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risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection for infants from low-income families in relationship to age, sex, ethnic group, and maternal antibody level.the risk for hospitalization with respiratory syncytial virus infection during the first year of life was about five per 1,000 live births per year for infants born to low-income families in houston from 1975 to 1979. the risk varied depending upon the intensity of the epidemic for a given season, the month of birth of the infant, and the level of passively acquired maternal antibody at the time of birth. over 80% of the children hospitalized were less than 6 months of age; thus, most were born ...19817229749
concurrent respiratory syncytial virus and influenza a infections in the institutionalized elderly and chronically ill.during a community outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza a/texas/77 infections, we investigated 71 cases of upper respiratory illness at a chronic disease hospital using a surveillance system plus viral and serologic studies. of the 32 patients with an etiologic diagnosis, seven had respiratory syncytial virus, 24 had influenza, and one had dual infections with respiratory syncytial virus and influenza. no definite etiologic diagnosis was made in the remaining 39 patients. a comp ...19807396314
antigenic diversity of respiratory syncytial virus subgroup b strains circulating during a community outbreak of infection.the epidemiological characteristics and relationship between respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subgroup and virulence during an outbreak of rsv infection occurring in southeast texas in the winter season 1991/92 are described. fifty-two infants and children were diagnosed with rsv infection by rapid viral antigen detection and/or viral isolation. subgrouping of the isolates was carried out using 11-monoclonal anti-bodies. ten isolates were found to be subgroup b, and 8 isolates were subgroup a. ...19948046428
nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections: prevention and control in bone marrow transplant patients.to assess the effectiveness of a multifaceted infection control strategy in limiting the nosocomial transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection to patients in a bone marrow transplant (bmt) unit.19979181397
clinical impact of preoperative respiratory syncytial virus testing.the purpose of this study was to determine if preoperative assessment (i.e., physical examination and history review) of pediatric patients can predict positive test results for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection, surgery cancellations, and adverse anesthetic outcomes. approximately 400 pediatric patients were identified for the study from infection control statistics and classified by rsv test result and surgery cancellation status into three groups for analyses. researchers analyzed r ...199910332554
prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus in high-risk infants: administration of immune globulin and epidemiological surveillance of infection.hospitalizations secondary to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in children were monitored before and after the administration of rsv immune globulin. monitored also was the effectiveness of prophylaxis in preventing the disease among at-risk children along the texas-mexico border. small premature infants were at the greatest risk of hospitalization; preterm infants and then term infants followed. prophylaxis does not necessarily prevent rsv bronchiolitis but may reduce the severity of ...200010843015
infection control of nosocomial respiratory viral disease in the immunocompromised host.among immunocompromised adults, such as bone marrow transplant recipients, more than half of respiratory viral infections are complicated by pneumonia, with an associated mortality rate > 50%. nosocomial transmission of respiratory viral pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and influenza, in the immunocompromised patient has been reported frequently and usually occurs during a community outbreak. in view of the poor outcome in this subset of patients, intensive efforts should be ...199710868143
respiratory syncytial virus in patients with congenital heart disease: a contemporary look at epidemiology and success of preoperative screening.awareness of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) as a serious pathogen in the child with congenital heart disease is increasing. we studied the impact of rsv lower respiratory tract disease on patients in a large academic pediatric cardiology practice. we found that rsv disease necessitating hospitalization occurs in congenital heart disease patients well into the second year of life. although pulmonary hypertension remains a significant risk factor for morbidity in these patients, it does not app ...200010982701
hla-restricted cd8+ cytotoxic t lymphocyte, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4 responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants and children.cd8+ cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) activity, interferon (ifn)-gamma, and interleukin (il)-4 production were evaluated in a blinded manner among respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-infected newborns and their mothers for 3 epidemic seasons. most mothers (80%) exhibited rsv-specific cd8+ ctl activity. twenty (80%) of the 26 infants exhibited significant rsv-specific ctl activity during or after their first rsv season. ctl frequency increased with rsv infection rate, reaching 75% by the end of the thi ...200111181144
encephalopathy associated with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.respiratory syncytial virus is an extremely common cause of childhood respiratory infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. although apnea is a well-known complication in young infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, the encephalopathy associated with this infection is not well recognized. our study reveals an incidence of encephalopathy of 1.8% in a total of 487 patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis studied over a period of almost 4 years. se ...200111292214
community respiratory virus infections in bone marrow transplant recipients: the m.d. anderson cancer center experience.community respiratory virus (crv) infections are common among bone marrow transplant (bmt) recipients during community outbreaks. at m.d. anderson cancer center (mdacc), experience with crv infection in this population over the past decade suggests that bmt recipients in the preengraftment phase are at special risk of progression of upper respiratory tract infection (urti) to pneumonia. after pneumonia is established, no currently available therapy substantially reduces mortality. for bmt recipi ...200111777103
concurrent serious bacterial infections in 2396 infants and children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infections.at driscoll children's hospital (corpus christi, tex), we observed that most infants and children hospitalized for treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia received broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics despite having typical rsv signs and symptoms and positive rsv-rapid-antigen tests on admission. physicians were concerned about the possibility of concurrent serious bacterial infections, especially in infants younger than 3 months and in those with infiltra ...200211929363
