Publications

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serological survey for rabies antibodies in raptors from california.fifty-three newly captive birds of prey were tested serologically for neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus, using a fluorescent focus inhibition test. no significant antibody titers were detected with this sensitive and specific technique in any of these birds. this study supports the contention that free-ranging birds of prey are of limited importance in the epidemiology of rabies.19883286906
leads from the mmwr. human rabies--california, 1987. 19883373656
a case of human rabies with prolonged survival. 19734589643
euderma maculatum from california infected with rabies virus. 19715167113
sinus worm skrjabingylus spp. (nematoda: pseudaliidae) from rabid skunks (mephitis mephitis) in california. 19695815929
from the centers for disease control and prevention. human rabies--california, 1994. 19948028154
human rabies--california, 1995.in september and november 1995, two men in california died from infection with bat-associated variants of rabies virus. this report summarizes the investigations of these cases.19968604213
multiple human exposures to a rabid bear cub at a petting zoo and barnwarming--iowa, august 1999.on august 27, 1999, a black bear cub, approximately 5-6 months old, died after several hours of acute central nervous system symptoms; preliminary test results available on august 28 indicated the bear had rabies. the bear was part of the swenson's wild midwest exotic petting zoo in clermont, iowa (northeastern iowa). at the petting zoo, visitors fed, wrestled, and may have been nipped by the bear. the bear also was taken to an august 14 barnwarming at the tharp barn in holy cross, iowa (eastern ...199910499789
molecular epidemiology of enzootic rabies in california.molecular characterization of rabies virus has been used to trace spillover transmission from reservoir species to non-reservoir animals and humans (molecular epidemiology), and to monitor emergence of specific strains of the virus into new species and geographic areas (molecular surveillance).199910614858
serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in swift and kit foxes from the western united states.a serologic survey of swift fox (vulpes velox) and kit fox (v. macrotis) from the western usa was conducted for 12 infectious diseases. samples from swift fox were collected between 1987 and 1992 from colorado (n = 44), kansas (n = 10), and wyoming (n = 9). samples from kit fox were collected in california (n = 86), new mexico (n = 18), utah (n = 9), and arizona (n = 6). overall antibody prevalence rates were 33 of 110 (30%) for canine parvovirus (cpv), 9 of 72 (13%) for canine distemper virus ( ...200011085448
human rabies--california, 2002.on march 31, 2002, a man aged 28 years residing in glenn county, california, died from rabies encephalitis caused by a rabies virus variant associated with the mexican free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis) (figure). this report summarizes the investigation by the glenn county health department (gchd) and the california department of health services (cdhs). persons who observe abnormal behavior in any wildlife species should contact animal control or animal rescue agencies immediately and shoul ...200212233911
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
rabies: a summary of recent contributions to the literature (july 1958-june 1963). 196414142004
isolation of rabies virus from an insectivorous bat (tadarida mexicana) in california. 195514384888
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2002.during 2002, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,967 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 7.2% from the 7,436 cases in non-human animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 2001. more than 92% (7,375 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 7.4% (592) were in domestic species (compared with 93.3% in wild animals and 6.7% in domestic species in 2001). compared with cases reported in 2001, the numbers of ...200314690203
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2004.during 2004, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,836 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings to the cdc, representing a 4.6% decrease from the 7,170 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2003. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals (compared with 91% and 9%, respectively, in 2003). relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bat ...200516379626
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2006.during 2006, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the cdc, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1. ...200717696853
bat rabies in the united states and canada from 1950 through 2007: human cases with and without bat contact.since the 1980s, rare cases of rabies in humans in canada and the united states have been almost exclusively caused by the bat-variant virus.200818419432
skunk rabies in california (1992-2003)--implications for oral rabies vaccination.skunk-variant rabies is endemic in california (united states), and the development of oral vaccines and baits to vaccinate skunks is in progress. in 2003, the california department of public health (cdph) began to quantify the impacts of skunk-variant rabies and to assess the feasibility of using oral rabies vaccination (orv) as a containment measure. the cdph rabies case data for skunks were spatially depicted and analyzed using a geographic information system. statewide, rabid skunks (1992-200 ...200818957660
