influenza a viruses in wild birds of the pacific flyway, 2005-2008.avian influenza viruses (aivs) pose a significant threat to public health, and viral subtypes circulating in natural avian reservoirs can contribute to the emergence of pathogenic influenza viruses in humans. we investigated the prevalence and distribution of aivs in 8826 migratory and resident wild birds in north america along the pacific flyway, which is a major north-south migration pathway that overlaps with four other flyways in alaska providing opportunities for mixing of eurasian and amer ...201020059316
interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among alaska dabbling ducks.the reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact lpai genomes among species and locations. to examine persistence of entire lpai genome constellations in alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome lpai viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (anas acuta), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), american green-winged teal (anas ...201121964597
mx gene diversity and influenza association among five wild dabbling duck species (anas spp.) in (myxovirus-resistant) proteins are induced by interferon and inhibit viral replication as part of the innate immune response to viral infection in many vertebrates. influenza a virus appears to be especially susceptible to mx antiviral effects. we characterized exon 13 and the 3' utr of the mx gene in wild ducks, the natural reservoir of influenza virus and explored its potential relevance to influenza infection. we observed a wide range of intra- and interspecies variations. total nucleotide ...201020621205
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