factors associated with west nile virus disease fatalities in 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of west nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. a total of 133 clinical cases were reported between july 30 and september 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. the case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% ci 35.2, 52.4). factors associated with fatality in clinical cases inc ...200718050794
modeling monthly variation of culex tarsalis (diptera: culicidae) abundance and west nile virus infection rate in the canadian prairies.the canadian prairie provinces of alberta, saskatchewan, and manitoba have generally reported the highest human incidence of west nile virus (wnv) in canada. in this study, environmental and biotic factors were used to predict numbers of culex tarsalis coquillett, which is the primary mosquito vector of wnv in this region, and prevalence of wnv infection in cx. tarsalis in the canadian prairies. the results showed that higher mean temperature and elevated time lagged mean temperature were associ ...201323880728
characterizing the acceptability of a vaccine for west nile virus by public health practitioners.this study examines health care personnel's knowledge of west nile virus (wnv) and attitudes towards a proposed chimeric yellow fever/wnv vaccine within the province of saskatchewan. telephone and in-person interviews with medical health officers and public health nurses provided information with which to assess the acceptability of implementing vaccination as a component for prevention of wnv within the province with the highest number of wnv cases to date in western canada. the majority of hea ...201020197131
an outbreak of west nile virus infection in captive lesser scaup (aythya affinis) ducklings.this report describes west nile virus (wnv)-associated mortality in captive lesser scaup (aythya affinis) ducklings that occurred in saskatchewan, canada, in july and august 2007. there were no clinical signs or gross necropsy findings suggestive of the cause of death; however, microscopic lesions were consistent with wnv infection, including nonsuppurative encephalitis and myocardial, pancreatic, and splenic necrosis. necrosis of the thymus and thyroid was also observed in some birds, which has ...200919432016
public health use of surveillance for west nile virus in horses: saskatchewan, 2003-2005.west nile virus (wnv) infection in horses was first reported in canada in 2001 and in the province of saskatchewan in 2002. this paper outlines the surveillance results of wnv in saskatchewan horses from 2003 to 2005 and describes the usefulness of its inclusion in an integrated surveillance program in saskatchewan. the number of human and horse cases was highest in 2003, the epidemic year and then substantially lower in 2004 and 2005. horses provided additive information about wnv activity in r ...200818761655
seroprevalence and risk factors for infection with west nile virus in saskatchewan horses, 2003.the primary objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of west nile virus (wnv) infection of horses in saskatchewan in 2003 and to identify risk factors for the infection. blood samples were collected in august and october from 212 horses in 20 herds in 5 geographic zones. after accounting for within-herd clustering, the proportion of horses that had been infected with wnv, as determined by igg and igm antibody response, was 55.7% (95% confidence interval, 44.9% to 65.8%). the ...200717955899
prediction of human cases of west nile virus by equine cases, saskatchewan, canada, 2003, an outbreak of west nile virus (wnv) occurred in saskatchewan, canada from july to september. one-hundred thirty-three horse cases and 947 human cases were recorded and data were analyzed retrospectively for evidence of clustering to determine if clinical infection in the horse population could be used to estimate human risk of infection with wnv. kulldorff's scan statistic was used to identify spatial-temporal clusters in both the human and horse cases. in most areas, human clusters we ...200616806542
clinical west nile virus infection in 2 horses in western canada.two horses had a history of ataxia and weakness or recumbency. one recovered and was diagnosed with west nile virus (wnv) infection by serologic testing. the other was euthanized; it had meningoencephalomyelitis, wnv was detected by polymerase chain reaction. west nile virus infection is an emerging disease. year 2002 is the first year in which cases have been seen in saskatchewan.200415144104
climate change and west nile virus in a highly endemic region of north america.the canadian prairie provinces of manitoba, saskatchewan, and alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of west nile virus (wnv) infection in canada. the primary vector for wvn in this region is the mosquito culex tarsalis. this study used constructed models and biological thresholds to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of cx. tarsalis and wnv infection rate in the prairie provinces under a range of potential future climate and habitat conditions. we selecte ...201323880729
