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distribution, density, and lyme disease spirochete infection in ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) on white-tailed deer in maryland.a statewide survey of ticks parasitizing white-tailed deer was carried out in maryland during november 1989 to assess the status of the deer tick, ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, the major vector of lyme disease in the northeastern united states. ticks were collected from deer carcasses brought in by hunters at 23 check stations (one per county). a total of 3,437 i. dammini were collected from 538 of 1,281 deer (42%), together with 2,013 dermacentor albipictus (packard) and ...19921552529
borrelia burgdorferi in eastern virginia: comparison between a coastal and inland locality.in virginia, borrelia burgdorferi was more prevalent in a site along the atlantic ocean, near maryland, than in an inland site near williamsburg and yorktown. at the coastal site on assateague island, b. burgdorferi was isolated from 4.2% of 475 animals sampled, including four species of small mammals. serologic tests indicated that 25-37% of the small rodents assayed had been exposed to b. burgdorferi. immunofluorescence antibody assays specific for b. burgdorferi showed spirochete infection in ...19957677212
increasing density and borrelia burgdorferi infection of deer-infesting ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in maryland.a statewide survey of ixodes dammini spielman was done in november 1991 as a follow-up to a study in 1989. in total, 3,434 adult ticks were collected from 922 hunter-killed white-tailed deer processed at 22 check stations (1 per county in 22 of 23 counties in the state). significantly more male than female ticks were collected. tick infestation was significantly heavier on male than female deer. the pattern of tick distribution was similar to that in 1989, with low prevalence (percentage tick-in ...19938254631
ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at cape hatteras, nc and assateague island, md and va.results of a survey for ixodid ticks and/or serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 14 species of small to large mammals from eastern coastal areas of the united states are presented. most samples were obtained from july 1987 through june 1989 (excluding december-march) at 3 locales: assateague is. national seashore, worcester co., md., and accomack co., va. (approximately 38 degrees 05' n 75 degrees 10' w), and cape hatteras national seashore, dare co., nc (approximately 35 degrees 30' n ...199910534951
risk of lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a lone star tick-infested community.lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) have been suggested as a vector of the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in the usa, based on associations with an infection manifesting mainly as erythema migrans. in laboratory experiments, however, they failed to transmit b. burgdorferi sensu stricto.200111693973
distribution of borreliae among ticks collected from eastern states.lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the united states and is transmitted by borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes species. the disease is typically characterized by an erythema migrans (em) rash at the site of tick feeding. em rashes have also been associated with feeding by amblyomma americanum ticks despite evidence suggesting that they are incompetent vectors for lyme disease. in 1996, a borrelia organism only recently cultivated in the laboratory was described i ...200516417434
serologic evaluation of patients from missouri with erythema migrans-like skin lesions with the c6 lyme test.southern tick-associated rash illness (stari), also known as masters disease, affects people predominantly in the southeast and south central united states. these patients exhibit skin lesions that resemble erythema migrans (em), the characteristic skin lesion in early lyme disease. the etiology of stari remains unknown, and no serologic test is available to aid in its diagnosis. the c6 lyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate coded serum specimens from patients with stari at ...200617028220
mammal diversity and infection prevalence in the maintenance of enzootic borrelia burgdorferi along the western coastal plains of maryland.the primary vector of borrelia burgdorferi in north america, ixodes scapularis, feeds on various mammalian, avian, and reptilian hosts. several small mammal hosts; peromyscus leucopus, tamias striatus, microtus pennsylvanicus, and blarina spp. can serve as reservoirs in an enzootic cycle of lyme disease. the primary reservoir in the northeast united states is the white-footed mouse, p. leucopus. the infection prevalence of this reservoir as well as the roles of potential secondary reservoirs has ...200617187577
co-circulating microorganisms in questing ixodes scapularis nymphs in maryland.ixodes scapularis can be infected with borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, bartonella spp., babesia microti, and rickettsia spp., including spotted-fever group rickettsia. as all of these microorganisms have been reported in maryland, the potential for these ticks to have concurrent infections exists in this region. to assess the frequency of these complex infections, 348 i. scapularis nymphs collected in 2003 were screened for these microorganisms by pcr with positives being confir ...200718260514
