cryptosporidiosis reservoir in wild brown rats (rattus norvegicus) in the uk.rats (n = 73) were trapped from nine rural farms around oxfordshire and faeces were examined using the auramine-phenol and the modified ziehl-neelsen techniques. cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were detected in the faeces from 46 (63%) rats. this suggests that wild rats represent a risk to human and livestock health through the carriage and transmission of this zoonotic protozoan.19957641834
general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease associated with milk and dairy products in england and wales: 1992 to 1996.twenty general outbreaks of food poisoning in england and wales associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products were reported to the phls communicable disease surveillance centre between 1992 and 1996. a total of 600 people were ill and at least 45 people were admitted to hospital but no deaths were reported. salmonella species were responsible for 11 outbreaks, campylobacter species for five, vero cytotoxin producing escherichia coli o157 (vtec) for three, and cryptosporidium parvum ...19979080728
molecular characterisation of cryptosporidium parvum from two large suspected waterborne outbreaks. outbreak control team south and west devon 1995, incident management team and further epidemiological and microbiological studies subgroup north thames 1997.polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr/rflp) analysis of the cryptosporidium parvum outer wall protein (cowp) gene was applied to specimens collected from 95 patients with cryptosporidiosis associated with two suspected waterborne outbreaks, 46 sporadic human cases and 62 infected livestock from other areas, and 12 patients infected with other gastrointestinal parasites. ninety-six per cent of c. parvum isolates from patients linked to the two suspected waterborn ...19989854879
investigation of an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with treated surface water finds limits to the value of case control studies.fifty-two cases of cryptosporidiosis satisfied the case definition employed in investigation of an outbreak in spring 1996 among residents of the wirral peninsula supplied by a single water treatment plant using river water. the attack rate among those whose water was supplied solely from the plant was 1.42 per 10,000, compared with 0.42/10,000 among those having some but less than 50% supplied from it. single oocysts were detected in treated water from this plant on four occasions during the in ...19989854880
the norway rat as a reservoir host of cryptosporidium parvum.the potential of norway rats (rattus norvegicus) to spread the parasite cryptosporidium parvum was investigated by examining parasite prevalence in relation to the structure and movements of three permanent rat populations living on farmland in warwickshire (uk) from october 1994 to march 1997. one population lived among a group of farm buildings housing cattle, while the other two had no contact with livestock, one living around a pond and its outflowing stream and the other on a rubbish tip. o ...199910574524
increased stool sampling during a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis does not increase the detection of other faecal ascertain the effect of enhanced surveillance following an outbreak of waterborne cryptosporidiosis on the number of faecal specimens submitted to the local microbiology laboratory and the number positive for common enteric pathogens. the outbreak provided an opportunity to estimate the extent of routine under ascertainment of common enteric pathogens.200211919210
cryptosporidium oocysts in a water supply associated with a cryptosporidiosis outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in and around clitheroe, lancashire, in northwest england, during march 2000. fifty-eight cases of diarrhea with cryptosporidium identified in stool specimens were reported. cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in samples from the water treatment works as well as domestic taps. descriptive epidemiology suggested that drinking unboiled tap water in a single water zone was the common factor linking cases. environmental investigation suggested that conta ...200212023920
foot and mouth disease and cryptosporidiosis: possible interaction between two emerging infectious diseases.during 2001, a large outbreak of foot and mouth disease occurred in the united kingdom, during which approximately 2,030 confirmed cases of the disease were reported, >6 million animals were slaughtered, and strict restrictions on access to the countryside were imposed. we report a dramatic decline in the reported incidence of human cryptosporidiosis in northwest england during weeks 13-38 in 2001, compared with the previous 11 years. this decline coincided with the period of foot and mouth rest ...200312533291
long-term study of cryptosporidium prevalence on a lowland farm in the united kingdom.a longitudinal sample survey testing for cryptosporidium in livestock and small wild mammals conducted over 6 years (1992-1997) on a lowland farm in warwickshire, england, has shown the parasite to be endemic and persistently present in all mammalian categories. faecal samples were taken throughout the year and oocysts concentrated by a formal ether sedimentation method for detection by immunofluorescence staining using a commercially available genus specific monoclonal antibody. cryptosporidium ...200314519315
