epidemiologic survey of sylvatic plague by serotesting coyote sentinels with enzyme immunoassay.the geographic distribution and areas of high sylvatic plague activity in california were verified by using coyotes (canis latrans) as sentinel animals. antibody levels against yersinia pestis were tested using the enzyme-labelled antibody (ela) test and the microtiter passive hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition. a survey using the ela test indicated that the overall antibody prevalence among 143 coyotes was 21%. by geographic regions, the highest antibody prevalence was 27% among c ...1979382839
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild and domestic animals in northern california.wild and domestic animals from 3 geographic-climatologic areas in northern california were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. a total of 2,796 serum samples representing 37 species of wild mammals, 35 species of wild birds, and 5 species of domestic animals were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 1,174 wild mammal serums tested, 10.8% were positive, which compared with 14.7% of the 1,221 domestic mammal serums. of 229 wild carnivores tested, 45% were seropositive, inc ...1976977457
toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther california.the prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in norther ccalifornia. the highest prevalence was among bobcats (lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (canis latrans). two gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. oone badger ...19751142562
a survey for toxoplasma gondii antibodies in deer and other wildlife on a sheep range.blood samples were obtained from native mammals and birds on a sheep range (hopland field station) in northern california. serums were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 382 deer that were tested from 1964 to 1973, 77 (20%) were seropositive for t gondii. among 36 serums representing 6 species of wild carnivores (badgers, bobcats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks), 18 (50%) were seropositive. all of the 5 bobcats tested were seropositive, wit ...19751176348
plague surveillance by serological testing of coyotes (canis latrans) in los angeles county, california.sera from 19 (5.6%) of 338 coyotes (canis latrans) collected in los angeles county, california between 1986 and 1990 had antibodies against yersinia pestis using the passive hemagglutination test. coyotes were excellent sentinels of plague activity in los angeles county. enzootic plague declined dramatically in the county during the 5-yr period.19921474660
probable transmission of echinococcus granulosus between deer and coyotes in california. 19744844505
the occurrence of echinococcus granulosus in coyotes (canis latrans) in the central valley of california. 19705534027
coyotes and canine heartworm in dirofilaria immitis were found in the hearts of 43 of 115 coyotes (canis latrans) trapped within a 50 km radius of the el dorado county seat. of mature coyotes, 45% were positive, with worm numbers averaging 9.0 in females and 16.2 in males. d. immitis microfilariae occurred in the peripheral blood and in lung smears. microfilariae of dipetalonema reconditum were present in 14 of the coyotes examined (12%). several coyotes showed enlarged hearts with gross pathological changes.19807431518
viral antibodies in coyotes from california.prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv), and canine adenovirus type 1 (cav) were determined among 152 coyotes (canis latrans) at the naval petroleum reserves (nprc; california, usa) from 1985 to 1990. overall prevalence of antibodies to cpv, cdv, and cav was 66%, 37%, and 68%, respectively. prevalence of cpv and cdv varied significantly among years. antibody prevalence did not differ between sexes for any disease, but did vary significantly among ag ...19989577772
seroepidemiology of bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in california coyotes, 1994-1998.the prevalence of antibodies to bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coyotes (canis latrans) in california ranged from 51% in central to 34% in southern and 7% in northern california. seropositive coyotes were more likely to be from coastal than inland counties (p clustered distribution of bartonella seropositivity in coyotes suggests that b. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection is vectorborne. further investigation is warranted to evaluate which arthropods are vectors and what the mode of t ...199910511529
canines as sentinels for lyme disease in san diego county, california.prevalence of lyme borreliosis in canine sentinels has been shown to correlate with infection in humans. one thousand canine sera (917 dogs, 83 coyotes) obtained from animal control authorities and area veterinarians were screened by elisa for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. results were validated by western blot and indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) tests at referee laboratories. criterion for a positive western blot was presence of 5 of 10 of the most common antigen igg bands; for ifa, > ...200010730940
serologic and molecular evidence of ehrlichia spp. in coyotes in order to determine the role of coyotes in the epidemiology of granulocytic and monocytic ehrlichial agents in california (usa), we tested 149 serum samples for antibodies against ehrlichia equi, e. risticii, and e. canis, using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to survey for the presence of members of the e. phagocytophila genogroup, e. risticii and e. canis in blood samples of 95 coyotes. sixty-eight (46%) samples were seropositive fo ...200010941735
coyotes (canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal california.bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with bartonella infection in santa clara county, calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. among 109 coyotes (canis latrans) from central coastal california, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with b. vinsonii subsp. berkh ...200011060089
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
spatial analysis of yersinia pestis and bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in california coyotes (canis latrans).zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by yersinia pestis occurs in california, usa. human infections with various bartonella species have been reported recently. coyotes (canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout california and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. this study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for y. pestis and bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight int ...200312507856