abundance and infection rates of ixodes scapularis nymphs collected from residential properties in lyme disease-endemic areas of connecticut, maryland, and new york. 201526047204
nuclear markers reveal predominantly north to south gene flow in ixodes scapularis, the tick vector of the lyme disease spirochete.ixodes scapularis, the tick vector of the lyme disease spirochete, is distributed over most of the eastern united states, but >80% of all lyme disease cases occur in the northeast. the role that genetic differences between northern and southern tick populations play in explaining this disparate distribution of lyme disease cases is unclear. the present study was conducted with 1,155 snp markers in eight nuclear genes; the 16s mitochondrial gene was examined for comparison with earlier studies. w ...201526536360
mapping lyme disease incidence for diagnostic and preventive decisions, maryland.to support diagnostic and preventive decision making, we analyzed incidence of lyme disease in maryland on the zip code level. areas of high incidence were identified on the upper eastern shore of the chesapeake bay and in counties north and east of baltimore city. these latter foci, especially, are not visible when mapping lyme disease on the county level.200211971779
serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging american black bears (ursus americanus) in maryland, usa.american black bears (ursus americanus) in maryland, usa, live in forested areas in close proximity to humans and their domestic pets. from 1999 to 2011, we collected 84 serum samples from 63 black bears (18 males; 45 females) in five maryland counties and tested them for exposure to infectious, including zoonotic, pathogens. a large portion of the bears had antibody to canine distemper virus and toxoplasma gondii, many at high titers. prevalences of antibodies to zoonotic agents such as rabies ...201425075540
economic impact of lyme disease.to assess the economic impact of lyme disease (ld), the most common vectorborne inflammatory disease in the united states, cost data were collected in 5 counties of the maryland eastern shore from 1997 to 2000. patients were divided into 5 diagnosis groups, clinically defined early-stage ld, clinically defined late-stage ld, suspected ld, tick bite, and other related complaints. from 1997 to 2000, the mean per patient direct medical cost of early-stage ld decreased from $1,609 to $464 (p<0.05), ...200616704815
lyme disease--united states, 2003-2005.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks (ixodes spp.). early manifestations of infection include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. left untreated, late manifestations involving the joints, heart, and nervous system can occur. a healthy people 2010 objective (14-8) is to reduce the annual incidence of lyme disease to 9.7 new cases per 100,000 population in 1 ...200717568368
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in lizards from southern maryland.lizards serve as hosts for ixodes ticks in the western and southeastern united states and may affect the transmission cycles of borrelia burgdorferi in these regions. in maryland, the role of lizards in the maintenance and transmission cycle of this pathogen has not been examined. we tested 29 lizards (sceloporus undulatus and eumeces spp.) and 21 ticks from these lizards for the presence of b. burgdorferi. eight lizards were positive by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for at least one b. burgdo ...200717417956
genetic diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in peromyscus leucopus, the primary reservoir of lyme disease in a region of endemicity in southern maryland.in the north central and northeastern united states, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the etiologic agent of lyme disease (ld), is maintained in an enzootic cycle between the vector, ixodes scapularis, and the primary reservoir host, peromyscus leucopus. genetic diversity of the pathogen based on sequencing of two plasmid-located genes, those for outer surface protein a (ospa) and outer surface protein c (ospc), has been examined in both tick and human specimens at local, regional, and worldw ...200616885284
the dog as a sentinel for human infection: prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi c6 antibodies in dogs from southeastern and mid-atlantic states.lyme disease is the most frequently reported human vector-associated disease in the united states. infection occurs after the bite of an ixodid tick that is infected with borrelia burgdorferi. dogs have often been reported to serve as effective sentinel animals to assess the risk of human b. burgdorferi infection. based on published data of human lyme disease case numbers and our clinical impressions, we hypothesized that canine exposure to b. burgdorferi would be lower in north carolina when co ...200516011425
lyme disease surveillance in maryland, 1992.the incidence of lyme disease (ld) reported to the maryland department of health and mental hygiene during 1992 was 6.5/100,000 population, ranging from 29.3 cases/100,000 on the eastern shore (74.4% of all cases) to no cases in the mountains of western maryland. among the 317 reported patients, 44.4% gave a history of tick exposure and 78.9% had positive serologic test results. for the 187 (59.0%) patients meeting the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) surveillance case definition ...19968680620
