Publications

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prevalence and molecular typing of cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in england and wales and examination of potential on-farm transmission routes.an average of 70 samples were collected from 80 dairy farms in england and wales, from cattle, co-grazed sheep, wildlife and farm wastes, to investigate prevalence, potential sources and transmission routes of cryptosporidium. at least one positive sample was detected on 74 of the farms (92.5%) by ifat microscopy. the prevalence in cattle was 10.2% (95% ci 9.4-11.1%), with greater prevalences detected in calf samples, especially from those under 1 month (45.1%). young calves were also more likel ...201424909077
investigation of farms linked to human patients with cryptosporidiosis in england and wales.the study investigates farms suspected of being sources of zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis. a variety of implicated farm animal species were sampled and tested to detect cryptosporidium oocysts and investigate genetic linkage with human patients. risk factor information was collected from each farm and analysed by multivariable logistic regression to detect significant associations between factors and cryptosporidium in animals. the results showed that average sample prevalence of cryptosporidi ...201020096944
cryptosporidial infection, with special reference to nosocomial transmission of cryptosporidium parvum: a review. 19948050750
general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease associated with milk and dairy products in england and wales: 1992 to 1996.twenty general outbreaks of food poisoning in england and wales associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products were reported to the phls communicable disease surveillance centre between 1992 and 1996. a total of 600 people were ill and at least 45 people were admitted to hospital but no deaths were reported. salmonella species were responsible for 11 outbreaks, campylobacter species for five, vero cytotoxin producing escherichia coli o157 (vtec) for three, and cryptosporidium parvum ...19979080728
sample prevalence and molecular characterisation of cryptosporidium andersoni within a dairy herd in the united kingdom.bovine cryptosporidiosis is usually an acute diarrhoeal disease of young calves caused by cryptosporidium parvum. however, chronic infection with cryptosporidium andersoni has been associated with gastritis, reduced milk yield and poor weight gain in adult cattle. here we describe the first genetic confirmation and characterisation of c. andersoni from cattle in the united kingdom and its sample prevalence within a dairy herd. oocysts measured 7.5+/-0.4 microm x 5.5+/-0.4 microm (7.0-8.5 microm ...200616908101
case-control study of environmental and social factors influencing cryptosporidiosis.we report on the first case-control study to investigate the role of wider environmental and socioeconomic factors upon human cryptosporidiosis. using gis the detailed locations of 3368 laboratory-confirmed cases were compared to the locations of an equal number of controls. all cases were genotyped enabling cryptosporidium hominis and cryptosporidium parvum to be examined separately. when all cryptosporidiosis cases were analyzed, several location variables were strongly associated with illness ...200717891460
waterborne cryptosporidiosis. 19989854897
modification of a rapid method for the identification of gene-specific polymorphisms in cryptosporidium parvum and its application to clinical and epidemiological investigations.the application of genotyping to clinical isolates of cryptosporidium has increased significantly our knowledge and understanding of the distribution and epidemiology of this parasite. however, some methods can be laborious and demand specialist technical expertise. pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) techniques represent a more rapid and simple method of genotyping to support epidemiological and clinical investigations than conventional dna analytical techniques. we describe a n ...200111722909
identification of cryptosporidium parvum genotype 2 in domestic horses. 200515675524
zoonotic linkage and variation in cryptosporidium parvum from patients in the united kingdom.relationships between patient exposure risks and variation within the cryptosporidium parvum 60 kda glycoprotein (gp60) gene were explored in samples isolated from human cases of cryptosporidiosis (n=69) in england and wales. gp60 family iia predominated (n=56), followed by iid (n=9). one case was iic, a newly named genotype iica5g3j, and isolates from three cases did not amplify with the gp60 primers. cases with gp60 family iia were more likely than iid to have visited a farm, or had contact wi ...201021193928
the changing epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in north west england.between 1996 and 2000, rates of cryptosporidiosis in north west england were significantly higher than overall in england and wales, particularly during the first half of each year. in addition, during the second quarter of each year in this period, up to 40% of all cases recorded in england and wales were from the north west region. in 2001, cryptosporidiosis dramatically decreased throughout the united kingdom and the springtime excess of cases formerly seen in the north west was no longer app ...200516181496
implications and importance of genotyping cryptosporidium. 200011014024
sporadic cryptosporidiosis case-control study with genotyping.we report a case-control study of sporadic cryptosporidiosis with genotyping of isolates from case-patients. a postal questionnaire was completed by 427 patients and 427 controls. we obtained genotyping data on isolates from 191 patients; 115 were cryptosporidium hominis, and 76 were c. parvum. when all cryptosporidiosis cases were analyzed, three variables were strongly associated with illness: travel outside the united kingdom, contact with another person with diarrhea, and touching cattle. ea ...200415324544
zoonotic cryptosporidiosis from petting farms, england and wales, 1992-2009. 201121192888
long-term cryptosporidium typing reveals the aetiology and species-specific epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in england and wales, 2000 to 2003.to improve understanding of the aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis, over 8,000 cryptosporidium isolates were submitted for typing to the species level over a four year period. the majority were either cryptosporidium parvum (45.9%) or cryptosporidium hominis (49.2%). dual infection occurred in 40 (0.5%) cases and six other known cryptosporidium species or genotypes were found in 67 (0.9%) cases. these were cryptosporidium meleagridis, cryptosporidium felis, cryptosporidium can ...200919161717
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