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rabies surveillance in the united states during 1989.in 1989, 4,808 cases of rabies in animals other than human beings were reported to the centers for disease control, 1.8% more (4,724 to 4,808) than in 1988. eighty-eight percent (4,224/4,808) of those affected were wild animals and 12% (584/4,808) were domestic animals. cases were reported from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico; hawaii remained rabies-free. skunks (1,657) continued to be the most commonly reported rabid wild animal. for the second consecutive year, more cats ( ...19902276949
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1995.in 1995, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,877 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 92% (7,247 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (630 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 4.2% from that of 1994 (8,230 cases). most of the decline was the result of 17.1% fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons in areas of the northeast, where rabies is now e ...19968960176
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1997.in 1997, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,509 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 93% (7,899) were wild animals, whereas 7% (610) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases increased 19.4% from that of 1996 (7,128 cases). increases were apparent in each of the major species groups, with the exception of cattle. the relative contributions of these groups to the total ...19989861958
update: raccoon rabies epizootic--united states and canada, 1999.in 1977, an outbreak of raccoon rabies was detected in an area on the west virginia-virginia border. since then, the area affected by this distinct variant of rabies virus associated with raccoons has spread to ohio in the west and new york, pennsylvania, vermont, new hampshire, and maine in the north. in addition, the once separate epizootics of rabies among raccoons in the southeastern and mid-atlantic states converged in north carolina. in july 1999, the raccoon rabies virus variant was repor ...200010680602
bat rabies; report of an isolation of rabies virus from native ohio bats. 195713416061
predictive spatial dynamics and strategic planning for raccoon rabies emergence in ohio.rabies is an important public health concern in north america because of recent epidemics of a rabies virus variant associated with raccoons. the costs associated with surveillance, diagnostic testing, and post-exposure treatment of humans exposed to rabies have fostered coordinated efforts to control rabies spread by distributing an oral rabies vaccine to wild raccoons. authorities have tried to contain westward expansion of the epidemic front of raccoon-associated rabies via a vaccine corridor ...200515737065
rabies virus in raccoons, ohio, 2004.in 2004, the raccoon rabies virus variant emerged in ohio beyond an area where oral rabies vaccine had been distributed to prevent westward spread of this variant. our genetic investigation indicates that this outbreak may have begun several years before 2004 and may have originated within the vaccination zone.200818394286
A Spatial Model to Forecast Raccoon Rabies Emergence.Abstract Although raccoons are widely distributed throughout North America, the raccoon rabies virus variant is enzootic only in the eastern United States, based on current surveillance data. This variant of rabies virus is now responsible for >60% of all cases of animal rabies reported in the United States each year. Ongoing national efforts via an oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program are aimed at preventing the spread of raccoon rabies. However, from an epidemiologic perspective, the relati ...201121995266
safety and immunogenicity of ontario rabies vaccine bait (onrab) in the first us field trial in raccoons (procyon lotor).in 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural west virginia, usa to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (adrg1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (ontario rabies vaccine bait; onrab) in wild raccoons (procyon lotor) and striped skunks (mephitis mephitis). we selected onrab for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in ontario and quebec, canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a ...201424807178
human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits distributed for wildlife rabies management--ohio, 2012.baits laden with oral rabies vaccines are important for the management of wildlife rabies in the united states. in august 2012, the wildlife services program of the u.s. department of agriculture's animal and plant health inspection service began a field trial involving limited distribution of a new oral rabies vaccine bait in five states, including ohio. the vaccine consisted of live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (adrg1.3) (onrab). a previously ...201323575240
oral rabies vaccination of a northern ohio raccoon population: relevance of population density and prebait serology.ohio's oral rabies vaccination (orv) program was established to prevent the westward spread of the raccoon (procyon lotor) rabies virus (lyssavirus, rhabdoviridae) in ohio, usa. the program, which targets raccoons, distributes vaccine-bait units (vbu) at a target density of 75 units/km2. few studies have examined the relationship of vbu density and target population density to the prevalence of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (rvna). we conducted experimental vbu distributions in august 200 ...200818689640
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1999.during 1999, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,067 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 11.2% from 7,961 cases in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 1998. more than 91% (6,466 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 8.5% (601 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 92.4% in wild animals and 7.6% in domestic species in 1998). no cases of rabies were reported in human beings in 1 ...200011132881
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1998.during 1998, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,961 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 6.5% from 8,509 cases in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings reported in 1997. more than 92% (7,358 cases) were in wild animals, whereas > 7.5% (603 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93% in wild animals and 7% in domestic species in 1997). decreases were evident in al ...199910613210
multiple human exposures to a rabid bear cub at a petting zoo and barnwarming--iowa, august 1999.on august 27, 1999, a black bear cub, approximately 5-6 months old, died after several hours of acute central nervous system symptoms; preliminary test results available on august 28 indicated the bear had rabies. the bear was part of the swenson's wild midwest exotic petting zoo in clermont, iowa (northeastern iowa). at the petting zoo, visitors fed, wrestled, and may have been nipped by the bear. the bear also was taken to an august 14 barnwarming at the tharp barn in holy cross, iowa (eastern ...199910499789
influence of oral rabies vaccine bait density on rabies seroprevalence in wild raccoons.the effect of different oral rabies vaccine (orv) bait densities (75, 150, and 300 baits/km(2)) on the seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rvnas) in raccoons (procyon lotor) was assessed at a 15% seroprevalence difference threshold in rural areas of northeast ohio. results (n=588 raccoons) indicated that seropositivity for rvnas was associated with both bait density and bait campaign frequency. associations were not detected for raccoon gender, age, or macro-habitat. the odds ...200919925951
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2004.during 2004, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,836 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings to the cdc, representing a 4.6% decrease from the 7,170 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2003. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals (compared with 91% and 9%, respectively, in 2003). relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bat ...200516379626
persistence of elevated rabies prevention costs following post-epizootic declines in rates of rabies among raccoons (procyon lotor).determining the benefits to cost relationships among different approaches to rabies control and prevention has been hindered by the inherent temporal variability in the dynamics of disease among wildlife reservoir hosts and a tangible and objective measure of the cost of rabies prevention. a major and unavoidable component of rabies prevention programs involves diagnostic testing of animals and the subsequent initiation of appropriate public health responses. the unit cost per negative and posit ...200515820116
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2002.during 2002, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,967 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 7.2% from the 7,436 cases in non-human animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 2001. more than 92% (7,375 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 7.4% (592) were in domestic species (compared with 93.3% in wild animals and 6.7% in domestic species in 2001). compared with cases reported in 2001, the numbers of ...200314690203
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2000.during 2000, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,364 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 5 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 4.3% from 7,067 cases in nonhuman animals reported in 1999. ninety-three percent (6,855 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.9% (509 cases) were in domestic species (compared wth 91.5% in wild animals and 8.5% in domestic species in 1999). compared with cases reported in 1999, the numbe ...200111767918
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