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genetic tracking of the raccoon variant of rabies virus in eastern north america.to gain insight into the incursion of the raccoon variant of rabies into the raccoon population in three canadian provinces, a collection of 192 isolates of the raccoon rabies virus (rrv) strain was acquired from across its north american range and was genetically characterized. a 516-nucleotide segment of the non-coding region between the g and l protein open reading frames, corresponding to the most variable region of the rabies virus genome, was sequenced. this analysis identified 119 differe ...201121624778
terrestrial rabies and human postexposure prophylaxis, new york, usa.during 1993-2002, cats accounted for 2.7% of rabid terrestrial animals in new york but for one third of human exposure incidents and treatments. nonbite exposures and animals of undetermined rabies status accounted for 54% and 56%, respectively, of persons receiving rabies treatments.201020202438
predictive spatial dynamics and strategic planning for raccoon rabies emergence in ohio.rabies is an important public health concern in north america because of recent epidemics of a rabies virus variant associated with raccoons. the costs associated with surveillance, diagnostic testing, and post-exposure treatment of humans exposed to rabies have fostered coordinated efforts to control rabies spread by distributing an oral rabies vaccine to wild raccoons. authorities have tried to contain westward expansion of the epidemic front of raccoon-associated rabies via a vaccine corridor ...200515737065
bat incidents at children's camps, new york state, 1998-2002.from 1998 to 2002, a total of 299 bat incidents were reported at 109 children's camps in new york; 1,429 campers and staff were involved, and 461 persons received rabies treatment. in 53.8% of the incidents, the bat was captured and samples tested negative for rabies virus, which resulted in 61.3% of persons not receiving rabies treatment.200515752451
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1997.in 1997, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,509 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 93% (7,899) were wild animals, whereas 7% (610) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases increased 19.4% from that of 1996 (7,128 cases). increases were apparent in each of the major species groups, with the exception of cattle. the relative contributions of these groups to the total ...19989861958
rabies virus infection in a pet guinea pig and seven pet rabbits.raccoon-variant rabies was confirmed in 7 pet rabbits and 1 pet guinea pig in new york state, and postexposure treatment was required in several adults and children. to prevent rabies virus infection, domestic rabbits and pet rodents should be protected from contact with wild animals, including double-cage housing when housed outside. pet rabbits or rodents with any possible contact with a wild animal, particularly if the rabbit or rodent had wounds of unknown origin, should be quarantined for 6 ...200516190592
A Spatial Model to Forecast Raccoon Rabies Emergence.Abstract Although raccoons are widely distributed throughout North America, the raccoon rabies virus variant is enzootic only in the eastern United States, based on current surveillance data. This variant of rabies virus is now responsible for >60% of all cases of animal rabies reported in the United States each year. Ongoing national efforts via an oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program are aimed at preventing the spread of raccoon rabies. However, from an epidemiologic perspective, the relati ...201121995266
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1993.in 1993, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 9,495 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. greater than 93% (8,889 cases) were wild animals, whereas 6.4% (606 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases increased 9.9% over that of 1992 (8,645 cases), with most of the increase resulting from continued spread of rabies in raccoons (37.1% increase in reported cases over 1992). t ...19947744643
human rabies--united states, 1993. 19948038750
the epidemiology of bat rabies in new york state, 1988-92.in 1993 new york and texas each reported a human rabies case traced to a rare variant of rabies virus found in an uncommon species of bat. this study examined the epidemiology of bat rabies in new york state. demographic, species, and animal-contact information for bats submitted for rabies testing from 1988-92 was analysed. the prevalence of rabies in 6810 bats was 4.6%. nearly 90% of the 308 rabid bats identified to species were the common big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus), which comprised 62% ...19947995360
human antirabies treatment in the united states, 1972.data were examined on 965 persons treated in six states (delaware, florida, georgia, illinois, north dakota, and south carolina) and new york city in 1972 for possible rabies exposure. males 10-19 years were found to be the group at greatest risk, and exposures occurred most frequently during the warm months. dogs, other domestic animals, and wildlife were about equally responsible for human exposures in the six states, but 99% of the exposures in new york city involved dogs. antirabies postexp ...1979432411
serologic survey of selected viral agents in recently captured wild north american river otters (lontra canadensis).blood samples were collected from 64 wild north american river otters (lontra [lutra] canadensis) from northern and eastern new york state and analyzed for serologic evidence of exposure to selected viral agents during a 1995 1996 translocation program. no clinical signs of disease nor lesions suggestive of prior viral exposure were seen. titers were detected for antibodies against canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus-1, and canine parvovirus-2 but not for antibodies against canine adenovi ...200010982127