sporadic cryptosporidiosis, north cumbria, england, 1996-2000.risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis were determined in 152 patients and 466 unmatched controls who resided in two local government districts in north cumbria, north west england, from march 1, 1996, to february 29, 2000. risk was associated with the usual daily volume of cold unboiled tap water drunk (odds ratio [or] 1.40, 95% confidence intervals [ci] 1.14 to 1.71 per pint consumed per day [p = 0.001]) and short visits to farms (or 2.02, 95% ci 1.04 to 3.90, p = 0.04). fifty-six (84%) o ...200415207050
sporadic cryptosporidiosis case-control study with genotyping.we report a case-control study of sporadic cryptosporidiosis with genotyping of isolates from case-patients. a postal questionnaire was completed by 427 patients and 427 controls. we obtained genotyping data on isolates from 191 patients; 115 were cryptosporidium hominis, and 76 were c. parvum. when all cryptosporidiosis cases were analyzed, three variables were strongly associated with illness: travel outside the united kingdom, contact with another person with diarrhea, and touching cattle. ea ...200415324544
the changing epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in north west england.between 1996 and 2000, rates of cryptosporidiosis in north west england were significantly higher than overall in england and wales, particularly during the first half of each year. in addition, during the second quarter of each year in this period, up to 40% of all cases recorded in england and wales were from the north west region. in 2001, cryptosporidiosis dramatically decreased throughout the united kingdom and the springtime excess of cases formerly seen in the north west was no longer app ...200516181496
genetic analysis of cryptosporidium from 2414 humans with diarrhoea in england between 1985 and 2000.the characterization of cryptosporidium using dna extracted from whole faecal samples collected from 2414 humans with diarrhoea in england between 1985 and 2000 where cryptosporidial oocysts were detected using conventional methods is described. characterization was achieved by pcr/rflp and dna sequencing of fragments of the cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein and the 18s rdna genes. cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 56.1 % of cases, cryptosporidium hominis in 41.7 % and a mixture of c. par ...200616687587
cryptosporidiosis in two alpaca (lama pacos) holdings in the south-west of england.cryptosporidiosis was investigated on two alpaca (lama pacos) holdings in the south-west of england. diagnosis was initially confirmed in a cria with diarrhoea from each holding. cohort faeces samples were subsequently collected and examined for presence of cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescence microscopy. on the first holding, 30 samples (24 adults, 6 crias) were tested, and oocysts were detected in three of the cria samples but in none of the adults. on the second holding, 14 floor fae ...200817374496
cryptosporidium parvum infection in orphan lambs on a farm open to the public.a longitudinal survey was undertaken on an open farm to investigate the occurrence of cryptosporidium species infection in orphan lambs obtained from three local flocks. during an initial pilot study, cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by a fluorescent antibody test (fat) in the faeces of two of 21 lambs aged between one and three weeks derived from one flock (flock a). pooled pen samples of faeces were collected weekly from lambs derived from each flock; oocysts were detected by fat in 24 (4 ...200717617539
detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in fresh and frozen cattle faeces: comparison of three methods.the aim of this study was to compare the performance of three commonly used screening tests for cryptosporidium oocysts in fresh and frozen cattle faeces.200817944836
detection of cryptosporidium spp. from human faeces by pcr-rflp, cloning and this study, we compared and validated a nested abc polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) assay to amplify cryptosporidium parvum oocyst wall protein (cowp) gene fragment with a previous nested pcr-rflp method. when rflp of cowp gene did not provide clear results, we further analysed samples by cloning and sequencing for species and genotype identification. abc-pcr was performed on dna extracted from human faecal samples collected in england where crypto ...200918979120
outbreak of cryptosporidium parvum among children after a school excursion to an adventure farm, south west england.we present the results of an outbreak investigation on a cryptosporidium parvum outbreak among 35 people, (27 students and 8 teachers), who participated in a school excursion to an outdoor adventure farm in south west england, from 22 to 26 may 2006. a cohort study was implemented to investigate possible sources of infection during the farm visit. the most likely transmission route was contact with faecally contaminated surface water following heavy rainfall, or consumption of water from the pri ...200819108553