multivariate morphometric discrimination of nymphal and adult forms of the blacklegged tick (acari: ixodidae), a principal vector of the agent of lyme disease in eastern north america.a morphological study of postlarval stages of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, was conducted to examine congruence between northern (formerly i. dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin) and southern morphotypes. the character set totaled 17 for females, 25 for males, and 28 for nymphs. populations from 6 geographic areas, f1 progeny from reciprocal crosses between i. scapularis from massachusetts and georgia, and i. pacificus cooley & kohls from california were measured. charact ...19958551506
lyme disease in outdoor workers on assateague island: high tick-exposure but low disease risk.lyme disease is endemic to the assateague island area. using a questionnaire and serosurvey, we examined the extent of tick exposure, compliance with recommended lyme disease personal preventive activities, and risk of the disease in 86 outdoor workers on assateague island before and after the summer of 1989. despite high self-reported tick exposure and relatively long employment durations on the island, there was no evidence of current or past infection with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative ...19938469083
analysis of borrelia burgdorferi sequentially isolated from peromyscus leucopus captured at a lyme disease enzootic site.thirty isolates of borrelia burgdorferi sequentially cultured from 15 naturally infected white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were examined for variability in protein and plasmid profiles. heterogeneity was detected in ospb and ospc and in proteins between 18.0 and 28.0 kda by page. plasmid profiles were heterogeneous in the first isolate from 11 mice (73%) and between the first and last sequential isolate from 13 mice (87%). comparison of the first and last isolates showed increased expressi ...19957622890
serologic survey for borrelia burgdorferi antibody in horses referred to a mid-atlantic veterinary teaching hospital.blood samples obtained from 13 of 100 (13%) and 6 of 91 (7%) horses at the george d. widener hospital for large animals in the months of june and october, respectively, had antibody to borrelia burgdorferi as determined by elisa. horses from the states of new york, maryland, delaware, new jersey, and pennsylvania were seropositive for b burgdorferi. the frequency of antibody response in horses from new jersey was greater (p less than 0.05) than the frequency of antibody response in horses from p ...19902332371
surveillance for lyme disease--united states, 1992-2006.lyme disease is a multisystem disease that occurs in north america, europe, and asia. in the united states, the etiologic agent is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a spirochete transmitted to humans by infected ixodes scapularis and i. pacificus ticks. the majority of patients with lyme disease develop a characteristic rash, erythema migrans (em), accompanied by symptoms of fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, myalgia, or arthralgia. other manifestations of infection can include arthritis, card ...200818830214
presence of multiple variants of borrelia burgdorferi in the natural reservoir peromyscus leucopus throughout a transmission season.white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) serve as the principal reservoir for borrelia burgdorferi and have been shown to remain infected for life. complex infections with multiple genetic variants of b. burgdorferi occur in mice through multiple exposures to infected ticks or through exposure to ticks infected with multiple variants of b. burgdorferi. using a combination of cloning and single strand conformation polymorphism (sscp), b. burgdorferi ospc variation was assessed in serial samples co ...200818399776
the united states department of agriculture northeast area-wide tick control project: history and protocol.the northeast area-wide tick control project (neatcp) was funded by the united states department of agriculture (usda) as a large-scale cooperative demonstration project of the usda-agricultural research service (ars)-patented 4-poster tick control technology (pound et al. 1994) involving the usda-ars and a consortium of universities, state agencies, and a consulting firm at research locations in the five states of connecticut (ct), maryland (md), new jersey (nj), new york (ny), and rhode island ...200919650730
three sudden cardiac deaths associated with lyme carditis - united states, november 2012-july 2013.lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete transmitted by certain species of ixodes ticks. approximately 30,000 confirmed and probable cases of lyme disease were reported in the united states in 2012, primarily from high-incidence states in the northeast (connecticut, delaware, maine, maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, pennsylvania, rhode island, and vermont) and upper midwest (minnesota and wisconsin). common manifestations incl ...201324336130
