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prevalence of and factors associated with visceral leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients in southern spain.the actual prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis among human immunodeficiency type 1 (hiv-1)-infected patients in the mediterranean basin remains unknown. there is also controversy about the risk factors for leishmania infantum and hiv-1 coinfection. to appraise the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with hiv-1 in southern spain and to identify factors associated with this disease, 291 hiv-1 carriers underwent a bone marrow aspiration, regardless of their symptoms. giemsa-s ...19989705366
leishmania infantum is clonal in aids patients too: epidemiological implications.to test, in aids patients, a previously proposed hypothesis of clonal population structure in leishmania infantum, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis.19979108937
new leishmania (leishmania) infantum zymodemes responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in patients co-infected with hiv in spain. 19957747301
leishmania infantum: sequence homology within minicircle classes regardless of geographical distance. 19957498439
could infected drug-users be potential leishmania infantum reservoirs? 19948086149
genetic variability within the species leishmania infantum by rapd. a lack of correlation with zymodeme structure.the infraspecific variability of the species leishmania infantum is studied by using genetic markers generated by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd). we have applied this technique, using 18 primers of arbitrary sequence, to 33 strains of the parasite belonging to 18 zymodemes isolated in different clinical forms and hosts. other strains belonging to the species l. donovani, l. major, l. tropica and l. mexicana were used as a reference. the rapd technique produced very different genetic pro ...200211814577
seroprevalence and risk factors associated with neospora caninum infection in different dog populations in spain.in this study, neospora caninum seroprevalence and some associated risk factors were investigated in four different dog populations in spain. n. caninum seropositivity was significantly higher in farm dogs (51%, 51/100) (p<0.001) and lower in household dogs (2.9%, 3/102) (p<0.0001). the seroprevalence in hunting (23%, 23/100) and stray (24.5%, 23/94) dogs was moderate, and no significant differences were observed between these two populations (p>0.05). a significantly higher number of dogs showe ...200818241992
[cutaneous leishmaniasis].leishmaniases are diseases caused by infection by protozoa of the genus leishmania. cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum is frequent in spain, especially in certain geographic areas. diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis is difficult because of the varied symptoms and because making cultures of this parasite is complicated. there are also different therapeutic, medical and surgical options, none of which is fully satisfactory. we review the most significant agents of cutaneous le ...200516476327
the identification and variability of the parasites causing leishmaniasis in hiv-positive patients in italy.between 1988 and 1998, 258 leishmania strains from patients infected with hiv were characterized by iso-enzyme electrophoresis at the istituto superiore di sanità (iss) in rome. most (227) of the isolates came from 80 italian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl), the rest from cases of leishmania/hiv co-infection in other mediterranean countries. every strain was found to be leishmania infantum. in italy, 19 zymodemes of l. infantum were identified, broadly divided into three groups. over 5 ...200314678634
experimental infections of a phlebotomus perniciosus colony using different procedures.flies of two colonies of phlebotomus perniciosus established in italy and spain respectively, were infected with a leishmania infantum isolate from spain. only p. perniciosus from spain was completely found susceptible to the infection. experimental infections of p. perniciosus from spain with the same l. infantum isolate were carried out using rpmi or pbs as infective feeding mediums. the results demonstrate that using pbs it is possible to re-feed a great quantity of infected flies.19911841239
a leishmanin skin test survey in the human population of l'alacantí region (spain): implications for the epidemiology of leishmania infantum infection in southern europe.a study of leishmanin skin test reactors was carried out in 1997 and 1998 in an endemic region in southeast spain, to estimate the magnitude of and the factors related to subclinical leishmania infantum infection. in the main focus of leishmaniasis in the region, 11.5% of the children and 52.8% of the adults reacted to the skin test. among the adults, the response was significantly greater for males and for those who had resided in the area for > or = 15 years. in the whole region, 3.7% 14-year- ...200212055798
molecular epidemiology of leishmania infantum on the island of majorca: a comparison of phenotypic and genotypic tools.in the mediterranean basin, leishmania infantum is the causative agent of both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, and is an important opportunistic parasite in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). the commonest method used to study the variability of leishmania spp. is isoenzyme analysis. in addition to this, we employed 3 assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (pcr): random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (rapd), intergenic region typing (irt), based ...200212055859