long-term cryptosporidium typing reveals the aetiology and species-specific epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in england and wales, 2000 to improve understanding of the aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis, over 8,000 cryptosporidium isolates were submitted for typing to the species level over a four year period. the majority were either cryptosporidium parvum (45.9%) or cryptosporidium hominis (49.2%). dual infection occurred in 40 (0.5%) cases and six other known cryptosporidium species or genotypes were found in 67 (0.9%) cases. these were cryptosporidium meleagridis, cryptosporidium felis, cryptosporidium can ...200919161717
investigation of farms linked to human patients with cryptosporidiosis in england and wales.the study investigates farms suspected of being sources of zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis. a variety of implicated farm animal species were sampled and tested to detect cryptosporidium oocysts and investigate genetic linkage with human patients. risk factor information was collected from each farm and analysed by multivariable logistic regression to detect significant associations between factors and cryptosporidium in animals. the results showed that average sample prevalence of cryptosporidi ...201020096944
zoonotic cryptosporidiosis from petting farms, england and wales, 1992-2009. 201121192888
prevalence and molecular typing of cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in england and wales and examination of potential on-farm transmission average of 70 samples were collected from 80 dairy farms in england and wales, from cattle, co-grazed sheep, wildlife and farm wastes, to investigate prevalence, potential sources and transmission routes of cryptosporidium. at least one positive sample was detected on 74 of the farms (92.5%) by ifat microscopy. the prevalence in cattle was 10.2% (95% ci 9.4-11.1%), with greater prevalences detected in calf samples, especially from those under 1 month (45.1%). young calves were also more likel ...201424909077
an outbreak of cryptosporidium parvum across england & scotland associated with consumption of fresh pre-cut salad leaves, may 2012.we report a widespread foodborne outbreak of cryptosporidium parvum in england and scotland in may 2012. cases were more common in female adults, and had no history of foreign travel. over 300 excess cases were identified during the period of the outbreak. speciation and microbiological typing revealed the outbreak strain to be c. parvum gp60 subtype iiaa15g2r1.201526017538
zoonotic linkage and variation in cryptosporidium parvum from patients in the united kingdom.relationships between patient exposure risks and variation within the cryptosporidium parvum 60 kda glycoprotein (gp60) gene were explored in samples isolated from human cases of cryptosporidiosis (n=69) in england and wales. gp60 family iia predominated (n=56), followed by iid (n=9). one case was iic, a newly named genotype iica5g3j, and isolates from three cases did not amplify with the gp60 primers. cases with gp60 family iia were more likely than iid to have visited a farm, or had contact wi ...201021193928
sporadic cryptosporidiosis decline after membrane filtration of public water supplies, england, 1996-2002.the incidence of sporadic cryptosporidiosis among 106,000 residents of 2 local government districts in northwest england before and after installation of membrane filtration of public water supplies was compared to that of 59,700 residents whose public water supplies remained unchanged. a national outbreak of foot and mouth disease in livestock during 2001 was associated with a decline in sporadic human cryptosporidiosis in all regions of the united kingdom. in a poisson regression model, membra ...200515752443
an outbreak of cryptosporidium parvum in a surrey pool with detection in pool water sampling. 200415109091
waterborne cryptosporidiosis. 19989854897
the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: application of experimental sub-typing and antibody detection systems to the investigation of water-borne outbreaks.a technique based on the analysis of banding patterns obtained by sds-page western-blotting of an oocyst wall antigen obtained from faeces has been evaluated to subtype cryptosporidium parvum tyzzer, 1912. this technique appears to have sufficient stability to recognise multiple types of this parasite. a similar western-blotting technique has also been used to assess antibody responses to cryptosporidial antigens in human sera. two systems were developed: one against three antigens of apparent m ...19989684318
cryptosporidiosis outbreak in visitors of a uk industry-compliant petting farm caused by a rare cryptosporidium parvum subtype: a case-control study.a case-control study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of 46 cases of cryptosporidiosis in visitors to a petting farm in england. details of exposures on the farm were collected for 38 cases and 39 controls, recruited through snowball sampling. multivariable logistic regression identified that cases were 5·5 times more likely than controls to have eaten without washing their hands [95% confidence interval (ci) 1·51-19·9, p = 0·01] and 10 times less likely to report being informed of risk ...201626424385
implications and importance of genotyping cryptosporidium. 200011014024
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