a case-control study of factors associated with development of clinical disease due to west nile virus, saskatchewan 2003.west nile virus (wnv) was first diagnosed in saskatchewan equids in 2002. awnv epidemic was considered highly likely for 2003, which would provide a unique opportunity to study all aspects of wnv subclinical infection and clinical disease development in a relatively naive population.200718065306
first canadian outbreak of west nile virus disease in farmed domestic ducks in saskatchewan. 200718189050
seroprevalence of west nile virus in saskatchewan's five hills health region, 2003.the five hills health region of saskatchewan reported the highest west nile virus (wnv) case rates in the 2003 outbreak. a serologic and telephone survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence of the virus and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of the residents.200617120874
predicting geographical human risk of west nile virus--saskatchewan, 2003 and detail the use of a model to predict areas of low, medium, and high risk of west nile virus (wnv) in humans in both 2003 and 2007 in the province of saskatchewan. to identify consistent high-risk areas from year to year as well as important environmental variables within those high-risk areas.200919994734
evaluating the use of house sparrow nestlings as sentinels for west nile virus in saskatchewan.this study evaluated the use of house sparrow (passer domesticus) nestlings as sentinels of west nile virus (wnv) in the prairie grasslands of saskatchewan. in the summer of 2006, 600 house sparrow nestlings were collected and pooled tissues tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. all tested negative for wnv. during the same period, no wnv was detected by mosquito surveillance in the study area and 15 wnv-infected pools were collected from the nearby city of estevan. six perce ...201120518643
predictive risk mapping of west nile virus (wnv) infection in saskatchewan horses.the objective of this study was to develop a model using equine data from geographically limited surveillance locations to predict risk categories for west nile virus (wnv) infection in horses in all geographic locations across the province of saskatchewan. the province was divided geographically into low-, medium-, or high-risk categories for wnv, based on available serology information from 923 horses obtained through 4 studies of wnv infection in horse populations in saskatchewan. discriminan ...201122210991
neuroinvasive west nile virus disease in canada. the saskatchewan experience.west nile virus (wnv) is a virus of the family flaviviridae. the main route of human infection is through the bite of an infected mosquito. approximately 90% of wnv infections in humans are asymptomatic, but neurologic manifestations can be severe.201323786744
serological survey of west nile virus in pet dogs from saskatchewan, canada.serum samples collected from 143 dogs from saskatchewan, canada, between 2008 and 2010 were evaluated for seroprevalence of west nile virus (wnv). wnv antibodies were identified in 40/143 dogs (28%). dogs that were primarily housed in the yard were 6.2 times (95% confidence interval [ci] 2.6-14.5) more likely to have antibodies than dogs housed in the house or garage. dogs were more likely to be positive with increasing time spent outside. the results of this study document wnv seroprevalence in ...201526645738
ecological determinants of avian influenza virus, west nile virus, and avian paramyxovirus infection and antibody status in blue-winged teal (anas discors) in the canadian prairies.the canadian prairies are one of the most important breeding and staging areas for migratory waterfowl in north america. hundreds of thousands of waterfowl of numerous species from multiple flyways converge in and disperse from this region annually; therefore this region may be a key area for potential intra- and interspecific spread of infectious pathogens among migratory waterfowl in the americas. using blue-winged teal (anas discors, bwte), which have the most extensive migratory range among ...201626540179
west nile virus in canadian blood donors.blood donation screening for west nile virus (wnv) rna by nucleic acid testing (nat) was implemented in canada in july 2003, and 14 wnv rna-positive donations were identified. samples were screened in minipools of six donations with a wnv assay (taqscreen, roche). two of the donors were identified by single-donor screening that was initiated in the province of saskatchewan, which had the highest prevalence of wnv in the country, in early september 2003.200515819667
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