evidence of increased risk for leishmania infantum infection among hiv-seronegative intravenous drug users from southern spain.to assess the prevalence of markers of leishmania infection, 93 intravenous drug users and 77 nonusers of intravenous drugs underwent a leishmania skin test and a serum leishmania antibody search. all participants were human immunodeficiency virus seronegative. the leishmania skin test was positive in 24 intravenous drug users and in 10 non-users of intravenous drugs (p=0.038). leishmania seropositivity was detected in 3 of 11 active intravenous drug users and in 3 of 82 former drug injectors (p ...200111453599
nodular lymphangitic subcutaneous dissemination after intralesional antimonial treatment for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis.human leishmaniases are protozoan diseases with diverse clinical features. they are transmitted by the bites of the phlebotomus sand fly, and the reservoirs are usually wild and domestic animals, particularly dogs. in spain, leishmania infantum is the causative agent of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease occurring throughout the americas and in the old world, particularly the middle east and north africa. it is spread by the female sandfly. ...200818076691
visceral leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum in a spanish patient in argentina: what is the origin of the infection? case report.the question "where have you been?" is a common one asked by doctors in northern europe and america when faced with clinical symptoms not typical of their country. this question must also arise in the clinics of developing countries in which non-autochthonous cases such as the one described here can appear. important outbreaks of leishmania infantum have been recorded in the last decade in several latin american countries but its presence has not yet been recorded in argentina. we report the fir ...200415225352
cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum in the northeast of spain: the isoenzymatic analysis of parasites. 200111346355
genetic diversity of human zoonotic leishmaniasis in iberian peninsula.leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (leishmania) infantum is a zoonotic disease endemic in south europe, from portugal to the middle east. the aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity of l. infantum parasites in iberian peninsula. twenty-four l. infantum strains isolated from immunocompetent patients with leishmaniasis from several localities of portugal and spain were studied. the use of kinetoplast dna-pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism as a molecular marker r ...201021040506
in vitro activity of pentavalent antimony derivatives on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of leishmania infantum strains from humans and dogs in spain. 200111369311
[fever, pancytopenia, and splenomegaly 8 months after a trip to majorca island (spain)].visceral leishmaniasis is a rare imported infectious disease in germany. approximately ten to 30 cases are recorded annually. the classic symptoms are often misinterpreted as lymphoma of the spleen.200818219460
leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in the mediterranean basin: isoenzymatic characterization of 100 isolates of the leishmania infantum complex.isoenzymatic characterization was done on 100 isolates obtained from visceral leishmaniasis (vl) patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv); isolates had been received between 1986 and 1993 at the international leishmania cryobank and identification centre in montpellier, france. electrophoresis was done with 15 isoenzymes using the starch gel technique combined, where appropriate, with isoelectrofocusing. nine leishmania infantum zymodemes were identified; l. infantum zymodeme ...19957797943
variability of leishmania (leishmania) infantum among stocks from immunocompromised, immunocompetent patients and dogs in spain.leishmania (leishmania) infantum is the causative agent of both the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis in southwest europe; the dog is the main reservoir. in order to identify the l. (l.) infantum zymodemes present in spain, a total number of 85 leishmania stocks isolated from dogs (31), hiv-positive patients (46) with visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, a patient with visceral leishmaniasis complicating renal transplantation (1) and immunocompetent patients (7) with visceral or cuta ...19957557330
application of microsatellite genotyping to the study of a restricted leishmania infantum focus: different genotype compositions in isolates from dogs and sand flies.leishmania infantum polymorphism was studied by dna microsatellite analysis of 110 l. infantum stocks (94 from dogs, 15 from sand flies, and 1 from a human visceral case) from a rural leishmaniasis-endemic area (priorat) in northeastern spain. three microsatellites of the eight present in three fragments (internal transcribed spacer, lm4, and lm2) of l. infantum nuclear dna are polymorphic inside the focus, resulting in 17 genotypes. isolates from dogs and sand flies had different allelic compos ...200717488911
successful treatment of imported mucosal leishmania infantum leishmaniasis with miltefosine after severe hypokalemia under meglumine antimoniate treatment.old world mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare but regularly reported disease in southern europe. we report the case of a 64-year-old woman who developed severe hypokalemia under meglumine antimoniate treatment and was successfully treated under second line therapy with miltefosine.201122414039