the role of lizards in the ecology of lyme disease in two endemic zones of the northeastern united states.we examined the role of lizards in the ecology of lyme disease in new york and maryland. we collected data on vector tick infestations, measured lizard "realized" reservoir competence for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, and estimated lizard population density. these data were incorporated into a model that predicts a host's ability to influence the prevalence of b. burgdorferi in the tick population, a primary risk factor in the epidemiology of lyme disease. published data on o ...200717626342
utilization and cost of serologic tests for lyme disease in maryland.to ascertain use of serologic tests for lyme disease (ld) in maryland, all laboratories registered with the state health department were surveyed. results show that from 1992 to 1995, 17 laboratories performed 100,000 serologic tests costing $7.1 million on maryland residents; 90% of these tests were eias. the proportion of positive eias increased from 3.4% in 1992 to approximately 7.0% in 1994 and 1995, and the percentage of positive second tests (western blot, wb) fell from 7.9% to 5.0%-5.5%. ...19979291343
longitudinal evaluation of an educational intervention for preventing tick bites in an area with endemic lyme disease in baltimore county, maryland.the authors attempted to determine whether a targeted educational intervention in an area with endemic lyme disease could increase knowledge, positive attitudes, and reported behaviors related to tick bite prevention and consequently decrease tick bites, as measured by a biomarker of tick bites. between april and september of 1999, 317 subjects in baltimore county, maryland, were randomized to receive either tick-related or general health-related educational materials bimonthly through the mail. ...200312777368
racial differences in reported lyme disease incidence.in the united states, the incidence of lyme disease is considered to be disproportionately high among whites because of risk of exposure. for assessment of racial differences in lyme disease incidence and the role of risk exposure, incidence rate ratios (irrs) for lyme disease and its manifestations between whites and african americans in maryland and in its focus of endemicity, the upper eastern shore, were calculated. calculations were based on reported cases of lyme disease in maryland during ...200011052554
characterizing lyme disease surveillance in an endemic state.lyme disease (ld) is the most common vector-borne disease in maryland and the united states. surveillance for ld is valuable for understanding the burden of the disease, particularly to assess whether the disease is spreading and to appreciate who is affected. however, not all cases of ld in maryland are reported, and surveillance practices vary across each of maryland's 24 local health departments (lhds). to better understand this variability and to systematically characterize the surveillance ...201627469460
the dog as a sentinel for human infection: prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi c6 antibodies in dogs from southeastern and mid-atlantic states.lyme disease is the most frequently reported human vector-associated disease in the united states. infection occurs after the bite of an ixodid tick that is infected with borrelia burgdorferi. dogs have often been reported to serve as effective sentinel animals to assess the risk of human b. burgdorferi infection. based on published data of human lyme disease case numbers and our clinical impressions, we hypothesized that canine exposure to b. burgdorferi would be lower in north carolina when co ...200415631067
the public health impact of lyme disease in maryland.the purpose of this study was to estimate the health burden imposed by lyme disease (ld) in maryland during 1992 and 1993. a cross-sectional 1-in-15 survey of physicians (total, 1200) in maryland was conducted to estimate the incidence of diagnosed ld, presumptive cases of ld, patients with tick bites, and diagnostic tests ordered for ld. results show that ld is underreported by 10- to 12-fold in maryland, that 80% of cases are managed by primary care physicians, and that there is discordance be ...19968627082
tick exposure and lyme disease at a summer camp in maryland.after investigating an outbreak of lyme disease among counselors at a summer camp in kent county, maryland in 1994, we wanted to determine the incidence of lyme disease (ld) at the camp the following summer and identify risk factors for tick exposure. any ticks that were detected on campers' skin or clothing were collected by the camp nurse and we studied them for infection with borrelia burgdorferi. in addition, we sent detailed questionnaires home with the 1,623 campers. a total of 537 campers ...200516161531
cluster of lyme disease cases at a summer camp in kent county, maryland. 20168903195
antibiotic therapy for lyme disease in maryland.the recommended treatment of lyme disease is evolving and important questions remain unanswered, such as (a) are inexpensive oral regimens effective in curing acute illness and preventing arthritic, neurologic, and cardiac manifestations or are much more costly, and potentially toxic, intravenous antibiotics required? (b) are relatively short 2- to 3-week courses of antibiotics sufficient or are prolonged regimens of a month, or more, better? this study reviews antibiotic therapy prescribed by m ...20167800782
