...201020565805
assessment and molecular characterization of human intestinal parasites in bivalves from orchard beach, ny, usa.bivalves have been shown to be carriers of the human intestinal parasites cryptosporidium parvum and toxoplasma gondii. the goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of protozoan parasites in mollusks of new york city using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay. four species of mollusks, mya arenaria, geukensia demissa, crassostrea virginica, and mytilis edulis, were collected from orchard beach, ny in the fall of 2014, totaling 159 specimens. each individual mollusk was dissecte ...201627043590
fecal shedding of cryptosporidium oocysts in healthy alpaca crias and their dams.to determine the apparent prevalence of shedding of cryptosporidium spp in healthy alpaca crias and their dams on 14 farms in new york and 1 farm in pennsylvania.201222852576
Evaluation of factors associated with the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy calves.Objective-To identify risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium parvum infection in dairy calves. Animals-108 case animals and 283 control animals. Procedures-Case animals were calves infected with C parvum, and controls were infected with Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 67) or calves not infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Fecal samples were tested via the flotation concentration method for Cryptosporidium spp. Samples were genotyped by sequencing of the 18s rRNA gene. Associations between hos ...201222204291
seasonal variation in the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidium infection in dairy cattle in the new york city watershed.we conducted cross-sectional studies in the new york city watershed to ensure a valid estimate of the risk associated with cryptosporidium infection in dairy herds. our aims were to obtain species-specific estimates of the prevalence of cryptosporidium in dairy cattle and to investigate seasonal variations in prevalence. we validated our empirical estimates using a bayesian approach. samples were collected on 32 study farms, once in each of 3 different seasons using an age-stratified sampling de ...201020397026
cryptosporidium and dairy cattle in the catskill/delaware watershed: a quantitative risk assessment.we carried out a study to estimate the public health risk posed by dairy cattle located in new york city's catskill/delaware watershed, as measured by daily c. parvum-like oocyst loading. a monte carlo simulation model that takes into account the nature of the dairy cattle population within the target area, age-specific incidence/prevalence rates, as well as differential fecal production and oocyst-shedding intensity rates was used to address the objectives. additionally, the model was designed ...200718093047
prevalence of cryptosporidium species and genotypes in mature dairy cattle on farms in eastern united states compared with younger cattle from the same locations.feces collected from 541 milking cows on two dairy farms each in vermont, new york, pennsylvania, maryland, virginia, north carolina, and florida were examined for the presence of cryptosporidium oocysts. oocysts were concentrated from 15 g of feces from each cow and dna was extracted. a two-step nested pcr protocol was used to amplify an 830 base pair fragment of the ssurrna gene. pcr-positive products were purified and sequenced. pcr-positive findings were obtained from cows in all seven state ...200717287086
diarrhea drug rejection raises a ruckus.the food and drug administration's (fda) advisory committee has voted against approval of ntz (cryptaz) for treating cryptosporium-related diarrhea. the clinical data presented by the drug's sponsor, unimed pharmaceuticals, was found to be mediocre and incomplete. the company had only presented open-label data, which is not central to a drug's approval. patients with cd4 counts above 180 are usually able to clear the parasite (cryptosporidium parvum) from their intestines, unaided by other thera ...199811365474
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