relapses versus reinfections in patients coinfected with leishmania infantum and human immunodeficiency virus type 1.in the mediterranean basin, leishmania infantum is a major opportunistic parasite in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids), and up to 9% of the patients with aids suffer from newly acquired or reactivated visceral leishmaniasis. distinguishing between reinfections and relapses in these patients is important because some apparent treatment failures occur in patients with new rather than reactivated infections. isoenzyme characterization is limited for use in determining relapsed v ...200211992294
dynamics of leishmania-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in dogs with clinical leishmaniasis before and after treatment.concentrations of leishmania-specific immunoglobulin g (igg), immunoglobulin m (igm), and immunoglobulin a (iga) isotypes were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in 23 dogs naturally infected with leishmania infantum before and 1 year after initiating drug therapy. results showed a high expression and prevalence of leishmania-specific igg (176.4 +/- 89 elisa units [eu]), igm (105.3 +/- 95.5 eu), and iga (153.6 +/- 98 eu) in dogs before treatment (median +/- interquartile range ...200616734080
use of noninvasive markers to detect leishmania infection in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) caused by leishmania infantum is a common disease in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected people in the mediterranean basin. however, most such cases are asymptomatic, and little information about the prevalence of these infections in hiv-infected individuals is available. the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of subclinical infection and the relationship between several leishmania infection markers by noninvasive methods in asymptomatic hiv-infect ...200617050814
the histological spectrum of non-granulomatous localized mucosal leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum.although human mucosal leishmaniasis is much more common in latin america, a few cases that are the result of local transmission occur in europe. a suspected case of leishmaniasis is usually confirmed by the demonstration of amastigotes in smears, the culture of promastigotes from blood or tissue samples, or the pcr-based demonstration of leishmanial dna. biopsies may contain too few parasites to be found positive by microscopy or culture, however, and then a diagnosis may be difficult, especial ...200718028730
visceral leishmaniasis in a kidney transplant recipient: parasitic interstitial nephritis, a cause of renal dysfunction.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) due to leishmania infantum is an endemic parasitic infection in the mediterranean area. it most commonly affects immunosuppressed individuals, especially hiv patients and less frequently organ transplant recipients. renal involvement seems to be frequent and is mostly associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis, as described in autopsy reports. in the 61 cases of renal transplant recipients with vl reported in the literature, renal dysfunction was noted at clinical p ...201020486908
immune response to leishmania infantum in healthy horses in spain.leishmania infantum infection has recently been described in horses in europe. we report the results of a study on the immune response to l. infantum in horses living in an area endemic for leishmaniosis in ne spain. two elisas using protein a and anti-horse igg conjugates were adapted to measure specific antibodies to l. infantum in horse sera. a lymphocyte proliferation assay (lpa) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to l. infantum antigen was also performed to detect specific cellular immun ...200616213661
prevalence of leishmania infantum infection in dogs living in an area of canine leishmaniasis endemicity using pcr on several tissues and serology.we studied and compared the prevalence of leishmania infection and the seroprevalence and the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in an area where canine leishmaniasis is endemic. one hundred dogs living on the island of mallorca (spain) were studied. in this study, we clinically examined each dog for the presence of symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis, determined the titer of anti-leishmania antibodies, and investigated the presence of leishmania dna by pcr in skin, conjunctiva, and bone marr ...200111158106
complete conservation of an immunogenic gene (lcr1) in leishmania infantum and leishmania chagasi isolated from iran, spain and brazil.kala-azar is the visceral and most severe form of leishmaniasis that leads to death if untreated. the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) are members of leishmania (l.) donovani complex which includes l. chagasi and l. infantum. genome sequences have raised the question whether l. chagasi and l. infantum are synonymous or different. this question has important implications for clinical and epidemiological studies, evaluation of vaccines and drugs, and disease control. lcr1 is an immu ...201021178212
population differentiation of phlebotomus perniciosus in spain following postglacial dispersal.comparative sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and isoenzyme analyses have not resolved the population structure of the iberian lineage of the sandfly phlebotomus perniciosus, the most widespread vector of leishmania infantum (protozoa, trypanosomatidae) to humans and dogs in the western mediterranean subregion. allelic variation at trinucleotide microsatellite loci was investigated in 13 spanish populations of p. perniciosus. four out of five loci showed significant differentiatio ...200312692585