enzootic rabies elimination from dogs and reemergence in wild terrestrial carnivores, united states.to provide molecular and virologic evidence that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the united states and to identify putative relatives of dog-related rabies viruses (rvs) circulating in other carnivores, we studied rvs associated with recent and historic dog rabies enzootics worldwide. molecular, phylogenetic, and epizootiologic evidence shows that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the united states. nonetheless, our data suggest that independent rabies enzootics are now e ...200819046506
new rabies virus variant in mexican immigrant.a novel rabies virus was identified after death in a man who had immigrated from oaxaca, mexico, to california, usa. despite the patient's history of exposure to domestic and wild carnivores, molecular and phylogenetic characterizations suggested that the virus originated from insectivorous bats. enhanced surveillance is needed to elucidate likely reservoirs.200819046517
benefit cost scenarios of potential oral rabies vaccination for skunks in california.scenario-based analyses were computed for benefits and costs linked with hypothetical oral rabies vaccination (orv) campaigns to contain or eliminate skunk-variant rabies in skunks (mephitis mephitis) in california, usa. scenario 1 assumed baiting eight zones (43,388 km(2) total) that comprised 73% of known skunk rabies locations in the state. scenario 2 also assumed baiting these eight zones, but further assumed that added benefits would result from preventing the spread of skunk-variant rabies ...200919204355
imported human rabies--california, 2008.compared with rabies in developing countries, human rabies is rare in the united states, but animal rabies is common. in the united states, most human rabies cases are associated with rabid bats, whereas in developing countries, dogs are the most common reservoir and vector species. in march 2008, a case of imported human rabies in a recently arrived, undocumented mexican immigrant was laboratory confirmed by public health officials in california. the rabies virus isolated from the patient was a ...200919590490
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2008.during 2008, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,841 cases of rabies in animals and 2 cases in humans to the cdc, representing a 3.1% decrease from the 7,060 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2007. approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,389 (34.9%) raccoons, 1,806 (26.4%) bats, 1,589 (23.2%) skunks, 454 (6.6%) foxes, 294 (4.3%) cats, 75 (1.1%) dogs, and 59 (0.9%) catt ...200919751163
dogs entering the united states from rabies-endemic countries, 2011-2012.international dog imports pose a risk because of the potential movement of disease agents, including the canine rabies virus variant which has been eliminated from the united states since 2007. us regulations require a rabies vaccination certificate for dogs arriving from rabies-endemic countries, but permit the importation of dogs that have not been adequately immunized against rabies, provided that the dogs are confined under conditions that restrict their contact with humans and other animals ...201525244531
ultra-deep sequencing of intra-host rabies virus populations during cross-species transmission.one of the hurdles to understanding the role of viral quasispecies in rna virus cross-species transmission (cst) events is the need to analyze a densely sampled outbreak using deep sequencing in order to measure the amount of mutation occurring on a small time scale. in 2009, the california department of public health reported a dramatic increase (350) in the number of gray foxes infected with a rabies virus variant for which striped skunks serve as a reservoir host in humboldt county. to better ...201324278493
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2012.summary-during 2012, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,162 rabid animals and 1 human rabies case to the cdc, representing a 2.1% increase from the 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human cases reported in 2011. approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,953 raccoons (31.7%), 1,680 bats (27.3%), 1,539 skunks (25.0%), 340 foxes (5.5%), 257 cats (4.2%), 115 cattle (1.9%), and 84 dogs (1.4%). compared with 2011, there wa ...201324004227
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2011.during 2011, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human rabies cases to the cdc, representing a 1.9% decrease from the 6,153 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2010. approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,981 raccoons (32.8%), 1,627 skunks (27.0%), 1,380 bats (22.9%), 427 foxes (7.1%), 303 cats (5.0%), 65 cattle (1.1%), and 70 dogs (1.2%). compared with 2010, there was a subs ...201222947154
human rabies--california, 1994.in january 1994, a 44-year-old california man died from a bat-associated strain of rabies; he had had no known animal bite or other rabies exposure. rabies was not clinically suspected nor confirmed until 1 month after his death. this report summarizes the case investigation.19948208235
human rabies--california, 1987. 19883130561
recovery of a patient from clinical rabies--california, 2011.in may 2011, a girl aged 8 years from a rural county in california was brought to a local emergency department (ed) with a 1-week history of progressive sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and weakness. after she developed flaccid paralysis and encephalitis, rabies was diagnosed based on 1) detection of rabies virus-specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf), 2) a compatible clinical syndrome in the patient, and 3) absence of a likely alternative diagnosis. the patient received a ...201222298301
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