maryland physicians' survey on lyme disease.in a survey of 252 physicians practicing in maryland, 170 responders diagnosed 142 cases of lyme disease (lb) during 1990 and 1991. about 80% of the cases were diagnosed by primary care physicians. the most common clinical finding, erythema migrans (em), was reported in half the cases and arthritis was reported in a quarter. only 22.2% had a history of a tick bite; serological tests were ordered in a third of the cases. em was treated with oral antibiotics for 10-21 days. most physicians treated ...19948052097
canine exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and prevalence of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) on deer as a measure of lyme disease risk in the northeastern united states.surveillance programs that identify areas where both the vector (ixodes dammini) and etiologic agent (borrelia burgdorferi) are present may identify the risk of lyme disease and its spread earlier and more accurately than do programs relying on any single method, particularly human case reports. hunter-killed deer (n = 1,204) from 22 counties in maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new york, and pennsylvania were examined in fall 1989 and all ectoparasites were identified. the following sprin ...19938433324
borrelia burgdorferi ospc heterogeneity among human and murine isolates from a defined region of northern maryland and southern pennsylvania: lack of correlation with invasive and noninvasive genotypes.b. burgdorferi invasiveness correlates with ospc genotype. to test this hypothesis and whether identical genotypes infect humans and small mammals in specific sites, b. burgdorferi ospc heterogeneity was tested among isolates from northern maryland and southern pennsylvania. six culture-positive patients allowed collection of small animals from their properties, and spirochetes from animals trapped within 300 yards of each patient's home were isolated. 3' ospc sequences were compared to referenc ...200515815012
longitudinal study of infection with borrelia burgdorferi in a population of peromyscus leucopus at a lyme disease-enzootic site in maryland.the maintenance of borrelia burgdorferi in a population of peromyscus leucopus was investigated from 202 mark and recapture mice and 61 mice that were removed from a site in baltimore county, maryland. borrelia burgdorferi infection was detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of ear tissue, and exposure to the spirochete was quantified by serology. overall prevalence of b. burgdorferi, as determined by culture and pcr of ear tissue at first capture, was 25% in the longitudinal sa ...199910348235
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in deer and raccoons.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis, in deer (odocoileus virginianus) and raccoons (procyon lotor). blood samples were collected from these mammals in connecticut, maryland, north carolina, georgia and florida. seropositivity for deer was highest in connecticut (56% of 353 sera) and maryland (51% of 35 sera). raccoons in connecticut, maryland, north carolina, and florida also had an ...19911758022
lyme disease in maryland: 1987-1990.we describe the epidemiology of lyme disease in maryland for 1987 to 1990 when the number of cases reported grew from 23 to 448 and the number of cases meeting the cdc case definition grew from 23 to 238, as well as discuss the implications of increased reporting and diagnosis of lyme disease.19921625531
using exploratory data analysis to identify and predict patterns of human lyme disease case clustering within a multistate region, 2010-2014.lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the united states. the objective of our study was to identify patterns of lyme disease reporting after multistate inclusion to mitigate potential border effects. county-level human lyme disease surveillance data were obtained from kentucky, maryland, ohio, pennsylvania, virginia, and west virginia state health departments. rate smoothing and local moran's i was performed to identify clusters of reporting activity and identify spat ...201728137676
lyme disease: epidemiological characteristics in maryland, 1984-1986. 19883405041
incidence rates of lyme disease in maryland: 1993 through 1996.the incidence rate per 100,000 population by gender and age group was calculated for the 24 maryland jurisdictions using 1,392 cases reported to the lyme disease registry during 1993 to 1996. the overall incidence rate for the state was 7.0 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. males (incidence rate = 7.7) were 1.2 times more affected than females (incidence rate = 6.2) (p < 0.001). the bimodal overall age distribution shows a peak in the 10 to 19 age category (incidence rate = 8.5) and in the 50 to 59 ...199910333675
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from a patient infected in maryland. 19921457648
immunoblot analysis of immunoglobulin g response to the lyme disease agent (borrelia burgdorferi) in experimentally and naturally exposed dogs.immunoblots were used to study the immunoglobulin g response to borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally and naturally exposed dogs. adsorption studies confirmed that the antibodies were specific for b. burgdorferi. experimentally exposed dogs were asymptomatic. naturally exposed dogs included both asymptomatic animals and animals showing signs compatible with lyme disease. naturally exposed dogs were from four geographic regions of the country. no differences were detected between immunoblot patt ...19883366860
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