infection by leishmania infantum in cats: epidemiological study in spain.more than 40 cases of feline leishmaniasis have been reported in the scientific literature. the influence of some immunodepressive conditions of viral origin, such as leukemia and feline immunodeficiency, are still unknown. the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of leishmania infection in cats and possible relations with these viral infections. markers of leishmania infection were searched in 183 cats from southern spain by ifat, pcr, giemsa stain and culture, with a follow-up of ...200717157440
is leishmania infantum zymodeme mon-253 involved in an outbreak among intravenous drug users? 199910674082
little evidence of seasonal variation of natural infection by leishmania infantum in dogs in spain.leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of canine leishmaniosis in the mediterranean region, is vectored by phlebotomus spp sandflies, which are active during the warmer months of the year. in order to determine whether seasonality in transmission induces seasonal changes in the prevalence of infection by l. infantum and of parasite-specific immune response, two groups of dogs, one in february (n=37) and another in october (n=42), were studied. clinical signs compatible with leishmaniosis, as ...200818524491
new world leishmaniasis from spain.a 69 year old man living in spain contracted mucocutaneous leishmaniasis involving the nose. the infecting organism was leishmania infantum, which only rarely causes the new world form of the disease. the source of infection was probably a neighbour's dog. the patient began treatment with liposomal amphotericin b but died of pneumonia two months later.200212509697
tropical diseases screening in immigrant patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in spain.latent parasitic infections can reactivate because of immunosuppression. we conducted a prospective observational study of all human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected immigrants who visited the infectious diseases department of the hospital universitari vall d'hebron, barcelona, spain, during june 2010-may 2011. screening of the most prevalent tropical diseases (intestinal parasitosis, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis) was performed according to g ...201323509119
characterization of widespread canine leishmaniasis among wild carnivores from spain.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is an emerging zoonotic parasitic disease caused by leishmania infantum in mediterranean countries, with sand flies (phlebotomus spp.) as vectors and dogs as the main domestic reservoir. the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis is still controversial. in order to determine the prevalence of natural infection with l. infantum in wild carnivores from spain, we analyzed 217 samples by pcr and western blotting and used restriction fragment length p ...200818579311
detection of leishmania infantum in captive wolves from southwestern europe.the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of leishmania infantum infection in a wild reservoir host (canis lupus) throughout an endemic area for the disease (southern europe). for that reason, the serum and peripheral blood samples of 33 captive wolves from the european breeding of endangered species programme (eep) were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr). l. infantum was detected in three samples from central por ...200818823711
geographical variation and factors associated to seroprevalence of canine leishmaniosis in an endemic mediterranean area.this article retrospectively analyses the spatial distribution and dog- and environmental-level risk factors associated to leishmania infantum seroprevalence among 807 asymptomatic dogs in the municipality of crevillente in alicante in southeast spain in 1999. they represented 60% of the dogs in this 103 km2 area, with a human census of 27 034 people and 90% lived in crevillente town. the estimated seroprevalence (95% confidence interval) in 714 dogs > or =1-year old was 22% (19-25) however; it ...201019486495
[cutaneous leishmaniasis in a senegal patient].cutaneous leishmaniasis is a group of diseases with vast clinical polymorphism produced by protozoa of the genus leishmania, that is acquired through the bite of sandflies. it is an endemic zoonosis in spain, being the dog the main reservoir. in our country all forms of leishmaniasis are due to leishmania infantum species, that usually produces mild lesions in uncovered areas, mainly in children. we report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a senegal patient that presented clinical c ...200717374336
serological study of selected vector-borne diseases in shelter dogs in central spain using point-of-care assays.we evaluated the prevalence of selected vector-borne diseases in 131 dogs in an animal shelter in central spain using point-of-care assays (snap 4dx and snap leishmania; idexx laboratories, westbrook, me). the snap 4dx detects dirofilaria immitis (di) antigen and antibodies against ehrlichia canis (ec), borrelia burgdorferi (bb), and anaplasma phagocytophylum (aph); the snap leishmania kit detects antibodies against leishmania infantum (li). dogs were classified as healthy or sick based on physi ...201020420531
multiple forms of chromosome i, ii and v in a restricted population of leishmania infantum contrasting with monomorphism in individual strains suggest haploidy or automixy.we have resolved the molecular karyotypes of 22 leishmania infantum strains isolated between 1980 and 1988 in a restricted geographic area and belonging to zymodemes mon-11, -29 and -33. three strains were isolated from sandflies and all the others from human cutaneous lesions. a high degree of karyotypic homology is observed among these strains, contrasting with the highly polymorphic mon-1 strains isolated in the same area. we have analysed the time-dependent evolution of size variants of chro ...19921311052