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2002.during 2002, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,967 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 7.2% from the 7,436 cases in non-human animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 2001. more than 92% (7,375 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 7.4% (592) were in domestic species (compared with 93.3% in wild animals and 6.7% in domestic species in 2001). compared with cases reported in 2001, the numbers of ...200314690203
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
gis-facilitated spatial epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in coyotes (canis latrans) in northern and coastal california.ixodes pacificus is the main tick vector for transmission of anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi to large vertebrates in california. the present study was undertaken in i. pacificus-infested counties in california to examine spatial and temporal relationships among a. phagocytophilum and b. burgdorferi-exposed coyotes with vegetation type and climate. the overall a. phagocytophilum and b. burgdorferi seroprevalences were 39.5% (n=215) and 18.9% (n=148), respectively, with no assoc ...200515857659
environmental factors associated with bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seropositivity in free-ranging coyotes from northern california.bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is a newly recognized pathogen of domestic dogs and humans. coyotes (canis latrans) are considered an important reservoir of this bacterium in the western united states, but its vectors are still unknown. our objective was to identify environmental factors associated with bartonella antibody prevalence in 239 coyotes from northern california, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. in addition, associations were evaluated between b. v. berkhoffii and two ...200516011426
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2004.during 2004, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,836 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings to the cdc, representing a 4.6% decrease from the 7,170 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2003. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals (compared with 91% and 9%, respectively, in 2003). relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bat ...200516379626
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2006.during 2006, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the cdc, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1. ...200717696853
spatial analysis of plague in california: niche modeling predictions of the current distribution and potential response to climate change.plague, caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in california and the western united states. this study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in california and tests maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of california ground s ...200919558717
seroprevalence of trypanosoma cruzi among eleven potential reservoir species from six states across the southern united states.trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in latin america. although rare in humans and domestic animals in the united states, t. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (procyon lotor) and virginia opossums (didelphis virginiana). to increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of t. cruzi (arizo ...201020020815
prevalence, distribution, and diversity of salmonella enterica in a major produce region of california.a survey was initiated to determine the prevalence of salmonella enterica in the environment in and around monterey county, ca, a major agriculture region of the united states. trypticase soy broth enrichment cultures of samples of soil/sediment (n = 617), water (n = 252), wildlife (n = 476), cattle feces (n = 795), and preharvest lettuce and spinach (n = 261) tested originally for the presence of pathogenic escherichia coli were kept in frozen storage and later used to test for the presence of ...201121378057
trypanosoma cruzi and chagas' disease in the united states.chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. the southern half of the united states contains enzootic cycles of t. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. the greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western united states, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with t. cruzi. in the east ...201121976603
detection of dirofilaria immitis and ehrlichia species in coyotes (canis latrans), from rural oklahoma and texas.there is a lack of knowledge regarding the prevalence of dirofilaria immitis and ehrlichia spp. in coyotes in oklahoma and texas. documenting the prevalence of these vector-borne disease agents in coyotes from oklahoma and texas underscores the importance of wild canids as reservoir hosts that infect companion animals and humans. to learn more about the sylvatic cycle of d. immitis and ehrlichia spp. in coyotes from oklahoma and texas, we tested for infection with and exposure to, respectively, ...201222448722
natural attenuation potential of downwelling streams for perfluorochemicals and other emerging augmentation with tertiary treated municipal wastewater-i.e., recycled water-is increasingly considered as an ecologically beneficial way to utilize recycled water, especially in semi-arid regions of the american southwest. there is concern that emerging contaminants, i.e. unregulated but biologically active organic compounds, may be present in recycled water and will impact on the aquatic environment and the underlying groundwater. emerging contaminants include a wide variety of chemical ...200718057642
coyotes demonstrate how habitat specialization by individuals of a generalist species can diversify populations in a heterogeneous ecoregion.the tendency for individuals to disperse into habitat similar to their natal habitat has been observed in a wide range of species, although its population genetic consequences have received little study. such behavior could lead to discrete habitat-specific population subdivisions even in the absence of physical dispersal barriers or habitat gaps. previous studies of coyotes have supported this hypothesis in a small region of california, but its evolutionary significance ultimately depends on th ...200818391065
reconstructing the spread of dirofilaria immitis in california coyotes.dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode parasite that is currently widely enzootic in dog and coyote (canis latrans) populations of california. weak historical evidence suggests that the initial focus of d. immitis in california occurred 3 decades ago in the sierra nevada foothills (snf) and spread to other parts of california thereafter. however, this hypothesis is difficult to evaluate because of the lack of epidemiological studies on heartworm in california before 1970. we investigated thi ...200312760647