health survey of free-ranging raccoons (procyon lotor) in central park, new york, new york, usa: implications for human and domestic animal health.we conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( procyon lotor ) in central park, new york city, us, in february 2010, september 2010, and november 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. we tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (cdv), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all wer ...201728135131
risk-based cost modelling of oral rabies vaccine interventions for raccoon rabies.distribution of oral rabies vaccine (orv) is an effective but costly strategy to control raccoon rabies. because of high costs, orv for raccoon rabies in the u.s. has been limited primarily to epizootic areas, leaving extensive raccoon rabies regions without any orv intervention. several cost scenarios for orv application in raccoon rabies enzootic and epizootic regions were modelled in new york state to obtain estimated costs of orv baits per scenario and potential savings compared with a unifo ...200918771519
human rabies postexposure prophylaxis during a raccoon rabies epizootic in new york, 1993 and 1994.we describe the epidemiology of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis (pep) in four upstate new york counties during the 1st and 2nd year of a raccoon rabies epizootic. we obtained data from records of 1,173 persons whose rabies pep was reported to local health departments in 1993 and 1994. mean annual pep incidence rates were highest in rural counties, in summer, and in patients 10 to 14 and 35 to 44 years of age. pep given after bites was primarily associated with unvaccinated dogs and cats, b ...199910341178
comparison of suburban vaccine distribution strategies to control raccoon rabies.helicopters and hand baiting are commonly used to distribute vaccine-laden baits to help control raccoon (procyon lotor) rabies in suburban landscapes, but these techniques may be labor intensive, costly, or unavailable in some areas. we tested conventional baiting strategies against polyvinyl-chloride (pvc) bait stations in erie county (new york, usa) during july and august 2003-05. hand, helicopter, and bait station treatments were randomly assigned to six 25-km(2) suburban study sites. to est ...200818957661
imported human rabies in a u.s. army soldier - new york, 2011.on august 19, 2011, a male u.s. army soldier with progressive right arm and shoulder pain, nausea, vomiting, ataxia, anxiety, and dysphagia was admitted to an emergency department (ed) in new york for suspected rabies. rabies virus antigens were detected in a nuchal skin biopsy, rabies virus antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf), and rabies viral rna in saliva and csf specimens by state and cdc rabies laboratories. an afghanistan canine rabies virus variant was identified. the patien ...201222552206
dogs entering the united states from rabies-endemic countries, 2011-2012.international dog imports pose a risk because of the potential movement of disease agents, including the canine rabies virus variant which has been eliminated from the united states since 2007. us regulations require a rabies vaccination certificate for dogs arriving from rabies-endemic countries, but permit the importation of dogs that have not been adequately immunized against rabies, provided that the dogs are confined under conditions that restrict their contact with humans and other animals ...201525244531
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2011.during 2011, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human rabies cases to the cdc, representing a 1.9% decrease from the 6,153 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2010. approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,981 raccoons (32.8%), 1,627 skunks (27.0%), 1,380 bats (22.9%), 427 foxes (7.1%), 303 cats (5.0%), 65 cattle (1.1%), and 70 dogs (1.2%). compared with 2010, there was a subs ...201222947154
update: raccoon rabies epizootic--united states and canada, 1999.in 1977, an outbreak of raccoon rabies was detected in an area on the west virginia-virginia border. since then, the area affected by this distinct variant of rabies virus associated with raccoons has spread to ohio in the west and new york, pennsylvania, vermont, new hampshire, and maine in the north. in addition, the once separate epizootics of rabies among raccoons in the southeastern and mid-atlantic states converged in north carolina. in july 1999, the raccoon rabies virus variant was repor ...200010680602
multiple human exposures to a rabid bear cub at a petting zoo and barnwarming--iowa, august 1999.on august 27, 1999, a black bear cub, approximately 5-6 months old, died after several hours of acute central nervous system symptoms; preliminary test results available on august 28 indicated the bear had rabies. the bear was part of the swenson's wild midwest exotic petting zoo in clermont, iowa (northeastern iowa). at the petting zoo, visitors fed, wrestled, and may have been nipped by the bear. the bear also was taken to an august 14 barnwarming at the tharp barn in holy cross, iowa (eastern ...199910499789
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
rabies epizootics among raccoons vary along a north-south gradient in the eastern united states.the characteristics of rabies epizootics among raccoons were investigated in 11 eastern states along a north-south gradient from new york to north carolina. epizootics were defined as discrete intervals of time of at least 5 months in duration, when reported cases of raccoon rabies from an individual county exceeded the median value of raccoon rabies cases reported by that county over the entire period rabies was present among raccoons in the county. over the approximately 20-year study period, ...200112653126
human rabies. new york, 1993. 19948193012
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