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surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus infection: england and wales 1988-91. 19911669860
acute respiratory infections. 19911669902
current respiratory infections. 19957532521
nosocomial spread of rsv infection. 19937693189
the prediction of epidemics of respiratory infection.experience from 25 years of clinical monitoring of influenza and related illnesses has been considered in relation to the prediction of epidemics of influenza. the monitoring has taken place in a network of sentinel practices in england and wales who report new episodes of illness weekly as they occur. the practice data are aggregated at the birmingham research unit of the royal college of general practitioners and weekly rates per 100,000 population are published in age-specific groups. major e ...19947843362
seroepidemiological study of respiratory virus infections among dental surgeons.sera were collected from 50 practising dental surgeons and 50 control subjects matched for age (+/- 1 year) and sex. each participant completed a questionnaire including personal details and, in the case of dentists, information relating to protective work-wear and other cross-infection control measures employed within the surgery. the sera were examined by complement fixation tests for antibodies to influenza a, influenza b, respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus. the dental group had a sig ...19948186035
incidence of episodes of acute asthma and acute bronchitis in general practice 1976-87.the incidence of episodes of acute asthma and acute bronchitis was analysed for an 11-year period and studied in relation to epidemiological data on viral illness and virus isolation data. between 1976 and 1987, the weekly returns service estimates of the incidence of acute asthmatic episodes in england and wales increased from 10.2 to 27.1 per 100,000 patients per week (all ages). the increase was most marked in children up to the age of 14 years. acute bronchitis attack rates (all ages) increa ...19938251231
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1994 to june 1995.this report summarises the information obtained by surveillance of influenza in england and wales from october 1994 to june 1995 (weeks 40/94 to 25/95). influenza b viruses were responsible for most infections, with moderate activity occurring throughout the winter, peaking in february. influenza a became more active towards the end of the winter, and laboratory reports reached a peak in may (week 21/95). influenza activity was seen first in wales, then england, followed by scotland. an increase ...19958556105
respiratory syncytial virus activity and flu-like illness. 19968581119
impact of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus on mortality in england and wales from january 1975 to december 1990.the effects of influenza a and b and rsv on mortality in england and wales were assessed by regression analysis for the period 1975-90. morbidity data from sentinel practices were used to calculate 4-weekly rates of aggregated upper respiratory tract infections (urti); phls laboratory reports were used as indices of infection, and 4-weekly death rates from all causes, excluding childbirths, were used to study relationships with mortality. deaths correlated strongly with influenza a and b reports ...19968626004
influenza and respiratory syncytial virus surveillance. 19948640280
respiratory syncytial virus infection and meningococcal disease.although viral respiratory tract infections may predispose to meningococcal disease, strong evidence that they do so exists only for influenza. data on laboratory reported cases of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections and meningococcal disease in england and wales from mid-1989 to mid-1994 were analysed. although the rise in rsv cases preceded the rise in meningococcal disease cases each winter, the interval between the rise and fall of the two diseases was inconsistent, no association w ...19968760957
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1995 to june 1996.this report summarises information collected for the surveillance of influenza virus infection in england and wales from october 1995 to june 1996 (weeks 40/95 to 25/96). total respiratory disease' activity, as reported by the birmingham research unit of the royal college of general practitioners, rose to peaks in weeks 48/95, 51/95, and 01/96. the first peak coincided with a peak in "influenza and flu-like illness'. the subsequent peaks were accounted for by an increase in reports of acute bron ...19968972979
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1996 to june 1997.this report summarises information collected for the surveillance of influenza in england and wales during the winter of 1996/97. consultations for 'influenza and influenza-like illness' with sentinel general practitioners in england and wales began to increase towards the end of november and peaked at the start of january. in england, consultations for 'aggregated respiratory disease' (ard) began to increase a little earlier, perhaps as a result of increased respiratory syncytial virus activity ...19979447787
prevalence of antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus and other viruses in bulk tank milk in england and wales.bulk tank milk samples from 1070 dairy herds in england and wales were tested by elisa for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv). a subset of 341 herds was tested by elisa for antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and bovine coronavirus (bcv). none of the herds had less than 40 dairy cows and none had been vaccinated against bvdv. the prevalence of bvdv antibody-positive herds in the national population was estimated at 95 per cent and ...19989586130
surveillance of influenza in wales: interpreting sentinel general practice rates using contemporaneous laboratory data. opportunities and limitations.to evaluate the opportunities and limitations of using laboratory data to enhance sentinel general practice surveillance of influenza.19989764268
phls overview of communicable diseases 1997: results of a priority setting exercise.in early 1997, the phls overview of communicable diseases (ovcd) committee carried out a consultation exercise to inform the development of phls priorities in communicable diseases for the years 1997 to 1999. the views of phls senior staff and scientific committees and consultants in communicable disease control in district health authorities were sought by postal questionnaire, and several organisations of health professionals were asked for their views on the initial findings. the main finding ...19989830790
respiratory viruses in adult liver transplant recipients.the contribution of respiratory viruses to respiratory disease in adult liver transplant (lt) recipients has not been studied. we performed a prospective audit to document the incidence of respiratory syncytial viruses ([rsvs], parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, and adenovirus) after lt, and to determine their contribution to respiratory disease in this setting.199910532538
respiratory syncytial virus: an underestimated cause of respiratory infection, with prospects for a vaccine.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infects most people by the time they are 2 years old and reinfects throughout life. rsv is best recognised for causing bronchiolitis in infants--it is one of the most important respiratory pathogens in childhood in industrialised countries. the clinical manifestations of rsv infection in adults and elderly people, from upper respiratory tract infection to pneumonia, are less well known. part of the burden of winter mortality in elderly people is attributable to ...199910598379