concurrent serious bacterial infections in 912 infants and children hospitalized for treatment of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection.the objective of this study was to report the frequency of concurrent serious bacterial infections in infants and young children hospitalized for treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) lower respiratory tract infection. data were collected through a retrospective review of the medical records of all 912 patients with a discharge diagnosis of rsv bronchiolitis or pneumonia between july 1, 2000 and june 30, 2002. two (0.43%) of 470 patients tested had a positive blood culture; both patient ...200415014307
the changing epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza: impetus for new control measures.influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) are the most important causes of medically attended acute respiratory illnesses. medical encounters for acute respiratory illness peak each winter, coinciding with the peak of influenza activity. rsv is the most important cause of hospitalization of infants for acute lower respiratory illness.200415577574
respiratory syncytial virus laboratory surveillance and hospitalization trends in south texas.surveillance of seasonal variations in respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) outbreaks is an important component in clinical decision-making. a retrospective analysis of 11 years of laboratory-based rsv surveillance and 7 years of hospitalization data was carried out to better define the onset and duration of the rsv season in south texas, as well as to evaluate the clinical impact and timing of rsv outbreaks on the number of infants hospitalized with rsv infection. all but one of the seasons examin ...200718090201
risk factors in children hospitalized with rsv bronchiolitis versus non-rsv bronchiolitis.the trends in hospitalization rates and risk factors for severe bronchiolitis have not been recently described, especially after the routine implementation of prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections.201021098154
decreased innate immune cytokine responses correlate with disease severity in children with respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus bronchiolitis.the immunopathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and human rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infections in children remains to be defined. we measured nasal wash concentrations of 29 cytokines in infants with rsv or human rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infections. concentrations of interferon-+¦ in rsv and innate immunity cytokines in both infections inversely correlated with disease severity.201121829141
pathogens of bovine respiratory disease in north american feedlots conferring multidrug resistance via integrative conjugative elements.in this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (brd)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 brd mortalities in alberta, canada (n = 42), texas (n = 6), and nebraska (n = 20) were screened using pcr for bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine respiratory syncy ...201424478472
vaccination strategies against respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most common cause of us infant hospitalization. additionally, rsv is responsible for 10,000 deaths annually among the elderly across the united states, and accounts for nearly as many hospitalizations as influenza. currently, several rsv vaccine candidates are under development to target different age groups. to evaluate the potential effectiveness of age-specific vaccination strategies in averting rsv incidence, we developed a transmission model that int ...201627799521
validity of laboratory-based surveillance for detection of respiratory syncytial virus seasons.in this study, we validated the centers for disease control and prevention's use of a 10% threshold of median proportion of positive laboratory tests (median proportion positive (mpp)) to identify respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) seasons against a standard based on hospitalization claims. medicaid fee-for-service recipients under 2 years of age from california, florida, illinois, and texas (1999-2004), continuously eligible since birth, were categorized for each week as high-risk or low-risk wi ...201323479344
gene sequence variability of the three surface proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) in texas.human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) has three surface glycoproteins: small hydrophobic (sh), attachment (g) and fusion (f), encoded by three consecutive genes (sh-g-f). a 270-nt fragment of the g gene is used to genotype hrsv isolates. this study genotyped and investigated the variability of the gene and amino acid sequences of the three surface proteins of hrsv strains collected from 1987 to 2005 from one center. sixty original clinical isolates and 5 prototype strains were analyzed. seque ...201424625544
respiratory syncytial virus prevention outreach project.the objective of the study is to determine whether early identification, outreach, and intervention would increase compliance with palivizumab prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus prevention for members of a texas medicaid managed care organization. the study cohort was selected from administrative claims data. the observational study period ran from october 1, 2006, to march 31, 2007. letters, educational materials, and postcards were mailed and outbound telephone calls were placed to qu ...200919813150
infection with novel respiratory syncytial virus genotype ontario (on1) in adult hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, texas, 2011-2013.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) can cause severe respiratory disease in adult hematopoietic cell transplant (hct) recipients. rsv subgroups a and b have evolved into multiple genotypes. we report on a recently described rsv genotype (on1) in a cohort of adult hct recipients in texas.201525156562
meeting report: 4th isirv antiviral group conference: novel antiviral therapies for influenza and other respiratory viruses.the international society for influenza and other respiratory virus diseases (isirv) held its 4th antiviral group conference at the university of texas on 2-4 june, 2015. with emerging resistance to the drugs currently licensed for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza viruses, primarily the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (tamiflu) and the m2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, and the lack of effective interventions against other respiratory viruses, the 3-day programme focus ...201626872862
appropriateness of age thresholds for respiratory syncytial virus immunoprophylaxis in moderate-preterm infants: a cohort study.importance recommendations concerning the appropriate age threshold for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) prophylaxis in moderate-preterm infants are highly debated. objective to determine the age at which moderate-preterm infants' risk of rsv hospitalization has decreased to the risk observed in low-risk term infants. design, setting, and participants retrospective cohort study of florida and texas medicaid fee-for-service billing records matched to birth certificates from medicaid beneficiarie ...201324126903
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