increasing prevalence of canine heartworm in coyotes from california.thirty-seven subadult and adult coyotes (canis latrans), collected august 1992 through december 1996 from a coastal foothill area in northern california (usa), were examined for adult heartworm (dirofilaria immitis). during 1992 through 1993, at the end of a 6 yr drought, none of four coyotes examined were infected with heartworms. however, during 1994 through 1996, after the drought had ended, prevalences were 91% in 23 adult coyotes and 40% in 10 subadult coyotes. heartworm intensity did not d ...19989577791
prevalence of heartworm (dirofilaria immitis leidy) in coyotes from five northern california counties.prevalence rates of heartworm in coyotes was estimated for five northern california counties by examining hearts of coyotes obtained from federal or private trappers. prevalence rates range from 8.3-27.3%, but the proportion of infected coyotes can vary between two regions of the same county. in general, it seems that higher infection rates are found in the foothill regions of the coastal range and sierra nevada, decreasing towards the floor of the sacramento valley as well as at higher elevatio ...19827125062
a southern california freeway is a physical and social barrier to gene flow in carnivores.roads present formidable barriers to dispersal. we examine movements of two highly mobile carnivores across the ventura freeway near los angeles, one of the busiest highways in the united states. the two species, bobcats and coyotes, can disappear from habitats isolated and fragmented by roads, and their ability to disperse across the ventura freeway tests the limits of vertebrates to overcome anthropogenic obstacles. we combine radio-telemetry data and genetically based assignments to identify ...200616689893
perfluorochemicals in water reuse.faced with freshwater shortages, water authorities are increasingly utilizing wastewater reclamation to augment supplies. however, concerns over emerging trace contaminants that persist through wastewater treatment need to be addressed to evaluate potential risks. in the present study, perfluorinated surfactant residues were characterized in recycled water from four california wastewater treatment plants that employ tertiary treatment and one that treats primary sewage in a wetland constructed f ...200818547612
salt marsh as a coastal filter for the oceans: changes in function with experimental increases in nitrogen loading and sea-level rise.coastal salt marshes are among earth's most productive ecosystems and provide a number of ecosystem services, including interception of watershed-derived nitrogen (n) before it reaches nearshore oceans. nitrogen pollution and climate change are two dominant drivers of global-change impacts on ecosystems, yet their interacting effects at the land-sea interface are poorly understood. we addressed how sea-level rise and anthropogenic n additions affect the salt marsh ecosystem process of nitrogen u ...201222879873
perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of california agriculture.many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in california, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in california. this survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and ...201424952967
zoonotic bartonella species in cardiac valves of healthy coyotes, california, usa.we investigated whether bartonella spp. could cause endocarditis in coyotes or localize to cardiac valves before lesions develop. bartonella dna was amplified more often from coyote cardiac valves than spleen. bartonella infection apparently leads to cardiac valve tropism, which could cause endocarditis, an often lethal complication in mammals, including humans.201425418213
cestodes of the coyote (canis latrans) in san joaquin valley, california. 19807365635
estimating population size by genotyping faeces.population size is a fundamental biological parameter that is difficult to estimate. by genotyping coyote (canis latrans) faeces systematically collected in the santa monica mountains near los angeles, california, we exemplify a general, non-invasive method to census large mammals. four steps are involved in the estimation. first, presumed coyote faeces are collected along paths or roadways where coyotes, like most carnivores, often defaecate and mark territorial boundaries. second, dna is extra ...199910331287
using molecular epidemiology to track toxoplasma gondii from terrestrial carnivores to marine hosts: implications for public health and conservation.environmental transmission of the zoonotic parasite toxoplasma gondii, which is shed only by felids, poses risks to human and animal health in temperate and tropical ecosystems. atypical t. gondii genotypes have been linked to severe disease in people and the threatened population of california sea otters. to investigate land-to-sea parasite transmission, we screened 373 carnivores (feral domestic cats, mountain lions, bobcats, foxes, and coyotes) for t. gondii infection and examined the distrib ...201424874796
development of a robust method for isolation of shiga toxin-positive escherichia coli (stec) from fecal, plant, soil and water samples from a leafy greens production region in california.during a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in california, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for shiga toxin (stx)-producing escherichia coli (stec). overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for e. coli o157:h7 (2.6%) or non-o157 stec (14.0%), respectively. isolates differentiated by o-typing elisa and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (mlva) resulted in 697 o157:h7 and 3,256 non-o157 stec i ...201323762414
effects of management of domestic dogs and recreation on carnivores in protected areas in northern developed countries dogs (canis lupus familiaris) are permitted to accompany human visitors to many protected areas (e.g., >96% of protected lands in california, u.s.a.), and protected-area management often focuses on regulating dogs due to concerns about predation, competition, or transmission of disease and conflicts with human visitors. in 2004 and 2005, we investigated whether carnivore species richness and abundance were associated with management of domestic dogs and recreational visita ...201121309853
population structure of california coyotes corresponds to habitat-specific breaks and illuminates species history.little is known about the relationship between animal movements and the emergent structure of populations, especially for species occupying large continuous distributions. some such mammals disperse disproportionately into habitat similar to their natal habitat, a behavioural bias that might be expected to lead to habitat-conforming genetic structure. we hypothesized that coyotes (canis latrans) would exhibit such natal-biased dispersal, and used 13 microsatellite loci to test, correspondingly, ...200415078462
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