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1999 to may 2000.the period of increased influenza activity in england and wales in the winter of 1999/2000 was associated with considerable morbidity and mortality and well-publicized pressure on hospital services. the influenza activity coincided with the regular annual increase in respiratory syncytial virus infections and the christmas and new year holiday period. consultation rates with general practitioners for influenza-like illness did not reach 'epidemic' levels but were higher than seen in many winters ...200011280255
a touch of the 'flu. 200211970940
human metapneumovirus as a cause of community-acquired respiratory illness.human metapneumovirus (hmpv) is a recently identified paramyxovirus first isolated from hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections (arti). we sought evidence of hmpv infection in patients who had visited general practitioners, had influenzalike illnesses (ili), and had negative tests for influenza and human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv). as part of national virologic surveillance, sentinel general practices in england and wales collected samples from patients of all ages ...200212194763
the transmission dynamics of groups a and b human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) in england & wales and finland: seasonality and cross-protection.human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) transmission dynamics are inherently cyclical, and the observed genetic diversity (between groups a and b) also appears to have a repeating pattern. a key unknown is the extent to which genetic variants interact immunologically, and thus impact on epidemiology. we developed a novel mathematical model for hrsv transmission including seasonal forcing of incidence and temporary intra- and inter-group partial immunity. simultaneous model fits to data from two ...200515816153
modelling the unidentified mortality burden from thirteen infectious pathogenic microorganisms in infants.official statistics routinely underestimate mortality from specific microorganisms and deaths are assigned to non-specific syndromes. here we estimate mortality attributed to specific pathogens by modelling non-specific infant deaths from laboratory reports and codes on death certificates for these pathogens, 1993-2000 in england and wales using a generalized linear model. in total, 22.4-59.8% of non-specific deaths in infants (25-66 deaths a year) are attributable to specific pathogens. yearly ...200716740187
morbidity profiles of patients consulting during influenza and respiratory syncytial virus active periods.we compared the burden of illness due to a spectrum of respiratory diagnostic categories among persons presenting in a sentinel general practice network in england and wales during periods of influenza and of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) activity. during all periods of viral activity, incidence rates of influenza-like illness, bronchitis and common cold were elevated compared to those in baseline periods. excess rates per 100,000 of acute bronchitis were greater in children aged <1 year (me ...200717291381
the contribution of respiratory pathogens to the seasonality of nhs direct calls.primary care is thought to bear half the cost of treating infections in the uk. we describe the seasonal variation in nhs direct respiratory calls (a new source of primary care data) and estimate the contribution of specific respiratory pathogens to this variation.200717582503
lessons from 40 years' surveillance of influenza in england and wales.the influenza virus continues to pose a significant threat to public health throughout the world. current avian influenza outbreaks in humans have heightened the need for improved surveillance and planning. despite recent advances in the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs, seasonal epidemics of influenza continue to contribute significantly to general practitioner workloads, emergency hospital admissions, and deaths. in this paper we review data produced by the royal college of general ...200818047750
infection-related mortality in children with malignancy in england and wales, 2003-2005.infections are an important component of treatment-related mortality in children with malignancy. infection-related mortality is potentially preventable and it is important to identify areas where prevention and treatment can be improved such as through vaccination, early diagnosis and aggressive management. the aim of this study is to describe the infections contributing to deaths in children under 15 years with malignancy in england and wales in the period 2003-2005.200919415733
burden on uk secondary care of rotavirus disease and seasonal infections in children.rotavirus is a common infection affecting children under 5 years, which leads to a significant disease burden. this burden is potentially exacerbated by the seasonality of rotavirus, particularly in the context of the seasonality of other common childhood infections. the primary study objective was to describe the pattern and burden of seasonal infections amongst children under 5 years of age with particular attention placed on rotavirus and other gastrointestinal infections.201020818925
fewer colds, less asthma? a hypothesis to explain the fall in childhood asthma in the uk.uk asthma prevalence fell significantly between 1993 and 2000. in children aged <5 years hospital admissions for asthma fell by 52% and primary care presentations in children under 14 years by over 40%. from 1994 to 2000, primary care consultations for acute respiratory infections in all age groups fell by 36%, and for the common cold by 46%. isolates for respiratory syncytial virus notified to the health protection agency voluntary reporting scheme fell by 56% between 1993 and 2003. falls in uk ...200818791051
rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus and non-rotaviral gastroenteritis analysis of hospital readmissions in england and wales.to quantify readmissions with infectious diseases and differences in readmission patterns.201323289533
mortality caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus by age group in england and wales 1999-2010.the mortality burden caused by influenza cannot be quantified directly from death certificates because of under-recording; therefore, the estimated number of influenza deaths has to be obtained through statistical modelling.201322405488
mortality attributable to influenza in england and wales prior to, during and after the 2009 pandemic.very different influenza seasons have been observed from 2008/09-2011/12 in england and wales, with the reported burden varying overall and by age group. the objective of this study was to estimate the impact of influenza on all-cause and cause-specific mortality during this period. age-specific generalised linear regression models fitted with an identity link were developed, modelling weekly influenza activity through multiplying clinical influenza-like illness consultation rates with proportio ...201324348993
the effects of hourly differences in air pollution on the risk of myocardial infarction: case crossover analysis of the minap database.to investigate associations between air pollution levels and myocardial infarction (mi) on short timescales, with data at an hourly temporal resolution.201121933824
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