leishmania-specific isotype levels and their relationship with specific cell-mediated immunity parameters in canine leishmaniasis.in the current retrospective study, leishmania infantum-specific igg, iga and igm levels were determined by elisa in 106 untreated dogs with clinically-patent leishmaniasis (sx) and in 171 clinically healthy dogs (asx) from spain to investigate the relationship between these ig isotypes and clinical status. in addition, we studied if different leishmania-specific humoral pattern exists between asx dogs with and without cellular mediated immunity (cmi). fifty-six dogs were assessed by means of ly ...200717321600
[comparison of conventional and non-conventional serological tests for the diagnosis of imported chagas disease in spain].trypanosoma cruzi infection is a major imported parasitic disease in spain, because of the increase of immigrants from endemic areas. since the laboratory diagnosis during the chronic phase is based on detection of anti-t. cruzi igg antibodies, our aims were to compare 10 tests for determining anti-t. cruzi antibodies, to assess their cross-reactivity with related diseases, and to evaluate the rk39-elisa and ifat-leishmania tests as tools for the differential diagnosis of leishmaniasis due to le ...201019962790
first description of naturally acquired tritrichomonas foetus infection in a persian cattery in spain.tritrichomonas foetus has been identified as the causative agent of feline intestinal trichomonosis, characterized by clinical signs of chronic large bowel diarrhoea. this disease has been reported in cats from the usa, europe and australia. however, its epidemiology is still unclear. the aim of the present study was to describe t. foetus infection in a persian cattery in spain. t. foetus infection was sequentially diagnosed in 20 cats by direct faecal smear examined under the microscope, specif ...201121509446
cryptic leishmaniosis by leishmania infantum, a feature of canines only? a study of natural infection in wild rabbits, humans and dogs in southeastern spain.an epidemiological study was carried out to investigate asymptomatic leishmania infantum infection by pcr and elisa in wild rabbits, humans and domestic dogs in southeastern spain. seroprevalence was 0% (0/36) in rabbits, 2% (13/657) in humans and 7% (14/208) in dogs. the prevalence of pcr-positives was 0.6% (1/162) in rabbits tested in a wide range of tissue samples, 2% (8/392) in humans analysed in blood samples and 10% (20/193) and 67% (29/43) in dogs analysed in blood and lymphoid tissue sam ...201121592669
risk maps for the presence and absence of phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern spain: implications for the control of the disease.the aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant leishmania infantum vector, p. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. we obtained data for the presence/absence of p. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. the probability of p. perniciosus presence was estimated as a funct ...201121854702
seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in spain: a multicentre study.controlling canine vector-borne diseases (cvbd) is a major concern, since some of these diseases are serious zoonoses. this study was designed to determine seropositivity rates in spain for agents causing the following five cvbd: leishmaniosis (leishmania infantum: li), heartworm (dirofilaria immitis: di), ehrlichiosis (ehrlichia canis: ec), anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum/anaplasma platys: an) and lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi: bb).201323607428
slc11a1 (formerly nramp1) and susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis.visceral leishmaniasis is the most important zoonosis in europe and it is caused by leishmania infantum, a protozoan intracellular parasite. canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) is endemic in the mediterranean basin, middle east, and south america, and is emerging within non endemic areas such as the united kingdom and north america. we have analyzed 24 polymorphisms in the canine slc11a1 (formerly nramp1) gene: 19 new polymorphisms characterized by direct sequencing from 40 dogs of different bre ...200818307968
pool screen pcr for estimating the prevalence of leishmania infantum infection in sandflies (diptera: nematocera, phlebotomidae).prevalence studies of infection in the sandfly vector can be used as an indicator of a change in the intensity of leishmania transmission. however, these studies are difficult to carry out as prevalence in the vector is usually low and its estimation requires a large number of sandflies to be dissected. our objective was to establish whether a l. infantum-specific pcr-elisa applied to pools of female sandflies and a previously described algorithm could be useful tools to study the prevalence of ...200616310236
first molecular detection of leishmania tarentolae-like dna in sergentomyia minuta in spain.phlebotomine sand flies (diptera, psychodidae) are vectors of multiple leishmania species, among which leishmania infantum stands out as a being frequently pathogenic to humans and dogs in mediterranean countries. in this study, sergentomyia minuta sand flies were collected using cdc miniature light traps in different 431 biotopes from southwest spain. a total of 114 females were tested for the presence of leishmania dna by targeting its-1 and cyt-b sequences by pcr. leishmania dna was detected ...201626691858
importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of phlebotomus ariasi and p. perniciosus in northeast spain.the aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of phlebotomus ariasi and p. perniciosus , the proven vectors for leishmania infantum in spain. an entomological study was carried out in july 2006 in the province of lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled). bivariate analysis revealed that factors ...201424893016
high rates of leishmania infantum and trypanosoma nabiasi infection in wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) in sympatric and syntrophic conditions in an endemic canine leishmaniasis area: epidemiological consequences.leishmania infantum infection has been reported in various host species, both domestic and wild, in some cases with high prevalence rates. however, until the recent discovery of infected hares, no studies had provided clear evidence of any significant reservoir other than domestic dogs. our focus was on another lagomorph, oryctolagus cuniculus or wild rabbit. this species is native to the iberian peninsula and its presence and abundance gave rise to the name of spain. in an endemic area for cani ...201424774436
a randomised, double-blind, controlled efficacy trial of the liesp/qa-21 vaccine in naïve dogs exposed to two leishmania infantum transmission seasons.canine leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis caused by uncontrolled infection with leishmania infantum, where an inappropriate immune response is not only responsible for permitting this intracellular parasite to multiply, but is also responsible for several of the pathological processes seen in this disease. effective canine vaccines are therefore a highly desirable prevention tool. in this randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial, the efficacy of the liesp/qa-21 vaccine (canileish, virbac ...201425299614
leishmania infantum (trypanosomatida: trypanosomatidae) phlebotomine sand fly vectors in continental mediterranean spain.leishmania infantum-the causal agent of human and canine leishmaniasis in the mediterranean basin-remains the most important of the phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in the area. however, information on phlebotomine sand flies in certain european regions remains scarce and consequently epidemiological modeling, risk prediction, and disease control are difficult. thus, we aimed to investigate the presence and distribution of phlebotomine sand fly vectors of l. infantum in an endemic region of ...201324128871
first detection of leishmania infantum kinetoplast dna in hair of wild mammals: application of qpcr method to determine potential parasite reservoirs.the data presented in this paper describe the application of a method for a reliable and non-invasive diagnosis of leishmaniosis in wild reservoirs, based on the detection of leishmania infantum kinetoplast dna (kdna) in hair samples by real time pcr (qpcr). the study has been performed on 68 ear/leg hair samples from 5 different wild species (vulpes vulpes, canis lupus, martes foina, rattus norvegicus and erinaceus europaeus) from several geographic areas of west and north spain. the presence o ...201323973736
application of molecular techniques in the study of natural infection of leishmania infantum vectors and utility of sandfly blood meal digestion for epidemiological surveys of leishmaniasis.epidemiological studies on the distribution of leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum nicolle, 1908 (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) have been based principally on serological surveys of the canine reservoir. this methodology is useful due to the facility of sampling, the rapidity in obtaining results, its consistency and because it allows the detection of heterogeneous foci of canine leishmaniasis (canl) even in small areas. other investigations have analysed leishmania parasitism in san ...201222382204
non-healing old world cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by l. infantum in a patient from spain.the prevalence of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis in the mediterranean region is increasing and in southern europe often caused by leishmania infantum. spontaneous healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis is commonly observed, especially if caused by l. major, whereas l. infantum associated lesions have been reported with longer disease duration and decreased tendency for self-limitation, however, available information is sparse.201424739742
wolbachia, filariae and leishmania coinfection in dogs from a mediterranean area.in an endemic area for leishmaniosis and filariasis, coinfection can occur and the immunomodulation triggered by wolbachia infection might influence the clinical signs and progression of both diseases. the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of wolbachia in dogs infected with dirofilaria immitis and other filarial nematodes, to evaluate the prevalence of coinfection of leishmania infantum, filariae and wolbachia and their association with clinical presentation.201323425244
spatial distribution of human asymptomatic leishmania infantum infection in southeast spain: a study of environmental, demographic and social risk factors.recent pcr studies indicate that asymptomatic l. infantum infection is common in people in southern europe. understanding its spatial distribution is a requisite to evaluate the public health implications and to design disease control schemes. we investigated infection in blood samples from 657 donors in southeast spain using pcr and antibody elisa. they came from 19 blood centers and were interviewed about their residence, occupation, dog ownership and leishmaniosis awareness. the percentage of ...201525800329
atypical presentation in adults in the largest community outbreak of leishmaniasis in europe (fuenlabrada, spain).since 2009, the largest reported outbreak of leishmaniasis by leishmania infantum in europe was reported in fuenlabrada, spain. in our hospital, 90 adults with localized leishmanial lymphadenopathy (lll) or visceral leishmaniasis (vl) were treated during this outbreak; 72% were men, and the mean age was 46.2 years (range 15-95 years). a total of 17 cases (19%) were lll, an atypical form with isolated lymphadenopathies without other symptoms. all lll cases occurred in immunocompetent subjects, an ...201525658537
How to increase the population of a Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera: Psychodidae) colony: a new method.The sandfly Phlebotomus perniciosus is the most widespread vector of Leishmania infantum in Spain. Laboratory colonisation represents the most feasible source of information on the biology of these insects, but in conducting any study, the density of individuals in the colony may drop to such an extent that it is sometimes difficult to recover the initial population levels. A new technique was tested for the recovery of sandfly eggs in three different colonies; the recovery rate was studied by c ...201122012228
screening for subclinical leishmania infection in hiv-infected patients living in eastern spain.we anticipated that patients with hiv infection living in endemic areas were at greater risk of infection which can reactivate due to immunosuppression; therefore, we analyzed the prevalence of latent leishmania infantum infection in patients infected with hiv.201425468205
diagnosis and incidence risk of clinical canine monocytic ehrlichiosis under field conditions in southern europe.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (cme), due to the bacterium ehrlichia canis and transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, is a major tick-borne disease in southern europe. in this area, infections with other vector-borne pathogens (vbp) are also described and result in similar clinical expression. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence risk of clinical cme in those endemic areas and to assess the potential involvement of other vbp in the occurrence of clinical ...201525561342
leishmania infantum in wild rodents: reservoirs or just irrelevant incidental hosts?wild rodents constitute a very large biomass of potential reservoirs for leishmania spp. therefore, an epidemiological study was carried out in a well-known focus of canine leishmaniasis from southern spain, with the objective of detecting and characterizing leishmania infantum infection in wild rodents. blood, liver, spleen, bone marrow, and skin from 37 rodents (24 apodemus sylvaticus, 9 rattus rattus, and 4 mus musculus) were analyzed by optical microscopy, culture, and two different polymera ...201525797596
serum chemistry reference values for the common genet (genetta genetta): variations associated with leishmania infantum infection.the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis in under debate, and determining whether infection with leishmania infantum causes illness in wild carnivores is important to determine its potential role as a reservoir.201525399516
absence of leishmania infantum in cave bats in an endemic area in spain.though dogs have been historically considered the main reservoir of leishmania infantum, the role of wildlife in its epidemiology is attracting increasing attention. rodents, wild carnivores and, recently, hares (lepus spp.) have been proposed as sylvatic reservoirs for this parasite. bats have never been tested for l. infantum infection in europe. nevertheless, bats have a widespread distribution, they live in abundant colonies, and some species inhabit caves, where constant temperatures and hu ...201424623348
isoenzymatic polymorphism of leishmania infantum in southern spain.over a period of more than 10 years we have isolated and classified 161 leishmania strains from cases of human visceral, cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in immunocompetent subjects, from cases of visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompromised individuals with hiv, from dogs with leishmaniasis (visceral and cutaneous), from rattus rattus and from sandflies. the strains were all l. infantum, the only species endemic in spain, and corresponded to 20 different zymodemes. we describe the life cycle ...200415049461
visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv).in an 8-month period nine patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection were diagnosed as having visceral leishmaniasis; all diagnoses were based on cultures (eight from bone marrow and one from the skin). visceral leishmaniasis developed before full-blown acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) in seven patients and at the same time as or after aids in the other two patients. three patients had a history of leishmaniasis. clinical manifestations and laboratory findings were atypi ...19892742248
a serological and molecular study of leishmania infantum infection in cats from the island of ibiza (spain).the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of leishmania infantum infection within a feline population by serologic and molecular methods and to identify associated risk factors. one hundred five cats living outdoors were studied. sera were tested for igg antibodies against l. infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and for the detection of feline leukemia virus (felv) p27 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). l. infantum real-time polymeras ...201120804432
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